Constraints to Internet Use for Public Relations Functions by Selected Kenyan Organizations (Published)
Public Relations has gained increasing organizational importance in recent times, as it has been emphasized in various platforms. A review of current literature shows that the use of the Internet for PR in organizations has been empirically investigated mainly in other contexts – especially in Europe and America – but not in Africa. However, most of these investigations focused on specific components of Internet and not the holistic use of the Internet for PR. The study examined the constraints to the use of Internet as a PR platform in organizations. It adopted a relativist-interpretivist research paradigm and a qualitative approach utilizing the multiple case study method. A total of 45 participants was sampled comprising nine respondents each from a financial, telecommunications, insurance, PR Agency and online shopping business. In each category of business, one person in management, two PR and communications experts (or customer care services marketing and advertising in some organizations), one ICT expert and five key stakeholders (key publics-internal/external customers) was selected. The PR organizations involved in the study were sampled purposively. In-depth interviews, observation and document analysis were used to generate data. Data analysis was done thematically. Among the constraints of Internet as a PR platform in organizations were security and trust concerns, content mismanagement, lack of tools of monitoring and evaluation, ineffective utilization of the platforms, lack of expert knowledge, experience and poor role specification. Evidently, numerous constraints impair the utilization of Internet for PR functions in most organizations. As such, it was recommended that PR practitioners should develop internet plans to bolster interactivity and utilize social media services fully to produce effective messages to strengthen organisation-public relationships.
Motivational Factors Affecting the Staffs’ Job Satisfaction of the Public Organizations in Dong Nai Province (Published)
Nowadays, staffs’ job satisfaction is a key element of general satisfaction which gives employees energy to perform and continue his job adequately. Job satisfaction regulates the peace of mind, foster relaxation that leads to more enthusiasm and more innovative work. It gives the clear picture of completeness and accomplishment emanating from his work, a feeling which has nothing to do with money but a feeling of relief that the employee gets out of the work itself. The study results showed that there were 200 staffs related to the public organizations in Dong Nai province who interviewed and answered about 21 questions but 159 staffs processed. Data collected from July 2016 to November 2017 for the staffs of the public organizations in Dong Nai province. The paper had been analyzed KMO test, Cronbach’s Alpha and the result of KMO analysis which used for multiple regression analysis. Staffs’ responses of the public organizations measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale (Conventions: 1: Completely disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Normal; 4: Agree; 5: completely agree). Hard copy and online questionnaire distributed among 1.000 the staffs of the public organizations in Dong Nai province. In addition, the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) results showed that there were five factors affecting the staffs’ job satisfaction of the public organizations in Dong Nai province with significance level 5 percent. The research results processed from SPSS 20.0 software
Communication as a Tool for Administration in Organizations: A Case Study of the Nigerian Bottling Company Plc (NBC), Abuja (Published)
Every activity in an organization requires human beings to interact, exchange information and co-ordinate other peoples’ efforts. Such information becomes the basis for decisions affecting product lines, operation planning, marketing strategy, etc. Thus, almost everything managers do to facilitate the attainment of organizational objectives which requires effective communication and without the means and capacity to communicate, every activity will not reach its maximum. The aim of this research project is to examine the effects of effective communication to organizational performance and to ascertain if organization environment affect communication. With this in mind, this research study focused on communication as an indispensable tool for organizational growth and development. To achieve this objective, they researchers developed and administered a questionnaire on sixty (60) employees of five department in Nigerian Bottling Company, Abuja for primary data collections. The primary data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentage on tables as well as secondary data collected were together analyzed and interpreted and presented for result interpretations. Among the findings were that significant relationship exists between effective communication, organizational operations and co-ordination of the various activities of people in order to achieve the objectives of an organization. The study concluded that effective organizational communication is necessary for managers and all members of an organization to increase efficiency, quality and innovation and gain competitive advantage. Based on the research findings, the researcher was able to identify some of the barriers to effective communication the researcher hereby hence the researcher further recommended the following measures for consideration by the appropriate authorities for necessary changes for efficient and effective organizational performance such as followings: The management staff should be sent on training in the area of communication for them to be aware of the effect of communication as well as the organizational system of communication should be studied in order to have a well-defined communication system.
Perceived Effects of Women-Directed Employment Benefits on Job Performance among Female Bankers in Selected Banks in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. (Published)
Men and women vary both physically and physiologically, and so do their needs. As such, in work place for instance, the likelihood is that they will also vary in how they feel rewarded for their work or how they are motivated towards enhancing their job performance. This study investigates the relationship between female-directed employment benefits and the job performance of women in selected banks in Calabar Metropolis of Cross River State, Nigeria. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory provided the theoretical underpinning for the study, while the research design adopted was the survey method. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 female employees of five randomly selected banks, who formed the sample of the study. Data was collected through the administration of a Likert-scale questionnaire while the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to test the two stated hypotheses that guided the study. Results revealed a relationship between female-directed employment benefits such as crèche facilities and paid maternity leave and enhanced job performance among subjects. Thus, the study recommended the adoption and implementation of more female gender-friendly work policies to meet the specific needs of the many women who have joined and are continuing to join the world of paid employment, as well as enhance their job performance.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN ORGANIZATIONS-AN ANALYSIS (Published)
Conflict is as inevitable in every organization as change. Conflict is a potential element in all human interactions. Conflict can be harmful but also useful in achieving desired goals. Conflict resolution plays a vital role in the growth of an organization as it fosters creativity and innovation. The focus of the study was to analyse conflict resolution policies and practices, and employee perception of these conflict resolution policies in the sampled organization. A self-administered questionnaire was employed and administered among the management and staff of the sampled International Organisation in Accra, Ghana. Convenience sampling method was used in selecting 55 respondents from the various units of the organization and descriptive statistics were employed for analyzing the data collected. For the data analysis, SPSS (21.0) was used. The findings of this research revealed some major causes of conflict in the organizations. This research identified the conflict resolutions policies that the organization has put in place to manage and resolve conflict in the organization, and employees’ perception of these policies.
The Analysis and Applicability of Cognitive Theories in Solving Inconsistency among Cognitive Elements (Published)
This paper critically analyses the major theoretical and empirical body of knowledge of the various schools of thought of cognitive consistency with a view of proffering a tripartite approach (involving the consumers, the organizations and the government) to solving inconsistency among cognitive elements (e.g., values, beliefs, knowledge and attitudes). The Heider’s balance theory, Osgood’s congruity model and Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory were specifically looked into and assessed in terms of their real world application and/or empirical fertility. Each of these theorists emphasizes psychological tension and the urge to achieving consistency within and between the cognitive system and overt/covert behaviour.
Trust in the employer is one of the important elements for organizations to develop and maintain. This study aimed to investigate what makes individual employee trust the organizations they work for and tested the relationships of trust, perceived organizational trustworthiness, and justice perception with employeesвЂ™ trust in their employing organization. This study also aimed to examine the moderating effect of trustworthiness in the relationship between justice perception and trust. A total of 163 employees from two of the MalaysiaвЂ™s government department participated in the present study. The trustworthiness facets were measured by using the scale developed by Mayer and David (1999). Perceptions of procedural justice, distributive justice, interpersonal justice and information justice were measured using the scale developed by Colquitt (2001). Trust was assessed using the five-item that developed by Mayer and Gavin (2005). The results showed that all the sub scales of trustworthiness and justice perception were significant predictor of trust. Justice and trustworthiness were also found to interact such that justice forms a stronger predictor of trust in organizations when trustworthiness is highly developed. The implications of these findings for research are discussed.