An organization can be likened to a building whose strength is determined by the structure and frames which holds it. The structure is the manner in which interrelated elements (resources) are arranged so that the building can be stable, resist stress and it provides the right form. To this end, for the performance of an organization to be effective, it is important to understand the right manner in which interrelated elements (structure) in the specific organization is arranged. To measure the performance of the organization, dependent variables such as sales, profit, and customer satisfaction will be considered. Also, the study utilized independent variables centralization and formalization organizational structures. This is to show the effects of the dependent variables on the independent variable. The research adopted quantitative design and applied mono method which brought about numerical data generated from questionnaire administered. The population of this study comprises of all staff of Covenant Micro Finance Bank as well as the customers of the banks. Total sum of 354 sample size comprising of both employees (51) and customers (303) of Covenant Micro Finance Bank is the sample size. The propositions assumed for this study are that: there is no relationship between organizational centralization and organizational customer satisfaction, there is no relationship between organizational centralization and organizational profit, there is no relationship between organizational formalization and organizational customer satisfaction and that there is no relationship between organizational formalization and organizational profit. Also, among the secondary data collected are views of various management researchers. As a result of the primary and secondary data collected, the study recommends that organizations should adopt decentralization structure and reduce formalization in the work place.
Relationship between Product Differentiation Strategies and Organizational Performance in Sameer Africa Kenya Limited (Published)
Differentiation is one of the strategies that firms employ in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage by increasing the perceived value of their products and services relative to the perceived value of other firm’s products and services. This paper examines the influence of product differentiation and organizational performance based on a study of Sameer Africa Ltd in Nairobi, Kenya. The study targeted 112 employees of Sameer Africa (K) Limited, comprising senior management, HODs and junior staff and 90 dealers based in Nairobi. A sample of 134 respondents was selected using stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques. The study was guided by Strategic Balance Theory. Primary data was collected through self-administered questionnaires. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics in the form of tables and inferential statistics in the form of Pearson correlation and regression analysis with significance level of 0.05 to test the hypothesis. The study was significant and provided an empirical evaluation of the relationship between differentiation strategy and organization performance. The study found that product differentiation had a positive relationship with organizational performance. The study concluded that integrating product differentiation strategies through specific product attributes relevant to competitors and variety of products to match the need of various customers would result to improved performance. The study therefore recommends that product differentiation should be adopted because they have the highest relationship with organisational performance.
Influence of Strategic Composition of Board of Directors on Organizational Performance of Mission Hospitals in Kenya (Published)
There is an increased public concern about health issues in Kenya. This is because of changes in healthcare funding; advanced technology and the dramatic changes in demand of healthcare services over the last decade. In the context of these challenges, it is imperative for mission hospitals to know which strategic management practices contribute to superior organizational performance. These are the factors that mission hospitals need to treat with renewed emphasis to improve delivery of healthcare service and boost the health sector in Kenya. The governance factor in mission hospitals, which is the responsibility of the board of directors had been identified as a major weakness that required to be addressed.
A Proposed Theoretical Framework on Relationship between Knowledge Integration and Organizational Performance: An Operational Capabilities Mediated Model (Published)
This study aims to draw attention towards the organizations’ knowledge resources and operational capabilities. Particularly, the role of knowledge integration and its relation with operational capabilities while determining organizational performance. Present study fills the gap in existing literature by proposing a conceptual framework that links knowledge integration with organizational performance through the mediating role of operational capabilities. Moreover, study highlights the importance of knowledge integration as this enables the organization to impart new knowledge in existing knowledge base.
The Relationship between Board Members’ Knowledge and Organizational Performance of Private Commercial Banks in Nairobi County, Kenya (Published)
Many organizations are striving to enhance their organization performance by creating and commercializing knowledge in a timely and cost-efficient manner. Given the intensifying competitive environment, the critical determinant of organizational success is the effectiveness of board of directors. The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between board members’ characteristics and organizational performance, drawing empirical lessons from private commercial banks in Nairobi County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper examines the relationship between board members’ knowledge and organizational performance. The study employed a correlation research design. It targeted 207 senior management staff drawn from 28 private commercial banks within Nairobi County. Stratified and random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 103 senior management staff, representing 50% of the target population. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaire while secondary data was collected using documentary guided. Content validity index was used to test validity of research instruments whilst Cronbach alpha method was applied to test reliability of the research instruments. Correlation analysis was used to determine the nature of the relationship between variables. The study found no significant correlation between board members’ knowledge and organization performance. The study therefore adds new knowledge to the existing body of literature since the extant literature suggests that board members’ knowledge has a positive influence on organization performance. There is however need for further studies on the same to establish if the study findings hold.
