For the most of history the female has been largely disadvantaged in terms of social standing or status as well as fundamental legal rights, compared to their male counterparts. The continuity of this trend of the female being a second class human, is fuelled by traditional, cultural, and religious beliefs of mostly patriarchal societies. The theory under application in this write-up is the radical feminist approach. The paper seeks to explore how patriarchy, being an aspect of culture, helps to paint or make the woman inferior in the light of their male counterparts. This theoretical approach has been sufficiently explored in the work of Nawal El Sadaawi entitled, “A woman at point Zero” (1983), Buchi Emecheta’s “The joys of motherhood” (1979) and Amma Darko’s “Beyond the Horizon” (1995), among other literary works. The efforts made by the female towards becoming independent from men, have also been closely looked into. Sexual abuse, polygamy, female genital mutilation, widowhood rites and the “trokosi” tradition (Ghana) are among several other socio-cultural factors that set the tone for the oppression, under-rating, malhandling and general discrimination against women in the stories selected in this study. The theories of feminism and literary criticisms have been implied in this study.
Charlotte Brontë holds a unique place in presenting heroines who are assertive. As the author of vivid, intensely written novels, Charlotte Brontë broke the traditional nineteenth-century fictional stereotype of a woman as beautiful, submissive, dependent, and ignorant and delineated the portrait of a ‘new woman’ who is independent and who does not simply submit herself to the norms of the patriarchal setup. Charlotte Brontë’s first novel, Jane Eyre (1847) was immediately recognized for its originality and power. Since then, Brontë has been considered by critics as one of the foremost authors of the nineteenth century, an important precursor to feminist novelists, and the creator of intelligent, independent heroines who asserted their rights as women long before those rights were recognized by society. Through Jane Eyre, Charlotte Brontë aims to project the need to fight against the oppression in the patriarchy. Penniless, lonely and starving, Jane Eyre does not remain a victim of social injustice but emerges as a brave warrior to stand against the male domination and is determined to assert her individuality without submitting to the accepted traditional norms. Both Mr. Rochester and St. John want to master Jane and in both the cases, she insists on her independent will. She wants power and the freedom to be active as she wishes to experience the world in a positive and constructive fashion. She does marry Mr. Rochester, but on her own terms and not at the cost of her independence.
Amiri Baraka’s pre-nationalist and nationalist plays such as Dutchman and Experimental Death Unit # 1 largely incorporates scenes of murder and violence. The cadaverous permeates. Baraka’s stage. There is a whole sacrificial system that determines the characters’ ultimate destinies and lives. This mechanism operates not merely to bring death to those who betray the national black liberation cause, but also to castigate those holders of the slave mentality and chastise the assimilationists who hide behind a white mask. This sacrificial mechanism functions as a generator of purification to cleanse the black community from the vestiges of black docility. In the Marxist plays, violence and murder take the form of political assassination. A play such as The Motion of History displays the dynamics of political struggle that conditions the kind of murder or acts of killings. Whereas in the nationalist plays murder is effected for purificatory goals, in the Marxist plays the intersection between political struggle and the official repression of the state determines the shape of physical elimination for political motives. The neutralization of political opponents assumes that murder is simply a means of exclusion from the political arena and restoration of political and social stability. Because agitation is detrimental to social peace and political order, systemic violence takes a bloody dimension and approximates bloodshed. This paper seeks to highlight the prevalence and, in Frantz Fanon’s phrase, the instrumentality of violence as an absolute praxis in Baraka’s dramatic works. Violence marshals then a new equation of asserted subjectivity.
Representation Of The Colonizers’ Dominance Over Colonized Culture In Twilight In Delhi By Ali: A Postcolonial Analysis (Published)
This research paper aims to describe the postcolonial aspects in “Twilight in Delhi” (1984) and colonizers’ cultural and traditional dominance over the colonized (Indian Muslims). It is important to mention that Ali has personally been through that painful agony of the mentioned colonial age. So as the writers are mirrors of their social era Ali also has drawn a clear sketch of British rule in India especially from Muslim perspective. He appears to have a clear goal to bring to lime light Muslim lingual, cultural and social deprivation caused by the British assault earlier and rule later on. Ali’s novel “Twilight in Delhi” (1984) is the clear representation of the decline of Muslim culture in India which is like twilight near to be diminished. He highlights the decline of Muslim cultural values and their traditional sunset also.
GENDER DISCRIMINATION AGAINST PAKISTANI WOMEN IN “BOL”; A STUDY OF CLASH BETWEEN CULTURE AND RELIGION. (Published)
This paper aims to study the issue of gender discrimination against Pakistani women presented in a film Bol directed by Mansoor. Feminist theory is used as major theoretical framework for the present research. The discourse is analyzed through qualitative method and descriptive analysis. Kristeva’s feministic assumptions regarding ‘Gender Discrimination’ are implied in theoretical background. Her notion of abjection as an explanation for oppression and discrimination helps to shed light on the oppression and subordination of women and man chauvinism which is strictly prohibited in Islam. Moreover this paper will discuss about the psychological and sexual violence.