Tag Archives: optimization

Optimization of the Production of Structured Lipid by Enzymatic Interesterification from Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) and Sesame (Sesamum Indicum) Oils Using Response Surface Methodology (Published)

Blends of coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil (CO) and sesame (Sesamum indicum) oil (SO) were enzymatically interesrerified using aqueous lipase derived from Rhizomucor miehei and the reaction conditions, namely, temperature (45-65 °C), time (16-48 h) and mass ratio of oils (CO:SO; 70:30 – 50:50) were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (three-factor, three-level central composite design). Degree of interesterification (DI), and the ratio of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA:PUFA) of triacylglycerols were used as response variables. The linear effects of all factors were significant for the DI while for MUFA:PUFA, the linear effect of oil ratio and interaction effect of time and oil ratio showed significant effects. The conditions, temperature; 57.12 °C, time; 16 h and weight ratio of oil (CO:SO); 50:50 were found to be the optimum. The R2 value for DI and MUFA:PUFA ratio were 0.80 and 0.82, respectively. Models fitted for both DI and MUFA:PUFA ratio were significant with non-significant lack of fit. Therefore, the constructed models and data provide useful information to produce structured lipid from interesterification of CO and SO in up-scaled level. The produced novel lipid containing beneficial fatty acids from both oils could be used to produce healthy fat based products.

Keywords: coconut oil, interesterification, lipase, optimization, sesame oil

Optimization of Screw Press Extraction of Citrillus Lanatus Seed Oil and Physicochemical Characterization (Published)

The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction of C. lanatus seed oil using a screw press. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to describe the effects of pressing temperature and restriction diameter on oil yield and residual oil content using a Doehlert design. The seed oil extracted was characterized to determine its quality. Results showed that the experimental data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. The pressing temperature and restriction diameter had a significant effect on the screw press performance. The optimum conditions within the experimental domain were the pressing temperature of 92 °C and restriction diameter close to 4 mm. Under these conditions, the oil yield was 38.79%. The colour of clarified oil was light yellow. Its physical and chemical properties come up to the required standard for edible oil. Therefore, C. lanatus seed oil extracted by screw press could have important applications in human nutrition

Keywords: Citrullus Lanatus, Oil Yield, Screw Press, Seed Oil, optimization

Optimization of the Nutritional Requirements of Two Novel Bacterial Cellulose Decomposers Isolated From Lebanese Habitat (Published)

Two novel bacterial cellulose decomposers were isolated and identified phenotypically and morphologically as Gram negative short rods none spore formers. Genotypic identification using 16S rRNA was carried out for both isolates.  Bacterial isolate 1 was identified as a member of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 98% similarity thus; it was named Pseudomonas aeruginosa IZ.  Bacterial isolate 2 was identified as a member of the species Serratia marcescens with 98% similarity thus; it was named Serratia marcescens IZ. Physiological, environmental and nutritional factors affecting Psuedomonas aeruginosa IZ and Serratia marcescens IZ cellulase activity were evaluated one factor at a time for optimum production and activity of their cellulase enzyme.  The time course of cellulase activity by the selected bacterial isolates was monitored during 5 days. Maximum enzyme activity by Psuedomonas aeruginosa IZ was obtained at day 2 (0.35 U/ml) whereas maximum enzyme activity by Serratia marcescens IZ was obtained at day 1 (0.2 U/ml).  The effects of Nitrogen source and fermentation technique on cellulase production by the bacterial isolates were studied. It was concluded that fermentation media CM2, which contains corn cobs as a sole source of both carbon and nitrogen, under shaken condition (150 rpm) revealed maximum Psuedomonas aeruginosa IZ cellulase activity after 2 days of incubation (0.71 U/ml) and Serratia marcescens IZ cellulase activity after 1 day of incubation 0.70 (U/ml). Results indicate that the enzymatic activity under these conditions increased 2.02 folds for Psuedomonas aeruginosa IZ, and 3.5 folds Serratia marcescens IZ.  Optimization of the physiological and environmental factors affecting Psuedomonas aeruginosa IZ and Serratia marcescens IZ cellulase activity using Plackett-Burman revealed that optimized factors result in an increase of cellulase activity. Eleven different factors were chosen to perform this optimization process and the main effect of the examined factors affecting cellulase activity by both bacterial isolates was calculated. Data of the present investigation revealed that the rest of the factors studied didn’t affect cellulase enzyme activity or production in a significant manner. By the end of the optimization part, the optimum nutritional conditions for Pseudomonas aeruginosa IZ cellulase production under submerged fermentation using shaken conditions were (g/l): KH2PO4 1.5, K2HPO4, 1.79, ZnCl2, 0.0025, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.7, CaCl2 0.08 and corn cobs 100. The pH was adjusted to 5.0 and the flask was inoculated with 2% inoculum and incubated at 44˚C for 48 hours under shaken conditions (150 rpm). For Serratia marcescens IZ the optimum nutritional conditions for cellulase production under submerged fermentation using shaken conditions were (g/l): KH2PO4 0.5, K2HPO4, 0.5, ZnCl2, 0.0025, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.1, CuCl2 0.0025, CaCl2 0.08 and corn cobs 100. The pH was adjusted to 9.0 and the flask was inoculated with 10% inoculum and incubated at 44˚C for 24 hours under shaken conditions (150 rpm). On the basis of the high productivity of the enzyme at the end of the optimization experiments, the present work envisaged the production of cellulase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa IZ at high scale using corn cobs as a cheap carbon source under submerged fermentation to be exploited commercially for the use in industry.

