Evaluation of the Potency of Some Medicinal Plants and Some Common Antibiotics on Bacteria Isolated from Otitis Media Effusion (Published)
Otitis media is a common childhood disease and it is associated with microbial pathogens within the middle ear. This aim of this study was to identify bacterial isolates associated with Otitis media effusions, determine their susceptibility to antibiotics and plants extracts of Ficus exasperata, Securinega virosa, and Tamarindus indica, as well as determine the MIC and MBC of the plants extracts on the bacteria isolated. A total of 48 samples of Otitis media effusion were collected from 28 males (58.33%) and 20 females (41.67%) at the out-patient department of Sacred Heart hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria from February 2017 to September 2017 for bacteriological analysis. Bacteria isolated were identified according to Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, (2006) while their antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using Disc Diffusion method. Children below the age of 5 years had the highest occurrence rate (83.33%) with the disease. Bacteria isolated include Staphylococcus aureus 19 (39.58%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 15 (31.25%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10 (20.83%), Proteus mirabilis 3 (6.25%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae 1 (2.08%). Antibiotic sensitivity test against gram positive isolates showed that Staphylococcus aureus was most resistant to Gentamicin (10mcg), Ofloxacin (5mcg), Ciprofloxacin (10mcg), Chloramphenicol (30mcg) and Streptomycin (25mcg), unlike Streptococcus pneumoniae which was highly susceptible. Gram negative isolates all showed significant (P < 0.05) sensitivity to Tetracycline (30mcg), Ciprofloxacin (10mcg), Amoxycillin (25mcg), Augmentin (30mcg), and Streptomycin (25mcg). At different concentrations (0.5mg – 1.0mg) of the plant extracts (Ficus exasperata, Securinega virosa and Tamarindus indica) all had significant effect (P < 0.05) on Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae but least effect on Proteus mirabilis. Conclusively, the outcome of this study indicates the need for proper bacteriological screening of patient Otitis media effusion/pus before treatment with conventional antibiotics or herbal remedies to ensure adequate treatment and prevent antibiotic resistance.
Citation: Ojo, A. E., Fasina, K. A., Adebajo, S.O., Ojo, O. A., Oladotun, A. T. and. Sodunke, G. A (2022). Evaluation of the Potency of Some Medicinal Plants and Some Common Antibiotics on Bacteria Isolated from Otitis Media Effusion, International Journal of Cell, Animal Biology and Genetics Vol.7, No.1, pp., 8-27
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic sensitivity, MBC, MIC, otitis media, plants extracts
Parental Perception of Impact of Otitis Media on Cognition and Educational Outcomes amongst Children in Lagos Nigeria (Published)
Otitis media (OM) is one of the severe healthcare problems in the world because of the suffering it poses upon the patient and the family and because of the economic burden; it forces the health care system. This study was conducted to evaluate the parental perceived impact of otitis media on cognitive and educational outcomes amongst selected children with the purview of examine the impact of otitis media on cognitive development ;to investigate the impact of otitis media on educational achievement and to identify risk factors affecting otitis media of selected children attending Lasuth, Lagos state.Simple random sampling technique was used to select 101 amongst children attending the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos in accordance with their hospital information. Data collection spanned two months using a self-developed questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics (chi- square) were used to analyse the data generated and level of significance was set at 5% (0.05). The result showed that One hundred and one respondents and their children with mean age 33.01±5.75 and 3.76±1.94 respectively. There were 60 females (59%) and 41 males (41%), Fifty-one (51%) of the 101 children with otitis media were from the lower socio-economic class, whereas 28(28%) and 21(21%) were from the middle and upper socio-economic class respectively. Moreover, acute otitis media 52(51%) was more common than chronic otitis media 49(49%) in children from the lower socio-economic class. Hypotheses testing revealed that there is no significant impact of otitis media on cognitive development amongst children attending the Lasuth, Lagos state, Nigeria (X2 =4.098 and p = 21.03 at 0.05 significant value) and otitis media has no impact on educational achievement amongst children attending the Lasuth, Lagos state, Nigeria (X2 =2.874 and p = 21.03 at 0.05 significant value). In conclusion, passive smoking and decline in breastfeeding, children with persistent otitis media, the degree of hearing loss, parenting style, and access to medical care, children hearing loss before the age of 12 months and rural area children who suffer otitis were risk factors affecting otitis media amongst children attending the Lasuth, Lagos state.
Keywords: Cognition, educational outcome, otitis media