Tag Archives: Output

Reassessing the Link between Government Spending on Education and National Development in Nigeria (Published)

The study examined the relationship between government spending on education and national development in Nigeria using secondary data from the period 2001 to 2017. The study adopted gross domestic product as proxy for national development and the dependent variable; while government spending on education (representing Federal Government annual budgetary provision for the education sector) and inflation were used as the explanatory variables. Time series data for the study period was collected from the Federal Ministry of Finance, Office of the Accountant-General of the Federation and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Official Gazette. The study employed descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis based on the E-view 10 software as techniques of data analysis. The results provided evidence that government spending of education had significant positive effect on national development (at 5% level), while inflation had an insignificant effect on national development (at 13%). Overall, the study concluded that government spending on education has statistically significant positive effect on national at 5% with a probability of F-statistics value of 0.000000.  This means that government spending on education will enhance the availability of high level manpower that will ultimately bring about improvements in productivity leading to increase in national development. Based the findings, the study recommend that government should increase annual budgetary allocation to education sector to 26% of total annual budget in line with the UNESCO requirements; that the responsible organs of government should set targets and goals aimed at minimizing as much as possible (if not completely eradicating) misappropriation of funds.

Keywords: Education, Government spending, Inflation, National Development, Output, Productivity

Organization and Management of Early Childhood Education Program: An Evaluation on Subur Sejahtera Kindergarten, Kendari, Indonesia (Published)

The objective of this research is to describe the implementation of early childhood education program (ECEP) at Kindergarten of Subur Sejahtera Kendari, Indonesia. This research uses qualitative method, with Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) model evaluation design adopted from Daniel Stufflebeam (2003). The results of the study indicate that: (1) the context component covering the legal basis of the program has been fulfilled; (2) the input components that include human resources in the form of teachers and staff have been fulfilled, with appropriate academic qualifications, and adequate facilities and infrastructures; (3) the learning process implementation component has shown sufficient circumstances in accordance with those required in the national curriculum; and (4) product components covering output and outcomes are in good category. Thus, it can be concluded that the implementation of ECEP at Subur Sejahtera Kindergarten, Indonesia is in accordance with national standards of early childhood education. The suggestions that can be put forward are: (1) the competence of the kindergarten teachers still need to be improved; (2) the quality of teaching and learning process need to be improved; and (3) the teaching and learning process need to be managed more effectively by taking into account the developmental aspects required in accordance with national standards of education.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Management, Organization, Output, input.

Weekly Paired Conversation Practice in a 4-Skill Integrated English Course (Published)

This paper reports a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of weekly paired conversation practice on 20 sophomore university students’ conversation performance and foreign language anxiety. The results of the study indicated that the participating students benefited from their weekly conversation practice, and they made significant improvement in their conversation performance at the end of the study although their foreign language anxiety did not decrease significantly. Also, their conversation performance significantly and negatively correlated with their foreign language anxiety, which means the students with less foreign language anxiety performed better in their English conversations. Based on the findings of the study, suggestions for output performance instruction, dealing with foreign language anxiety, and future research will be made.

Keywords: Conversation Practice, EFL, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale, Language Anxiety, Output

Implications of Small and Medium Enterprises on South East Development in Nigeria (Published)

There has been a growing concern on the relationship between the output of small and medium enterprises and Igbo development in Nigeria, despite the fact that the South East government had embarked on several policies aimed at improving the growth of Nigerian economy through the contribution of small and medium enterprises output. The aim of this study is to empirically examine the relationship between small and medium enterprises output and Igbo development in South Eastern part of Nigeria. Empirical evidence from the developed and developing economies has shown that small and medium enterprises have the capacity to influence the entire socio economic development in Igbo land if it is well managed. Quantitative research design and multiple regressions were used to carry out this study. The results of the study indicates that small and medium enterprises contribute significantly to the development of Igbo land based on the magnitude and the level of significance of the coefficient and p-value. And there is significant and positive relationship between Igbo development and small and medium enterprises output. The implication of this findings is that if small and medium enterprises does not increase the size of their employment generation in Igbo land, the development of Igbo’s through small and medium enterprises will not contribute meaningfully to the growth of Nigerian economy. It is the recommendation of this study that the operators of small and medium enterprises in South East (Igbo Land) Nigeria should make maintain their level of social corporate responsibility. That there is also need to strengthen policies that will enhance rapid growth and development in Igbo land through small and medium enterprises in Nigeria

Keywords: Igbo Development, Output, SMEs, South-East, economic growth

Implications of Government Capital Expenditure on the Manufacturing Sector in Nigeria (Published)