Keywords: Novel cellulose decomposers, nutritional requirements, optimization

Optimization of Extraction Process for Total Polyphenols from Adlay (Published)

The single-factor experiment and an orthogonal experiment design were adopted to optimize the extracting technology of polyphenols from adlay. The results showed that, the impact order of the influence factors was ethanol concentration > extraction time > extraction temperature, and that ethanol concentration and extraction time have significant difference (p<0.05). The optimum extraction conditions were ethanol concentration 60%, extraction time 1.5 h, extraction temperature 40 oC and ratio of liquid to material 15:1. Under the optimized conditions, the yield of total polyphenols from adlay was 2.84 mg/g.

Keywords: Adlay, Extraction process, Polyphenols, optimization


The ‘quest’ for creating and maintaining relevance in the competitive world is acting as a driving force of innovation and transformation. Recent research reveals that technology-as-business-driver is going to play a mission critical role in driving organizational transformation. Digital Transformation thus gets the priority in the strategic agenda of the organization towards creating a new paradigm in value delivery mechanism. Digitizing is no longer an option for but a must choice for futurising the organization to create competitiveness, sustainability and the growth. The strategic imperative of any futuristic organization is to achieve enduring customer relevance and sustainable customer value at scale through a customer-centric digital transformation. Whether companies perceive digitalization as a threat, a challenge or an opportunity, those that ignore it do so at their own peril. Author has used case analysis as a research method to analyze and zero in to the key objectives. Therefore author’s thought process is focused on presenting a research perspective along with practical ideas and steps towards information technology optimization and digital transformation to accelerate growth overcoming issues, challenges and critical problems with undiluted focus on FUTURIZATION. This article will ignite academic interest and debate in the area with a new outlook on strategic imperatives of organization for technology adoption and application and will foster further research on technology optimization, digitalization for organizational renewal, relevance and repositioning in the value equation of the industry growth curve.

