Effects of Snuff Dipping and Cigarette Smoking On Oral Health among Adult Males at a Tertiary Care Hospital Peshawar (Published)
The objective of the study was to determine the effects of snuff dipping and cigarette smoking on oral health of 20-60 years males with special reference to periodontal diseases and the development of oral cancers and pre cancers at Tertiary Care Hospital, Peshawar.This was a descriptive cross sectional study. Sample size calculated was 162. A specially designed questionnaire was completed over a four month period. The questionnaire was filled from 162 participants who were cigarette smokers, and/or snuff dippers. The participants were evaluated for different oral conditions for the effects of snuff dipping and cigarette smoking. Statistical analysis was done on SPSS version 22 and Microsoft Excel.Among 162 participants (31.5%) were cigarette smokers, 24 (14.8%) were snuff dippers, while 87 (53.7%) were both snuff dippers and cigarette smokers. The ratio of plaque was 69.8%, gingivitis 29.0%, periodontitis 16.7%, caries 51.2%, staining 45.7%, gingival recession 49.4%, leukoplakia 4.9%, and cyst 1.9% among participants. From the result of this study it was revealed that consumption of tobacco in both of these forms effect the oral cavity. Some of the diseases like gingivitis; periodontitis, dental caries, dental staining, and gingival recession were commonly seen among snuff dippers and/or cigarette smokers. The awareness programs should be arranged for the prevention of diseases with the use of tobacco products.
Keywords: cigarette smoking, oral health, snuff dipping