Tag Archives: Oxidative stress

Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Properties of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Punica Granatum L. (Published)

Phytochemical constituent and antioxidant properties of the methanolic leaf extract of Punica granatum was investigated. Extracts of the leaf was subjected to quantitative and qualitative phytochemical screening, In vivo and In vitro scavenging activity against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were determined. The free radical scavenging activity of DPPH and H2O2 have SC50 of 1.069±0.29µmol/ml and 1.819±0.29µmol/ml respectively. DPPH actitvity of these extract shows no significant difference when compared with a standard value of Vitamin C is 1.140±0.26µmol/ml whereas H2O2 shows significant difference as compared to standared Vitamin C with SC50 value of 1.331±0.31µmol/ml. The administration of the extract at 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weights of wistar albino rats significantly increased the levels of catalase 39.02±0.72nmol/mg and 39.55±0.62nmol/mg respectively with a negative control of 7.53±1.94nmol/mg as compared to the normal control value of 37.76±0.63nmol/mg whereas lipid peroxidation level decreased significantly at treatment groups 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg with value of 4.96±0.20(nmol/mg)/10-6 and 4.35±0.17(nmol/mg)/10-6 respectively when compared to the negative control group with a value of 8.21±0.15(nmol/mg)/10-6 and normal control value of 4.36±1.67(nmol/mg)/10-6, although there is no significant difference as compared to the normal control groups. These findings suggest possible antioxidant properties of the methanolic leaf extract of Pomegranate

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, CCL4, DPPH, Oxidative stress, Punica Granatum, free radicals scavenging activity

Loperamide Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Biochemical and Histological Evidence (Published)

Loperamide is a safe over-the-counter antidiarrheal drug. However, at supratherapeutic doses, it produces opioid effects. Here, we evaluated the neurotoxic effects of loperamide in rats brain. 20 rats were randomized into 4 groups (A-D) of 5 rats each. Rats in groups A (control) and B received vehicle for 7-day while rats in groups B, C and D were orally gavaged with 1.5, 3 and 6 mg/kg body weight (BW) of loperamide hydrochloride. The results revealed a dose dependent decrease in acetylcholine. Reactive oxygen species increased significantly while antioxidant enzymes were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in the brain. Loperamide induces necrotic related morphological changes in rat brain with significant increase in malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA. Loperamide deplete acetycholine thus causing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidation of cellular macromolecules. This study provides biochemical evidence supporting the neurotoxicity associated with supra-therapeutic dose consumed for euphoria effect.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation., Loperamide, Neurotoxicity, Neurotransmitters, Oxidative stress

Protective Effect of Garlic Oil Alone or Combined With Low-Dose Gamma Irradiation on Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats (Published)

We investigated the effect of garlic oil (GO), alone or combined with low dose total body gamma (γ)-irradiation (LDR) against paracetamol (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. GO (100 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 14 days before hepatotoxicity induction. Animals were irradiated 2 hours before hepatotoxicity induction by peroral APAP (1g/kg) administration, then animals were sacrificed 24 hours later. GO, alone or combined with LDR, ameliorated APAP-induced adverse effects as revealed by the reduction of serum liver marker enzymes activities and the histological examination. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P2E1 activity was also reduced. Changes in hepatic redox balance were significantly attenuated by both treatments. Hepatic hydrogen peroxide was only reduced by LDR. APAP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic effect were also reversed. GO and/or LDR pretreatment, effectively protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, the hepatoprotective effect of GO alone or combined with LDR could be of value in the protective management of APAP-induced hepatic damage.

Keywords: Apoptosis, Garlic, Hepatotoxicity, Low Dose (Γ)-Radiation, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Oxidative stress

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GARLIC OIL ALONE OR COMBINED WITH LOW-DOSE GAMMA IRRADIATION ON PARACETAMOL-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS (Published)

We investigated the effect of garlic oil (GO), alone or combined with low dose total body gamma (γ)-irradiation (LDR) against paracetamol (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. GO (100 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 14 days before hepatotoxicity induction.Animals were irradiated 2 hours before hepatotoxicity induction by peroral APAP (1g/kg) administration, then animals were sacrificed 24 hours later.GO, alone or combined with LDR, ameliorated APAP-induced adverse effects as revealed bythe reduction ofserumliver marker enzymes activities and the histological examination. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P2E1 activity was also reduced. Changes in hepatic redox balance were significantly attenuated by both treatments. Hepatic hydrogen peroxide was only reduced by LDR. APAP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic effect were also reversed. GO and/or LDR pretreatment, effectively protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, the hepatoprotective effect of GO alone or combined with LDR could be of value in the protective management of APAP-induced hepatic damage

Keywords: Apoptosis, Garlic, Hepatotoxicity, Low Dose (Γ)-Radiation, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Oxidative stress

Possible Ameliorative Role of Low Dose of Radiation Againstcisplatin Induced Oxidative Stress and Tissue Damage Male Rats (Published)

The present study describes antioxidant effect of low dose of radiation against cisplatin induced toxicity in rats. Oxidative stress was induced in rat by a single dose of cisplatin (10 mg/kg body weight I.P), 24 hr post- cisplatin treatment, the animals exposed to 0.3 Gy single dose of gamma ray. The effect of treatments in influencing the oxidative stress as well as biochemical cisplatin changes on brain, kidney and testis were studied. The data showed significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, creatine kinase isoenzymes (CKBB) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) as well as in tissue MDA levels in animals treated with cisplatin while this effects were attenuated by radiation exposure. Moreover, treatment with cisplatin caused a significant decrease in serum testosterone and tissues SOD activities, which was shown to be reversed by low dose of radiation treatment. Treatment with low dose of radiation significantly reduced the oxidative stress effects induced by cisplatin administration. It can be concluded that exposed animals to a low dose of radiation after cisplatin treatment can speed the recovery of the body during the chemotherapeutic treatment.

Keywords: Brain, Cisplatin, Kidneys, Low dose of radiation., Oxidative stress, Testes

The Effect Of Green Tea on Oxidative Stress Level Among Wistar Suplemented By Recycling Canola Oil (Published)

Oxidative stress is involved in aging and many diseases, such as neurodegenerative, psychiatric disorders, and various cancers. Recyling oil contains trans fat (TF), one of sources of oxidative stress induce lipid peroxidation resulting in malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) generation. Green tea has gained considerable attention because of its antioxidant features. This study focuses on the effect of green tea on plasma MDA levels as one of marker for oxidative stress among wistar fed by recycling canola oil. A post test only control group design study using wistar rat. Samples were randomly divided into five groups (n=5 per group). K1 (negative control), K2 was given recycling canola oil and standard diet for 4 weeks, K3 was given green tea and standard diet for 4 weeks, P1 was given green tea and recycling canola oil diet for 4 weeks and P2 was given recycling canola oil diet for 4 weeks then green tea and standard diet for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from abdominal aorta to measure plasma MDA levels using modification of TBARS methods as described by Yagi et al.

There is no significant difference between groups on body weight (p=0.310), abdominal circumference (p=0.503) and plasma MDA levels (p=0.398) after giving green tea to wistar fed by standard diet and supplemented by recycling canola oil. We conclude that giving green tea to wistar fed by standard diet and suplemented by recycling canola oil do not influence on body weight, abdominal circumference and plasma MDA levels.

 

Keywords: Malondialdehyde, Oxidative stress, Trans fat