Keywords: Customer value, Digital Transformation, Futurization ., Relevance, optimization


This paper proposes a new background which applicable to the non- homogenous exponential series, and give the best reducing value which conditioned by the error quadratic sum of fitting original series least. This method made the model more matching, and through verification, the modeling effect is good, which has certain practical value

Keywords: Background, Non-Homogenous Exponential, Reducing Value, optimization

Enhanced Monkey Algorithm For minimization of real power loss and improving the volatge stability index (Review Completed - Accepted)

This paper proposes Enhanced Monkey Algorithm (EMA) for solving the Optimal Reactive Power dispatch problem. The main aspect in this problem is to minimize the real power loss and enhancement voltage stability index margin. This algorithm is inspired from the mountain climbing processes of monkeys where the monkeys look for the highest mountain by climbing up from their positions. The simulation results reveal improved performance of the EMA in solving an optimal reactive power dispatch problem. In order to weigh up the performance of the proposed algorithm, it has been tested on Standard IEEE 30 bus system and compared to other specified algorithms. Simulation results show that EMA is better than other algorithms in reducing the real power loss and enhancing the voltage stability Index.



Keywords: Metaheuristics, Monkey Algorithm, Optimal Reactive Power, Transmission Loss., optimization

Examine the Fuel Size Effect on Nuclear Power Reactor Safety (Published)

The mass of fuel in the operating reactor could contribute to the safety of the reactor. To investigate the cooling problem of the fuel, safety margin test was conducted on design decay heat and design volume of the fuel in the reactor core. Linear Regression Analysis Techniques was applied on some typical Water-Cooled Reactor Design (WCRD) models. The results of the statistical analysis on these types of nuclear reactor models reveals that the WCRD models promises stability under application of small size of uranium (fuel) at 9g and below than large size of uranium (fuel) at 12g and above. Meanwhile, at 9g of fuel element the reactor seems to be most stable and safer as the regression plot was optimized. The safety margin prediction of 0.62% was validated for a typical WCRD model as an advantage over the current 5.1% challenging problem for plant engineers to predict the safety margin limit. The implication of this research effort to Nigeria’s nuclear power project is discussed

Keywords: Fuel size effect, High temperature, Reactor Safety, Safety Factor, Stability Margin in Reactor Designs, Water-Cooled Reactor Design Model, optimization,

Investigating the Effect of Loss-Of-Pressure-Control on the Stability of Water-Cooled Reactor Design Models (Published)

To investigate loss-of-pressure-control on the stability of a typical water-cooled reactor design models during operation in terms of normal applicable pressure within reactor core and abnormal applicable pressure within reactor core. Linear Regression Analysis Techniques was applied on a typical water-cooled nuclear reactor design models, viz Water-Cooled Reactor Design with Normal Pressure (WCRD NP) flow rate within the reactor and Water-Cooled Reactor Design with Abnormal Pressure (WCRD AP) flow rate within the reactor. Empirical expressions are obtained for WCRD NP model and WCRD AP model. The results of the statistical analyses on these two types of nuclear reactor models reveals that the WCRD NP promises to be more stable than WCRD AP. The implication of this research effort to Nigeria’s nuclear power project is discussed

Keywords: Linear Regression Analysis, Safety Factor, Stability Margin in Nuclear Power Reactor Designs, Water-Cooled Reactor Design Model with Abnormal Pressure, Water-Cooled Reactor Design Model with Normal Pressure, optimization

Experimental investigation of turning process parameters using Taguchi Method for mild steel (Review Completed - Accepted)

The Optimization of Multi response is now-a-days mostly used optimization technique which is better than single response optimizing technique because all the output is affected at a time by all the input factors .The objective of this project work is to determine the optimal setting of cutting parameters (speed(N)m/min , depth of cut(d) mm , feed(f)mm/rev, Nose Radius(r)mm) to minimize surface roughness(Ra) . In this work, Ferrous (Mild Steel) workpiece and Non-Ferrous (Aluminium) work pieces are turned on automatic HMT lathe by using High Speed Steel tool. . In order to produce any product with desired quality by machining, proper selection of process parameters is essential. This can be accomplished by Taguchi approach. This study highlights use of Taguchi experiment design to optimize the multi response parameters on turning operation. For this experiment Taguchi design of experiment was carried out to collect the data for surface roughness. The results indicate the optimum values of the input factors and the results are conformed by a confirmatory test

Keywords: ANOVA, S/N ratio, Taguchi technique, optimization, process parameters, turning process