The Clinical Manifestations of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and The Treatment Options (Published)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is one of the most common endocrine disorders in females. It is important to diagnose early using the correct diagnostic criteria to ensure proper management and to reduce the long-term effects.To aggregate data on females diagnosed with PCOS and study the prevalence, symptoms, diagnostic criteria, and treatment options available till date for this syndrome.A thorough literature search of PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for data sources mentioning the symptoms and diagnostic criteria for PCOS in females to date is included in the study. A total of 61 articles were used and a total of 10 were excluded due to repetition of data or studies with sample sizes less than 70.Women clinically diagnosed with PCOS. The prevalence of PCOS was more common in woman aged 21-34 years and varied from 2.2% to 20% in different parts of the world. The most common symptoms found for PCOS were menstrual irregularities, hirsutism, weight gain, and insulin resistance. There are 3 diagnostic criteria currently being used to diagnose PCOS namely Ovulatory Dysfunction, Hyperandrogenism, and Polycystic Ovarian . The symptoms of PCOS vary greatly among women and so treatment is largely based on the presentation of symptoms and prevention of long-term effect. Therefore, the main treatment options for menstrual irregularities areClomiphene Citrate, Letrozole, Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCPs) a second-line therapy includes Gonadotropins, Metformin and Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling (LOD). Hyperandrogenism treatment options are Finasteride, Isotretinoin, Spironolactone and Flutamide. Simultaneously weight reduction therapy, lifestyle changes can be used to reduce a weight gain.The prevalence of PCOS is influenced the diagnostic criteria used. The Clinical presentations of PCOS vary greatly among women. Rotterdam criteria, most widely used to diagnose PCOS, include the presence of at least two of these three conditions: polycystic ovaries on ultrasound imagining; hyperandrogenism; and chronic ovulatory dysfunction. The treatment of PCOS is not specific. Lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy and some surgical approaches have been successfully used to manage the symptoms.
Keywords: clinical manifestations, options, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treatment