Theoretically, both Keynesian and neoclassical economists provided tools for government’s intervention, particularly with regard to government capital expenditure. The aim of this project work is to investigate the effect of government capital expenditure on the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria. The study used quantitative time series data and multiple regression techniques in the analysis. The result of the co-integration test indicates long run relationship between dependent and independent variables. It also reveals that capital expenditure on road infrastructure (CEXR) and telecommunication (CEXT) affects the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria significantly while government capital expenditure on power has insignificant effect on manufacturing sector in Nigeria. The implication of this is that manufacturing sector output is clearly affected by factors both exogenous and endogenous to the government capital expenditure in Nigeria. We therefore recommend that, there is need for government to reduce its budgetary allocation to recurrent expenditure on power sector and place more emphasis on the capital expenditures so as accelerate economic growth in Nigeria through manufacturing sector output and that government should also increase spending on road infrastructure, particularly on capital budgeting. As our results showed, road infrastructure capital expenditure has the greatest impact on the long-run with manufacturing sector output in Nigeria

Keywords: Manufacturing sector, Nigeria, Output, Power Sector, Road Infrastructure, Telecommunication


The prevailing rate of work performance among workers in most organizations in developing countries, particularly in Nigeria gingered our impetus or concern in carrying out the research as titled here of. However, the meaning of training, types of training, human resource training functions was critically addressed. Methodologically, the researcher made use of secondary source to generate theoretical data, which interestingly led the researcher into concluding after central thesis of the work, that training is a measure rather than a solution to worker’s performance vis-à-vis productivity in Nigeria.

Keywords: Output, Performance, Training, Worker, input.


This study was carried out to analyse the effect of National Special Programme for Food Security (NSPFS) on cassava output in among rural farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to ascertain the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents determine the effect of the programme on cassava output and identify the problems encountered by the beneficiaries. Data for the study were collected through structured questionnaire from the three agricultural zones in the state using multi-stage random sampling technique for the selection of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. A total of 203 respondents were used for the study. The tools used for data analyses included frequencies, percentages, means and paired t-test. The result indicated that most of the respondents were females and married. Most of them were between the ages of 31-40 years and had household size of 6-10 persons. Majority had secondary education and had annual income of less than N100, 000(one hundred thousand) naira. The paired t-test result indicated that the mean annual output of beneficiaries was higher and significantly different from that of the non-beneficiaries at 95% confidence level and late release of loan and inputs was rank first among other problems encountered by the beneficiaries. The study therefore recommended that NSPFS project site should be expanded to other communities across the state. Loan and other inputs from the NSPFS should be released early enough to the beneficiaries to effectively improve their productivity and enhance food security in the State.

Keywords: Cross River, NSPFS, Output, cassava, rural farmers


The 21st century was started with the dawn of a new economic puzzle of China’s fast economic growth. It has surprised the economists. The Chinese constant upward growth has shifted economic paradigm and the axis of growth appear to have been shifted from the western hemisphere to the eastern hemisphere. Some economists term it a 21st century miracle. The author has determined to test this miracle through empirical framework. Main research question of this study to explore the answer of the question why China is recording consistent rapid economic growth? Is this growth in the same way as other developed countries experienced in the past or is it a new phenomenon-a shift in global economic paradigm.The objective of this empirical analysis is to investigate into the causes of fast economic growth of China in the context whether this growth pattern is a normal phenomenon or an indicator of shifting global economic paradigm.Our study is spread over a period starting from 1980 to 2011 because of the introduction of economic reforms and massive economic growth. We have collected data from different sources such as China Bureau of National Statistics, IMF, World Bank and relevant research Journals and books. The selected variables for this research paper are: labour productivity, investment, exports, Research and Development expenses, capital stock, open door policy, real exchange rate and US GDP. We used ordinary least square (OLS) model to measure change in the selected variables. Five tests were used to test the stability of the model. The Econometric results show that international trade and investment in capital stock and R&D expenses by Chinese Government are the major determinants, which are responsible for enhancing labour productivity and output in the long-run, Similarly, real exchange rate appears as an important determinant to explain change in output in the long-run

Keywords: China, Exports, Investment, Labour productivity, Open door policy, Output, R&D

Impact of Fiscal Policy on the Manufacturing Sector Output in Nigeria: An Error Correction Analysis (Published)

There has been a growing concern on the role of fiscal policy on the output and input of manufacturing industry in Nigeria, despite the fact that the government had embarked on several policies aimed at improving the growth of Nigerian economy through the contribution of manufacturing industry to the economy and capacity utilization of the sector. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of fiscal policy on the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria. Empirical evidence from the developed and developing economies has shown that fiscal and monetary policies have the capacity to influence the entire economy if it is well managed. An ex-post facto design (quantitative research design) was used to carry out this study. The results of the study indicate that government expenditure significantly affect manufacturing sector output based on the magnitude and the level of significance of the coefficient and p-value and there is a long-run relationship between fiscal policy and manufacturing sector output. The implication of this finding is that if government did not increase public expenditure and its implementation, Nigerian manufacturing sector output will not generate a corresponding increase in the growth of Nigerian economy. It is the recommendation of researcher that the expansionary fiscal policies should be encouraged as they play vital role for the growth of the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria; that fiscal policy should be given more priority attention towards the manufacturing sector by increasing the level of budget implementation, which will enhance aggregate spending in the economy; and consistent government implementation will contribute to the increase performance of manufacturing sector.

Keywords: Capacity Utilization, Co-integration, Error Correction Model, Government Expenditure, Government Tax Revenue, Manufacturing sector, Output