Relationship between Leadership in International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and Performance of Private University Campuses in Eldoret, Kenya (Published)
University education plays a major role in the development of any country’s economy. The performance of universities is thus greatly dependent on the quality of education and related services provided therein. However, the extent to which International Organization for Standardization (ISO) certification enhances performance of universities still remains debatable, given the problems faced by these universities. This paper assesses leadership in universities as a component of ISO certification in relation to organisational performance. The authors look at perspectives from selected private university campuses in Eldoret, Kenya. Objectively, the study sought to determine the relationship between leadership and organisational performance of selected private university campuses in Eldoret, Kenya. Guided by Juran’s Theory of Quality, a correlational research design was adopted to compare the two variables. The target population comprised 1752 students and teaching staff. Nassiuma’s formula was used to obtain a sample size of 199 on which simple random sampling technique was applied. Collected data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Pearson correlation and multiple regression were used to show the relationship between leadership and organisational performance of selected private university campuses in Eldoret, Kenya. The study found that there was a significant relationship between leadership and organizational performance of selected private university campuses in Eldoret, Kenya. In conclusion, leadership enhances organisational performance. This paper recommends that universities should not only get ISO certified but remain faithful to the requirements and standards especially the aspect of leadership to ensure organisational performance.
Due to the importance of managing organizational performance in directing organization towards achieving its goals, a lot of measuring tools were developed to measure organizational performance. One of the most important measuring tools is Balanced Scorecard (BSC) that balanced between measuring the performance from financial and non-financial aspects of organizations. Although the BSC has been applied widely in many organizations, its implementation was limited to a few studies in the public educational sector. Also, most of BSC implementation was manual or through spreadsheet applications like Microsoft Excel, which made the process of tracking the performance challenging and unorganized. Therefore, the purpose of this work is using technology to solve a major managerial issue by automating the BSC in a full-scale system that enables the user to track, monitor and evaluate the performance continuously, to ensure that organization is moving in the right direction to achieve its goals. The system applied in government higher education institutions, and specifically in King Abdulaziz University (KAU).
Electronic Marketing Practices, Competitive Environment and Performance of Telecommunications Companies in Kenya (Published)
The objective of the study was to ascertain the effect of e-marketing practices on the performance of telecommunications companies in Kenya. The population of the study was drawn from all telecommunications companies Kenya. Primary and secondary data were used where a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data while secondary data was extracted from industry performance reports. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis and regression analysis. The findings showed statistically significant relationship between e-marketing practices and organizational performance. Results of the moderating effect of competitive environment on the relationship were equally statistically significant. The results imply that organizations that have adopted e-marketing practices have also been able to record better performance. This relationship is however moderated by competitive environment meaning that while e-marketing practices contribute to organizational performance, the competitive environments within which they operate require that they develop mechanisms that enable scanning and adapting to competitive environment for competitiveness and better performance. Failure to adapt to the competitive environment can result into organizational demise despite adopting appropriate marketing strategies including, e-marketing practices.
Investigating the Relationship between Internal Audit Quality and Organisational Performance of Public Universities in Nigeria (Published)
This study examines relationship between internal audit quality (IAQ) and organizational performance with moderating variable of top management support in the federal universities in Nigeria. The independent variables consist of internal audit competence (IAC) and internal audit independence (IAI) with organizational performance as the dependent variable. A total of 400 samples of senior internal auditors’ level were drawn from 40 Nigerian federal universities. Data was collected via questionnaires and distributed to internal auditors. 400 questionnaires were distributed, 342 were returned, 29 were rejected and 313 were retained. The data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics for testing hypotheses. The results of the study after testing the direct relationship of the independent variables with the dependent variable reveals that there are significant positive relationships between the variables of the study, except IAI with organizational performance. However, the result of moderating effect of top management support in the relationship between the independent variables and organizational performance, turns out to reveals that IAI, have positive and significant relationship with organizational performance. The result shows strong correlation between the dimensions of IAQ and organizational performance and optimum performance in Nigerian federal universities is attainable when internal audit quality dimensions are functional. The study has contributed greatly in determining the effect of the moderating variable in the study which add value to the existing literature not only in the Nigerian federal universities but also the internal auditing practice in the Nigerian public sector. It is therefore recommended that the dimensions of internal audit quality should always be given attention a better service delivery and efficiency.
The Role of Knowledge Management Processes in Organizational Performance Applied Study in the Cement Company of “Ain Touta” (Published)
This research aims to identify the correlation and impact between knowledge management processes and organizational performance. To achieve this, it is relied on the key knowledge management processes, i.e., (knowledge diagnosis, acquisition, generation, storage, distribution and application). Organizational performance is expressed by the following focuses: (Growth and learning, internal processes, customer focus). The research was carried out at the Cement Company of “Ain Touta”, province of Batna, Algeria. The necessary data were obtained by a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. Many statistical methods were used, including Pearson correlation coefficient to measure the correlation between variables, T-test to determine the significance of this correlation, regression analysis, F-test to determine the significance of the regression equation, and R2 to explain the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable (organizational performance). The findings of the study are identical to the hypotheses. It is found that there are significant strong correlation and effect on all the focuses of knowledge management processes with the dependent variable “organizational performance”, through which a set of recommendations are presented.
The Impact of Distribution Channel Differentiation on Organizational Performance: The Case of Sameer Africa Limited in Nairobi, Kenya (Published)
The study investigated the relationship between differentiation strategy and performance of Sameer Africa Ltd located in Nairobi, Kenya. Informed by the study this paper discusses the extent to which channel differentiation strategy adopted by Sameer Africa (K) Limited influenced the company’s performance. The study employed a correlational research design. The study targeted 112 employees of Sameer Africa (K) Limited comprising of senior management, HODs and junior staff and 90 dealers based in Nairobi. A sample of 134 respondents was selected by use of stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Primary data was collected through self-administered questionnaires. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics in the form of tables and inferential statistics in the form of Pearson correlation and regression analysis with significance level of 0.05 to test the hypothesis. From the findings of the study, majority of the respondents believed that Sameer Africa (K) Ltd could achieve competitive advantage through channel differentiation. This suggest that an increase in channel differentiation strategy such as use of market trends to determine most appropriate channel strategy, use of different channels with the aim of minimizing cost of distribution, selling some of the products and services through intermediary and complementary firms and applying different distribution channels so as to satisfy unique customer needs would result in an increase in performance through market share, revenue, sales and customer satisfaction. The study sought to provide an empirical evaluation of the relationship between differentiation strategy and organizational performance.
The focal point of this study is managing channel conflict for enhanced organizational performance. It is a survey research and the main instrument of data collection was the questionnaire. Out of three hundred and forty five questionnaires administered, 86% or three hundred were retrieved and used in the analysis. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was strictly used in the analysis. The Pearson product moment correlation analysis was used to test the various hypotheses earlier formulated. The study found that conflict affects the performance of the channel members negatively. There is inverse relationship between conflict and profitability. As a result of these findings, it was recommended, amongst others, that conflict in all its ramifications be minimized so as not to distract channel members from performing optimally
: The objective of all organizations is to improve their performance so the aim of this study is to investigate the organizational performance of 200 employees of ufone & Mobilink franchises in Sargodha city. The population in this study has included all companies in telecommunication in Pakistan. We are conducting the exploratory factor analysis. In analyzing the data the descriptive statistics was used. Software used for data analysis was SPSS version 20.The results shows that the higher level of compensation management, organizational citizenship behavior and employee development practices that will lead to a higher level of organizational performance, also indicate that compensation management, organizational citizenship behavior and employee development is positively associated with organizational performance.0ur result shows that there is positive or significant relationship between independent and dependent variables, so we reject the null hypothesis. There are some areas that need more development in future including the topics that relate to the study that can be conducted on manufacturing firms with more variables
The Effects of Key Service Outsourcing Strategies on Organizational Performance. (A Case Study of Commercial Banks in Ghana) (Published)
The study utilized registration inspecting to gather information from every one of the 15 acquisition officer, 17 examiners and 386 bolster staff. Cronbach alpha coefficient was utilized to test unwavering quality and was dissected utilizing descriptive insights and inferential measurements. The discoveries demonstrated that outsourcing absolutely increases on the execution of associations, it diminishes expenses of operation, efficient, nature of administration lastly the influences emphatically business deftness operation. Hence, the rate of hierarchical execution as a consequence of outsourcing is high in both short and long haul and numerous business administrators are resolved to join their prosperity to the outsourcing process. The study suggests that Policy creators and the administration need to comprehend the difficulties confronted in outsourcing administrations and figure approaches that would enhance administration conveyance. The study additionally shape a premise for further research by researchers intrigued to investigate how outsourcing influence execution at business banks in Ghana.
Triangulation Analysis of Complex Health Organizations in French-Speaking Black Africa Methods (Published)
African evaluate complex organizations of a public nature, and regional or international scope including non-governmental or humanitarian organizations working in the field of public health is not easy. Many problems related to planning of the study and the lack of relevant methodological tools to better decode the organizational phenomena and make sense of them both descriptive and prescriptive often pose significant obstacles. This is to contribute to solving these problems that should adopt a pluralistic approach or policy based on methodological triangulation. It is the integration of the various methodological tools (triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods and triangulation of data sources). The use of this approach has allowed to know the story of three regionally-based organizations based in Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, their actual performance and future prospects. We have also been able to verify the rigor of the method, especially in terms of relevance of the observations and criterion validity of the content of investigations
KNOWLEDGE SHARING AS A CATALYST FOR ENHANCED PERFORMANCE IN MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (MSMEs) IN MIGORI COUNTY, KENYA (Published)
In the last decade the role of knowledge sharing in business organizations has been emphasized by practitioners, academics and entrepreneurs. Ironically, most of these studies have focused on large organizations, yet others have predominantly focused on secondary literature of past studies for their findings. In addition, some studies have focused on particular aspects like tacit knowledge or explicit knowledge without giving a clue on the relationship to performance using both. This study sought to find out the effect of knowledge sharing on organizational performance with particular reference to MSMEs, thereby filling the gap on small organizations. The study was also empirical and addressed both tacit and explicit forms of knowledge. The study was conducted by cross sectional survey, data being collected using questionnaire and structured interview responses from a sample of 46 owner and 110 employed managers of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises randomly selected from the accessible population using stratified random sampling technique. Findings revealed that knowledge sharing indeed had a significantly positive effect on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Migori County, Kenya. The study recommends that Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises be encouraged to facilitate implementation of knowledge sharing so as to realize significant improvements in their performance
A STATISTICAL MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE USING FACTOR ANALYSIS – A CASE OF A BANK IN GHANA (Published)
The growth and progress of any organization depends on its ability to perform at the highest level on a continuous basis. Knowing what determines organizational performance is important especially in the context of the current Ghanaian banking business environment because factors identified to be driving performance could be given priority attention in order to improve or maintain the organizational performance. This paper reports on an investigation into what is influencing the performance of a given bank in Ghana. Two hundred and ten (210) respondents were used for the study. Among other things, the study results reveal that there are four dimensions informing the performance of the bank, which accounted for 63.5% of the variance in the original variables. In conclusion, the dimensions adduced to be influencing the performance of the bank were: Repeat purchase, Customer experience, Customer satisfaction and Intelligent responsiveness. Management of the bank are encouraged to focus on these dimensions to ensure that the performance of the bank is at the prime.
The aim of this research is to ascertain the relationship between monetary incentives and its impact on employee performance. The essence or purpose is also to affirm that monetary incentives is a good motivational tool on employee performance in a society like ours; where the cost of living is very high. It is also to bring to light that monetary incentive alone is not sufficient to motivate all categories of employee to perform better on their job .Employees are a priceless possession in the achievement of organizational goals and to ensure that all hands are on deck, they must be motivated, to inspired as one of the tools employed by management to motivate on inspired employee is incentive.
EFFECTS OF LEAN PRODUCTION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF FLOUR PRODUCING COMPANY IN KENYA (Published)
Global competition in business has forced most production sectors to realign their strategies to achieve competitive advantage. In flour producing companies in Kenya, the problem of broad production has been in place and as advanced technology takes its roots in Africa, there has been an increasing demand for quality output by the industry; which can be achieved by effective adoption of various production systems. The paper sought to assess the effects of lean production on organizational performance. The study was designed determine the elements of lean production, effect of lean production systems on product quality, strategies for waste reduction and the challenges of adopting lean production. The study adopted a descriptive research design. Data The study found out improving management style and involving all employees at all levels, as well as better inventory management leads to a more efficient practice of lean production. Material management and physical distribution are positively related and are therefore critical determinants of successful lean production practice within the organization. With a response rate of 75% the study concluded firms should adopt the use of lean production system as a means to improved performance.
Investigation of CSF for growth of Hi-tech marketing (Review Completed - Accepted)
The retail base has now witnessed a transformation with the rapid growth of electronic goods in the present epoch. E-business all over the world has become a popular medium for the buyer – seller transaction as a means that complements and supplements the experiences of a physical store. Although the application of technology-based online retail services has grown rapidly in recent years, an understanding to attract, retain, and satisfy customers in such contexts remains limited. A marketer often encounters the difficulty of making a framework that could be applied for constructing, managing, and evaluating its service. Based on a literature review, followed by an empirical study, this report outlines the results of a survey conducted to identify the CSF’s (critical success factors) for the popularity of hi-tech (electronic) shop zone. (e.g. Reliance-digital, More-Digi etc.) The literature review helped us to conceptualize the variation in this subject area. An integrated framework of critical success factors would enable a better understanding of customers’ needs and assist marketers while constructing, managing, and evaluating their marketing strategies. A well-structured questionnaire was used to catch the relevant information needed for analysis and identification of CSF. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS software to try out various hypotheses. In this field, there are two determinants like Product appearance & Product price that are significant to affect the functioning of hi-tech shopping zone.