Tag Archives: Operating ratio

Analysis of Cowpea Fried Paste among Women Entreprenuer in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State, Nigeria (Published)

An investigation was carried out in the profitability analysis of cowpea processing among women entrepreneur in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi Local Government Area, Bauchi State, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was use in selection of 50 respondents. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis. It was realized that, majority (36%)of the respondents who engaged in cowpea  processing into cowpea fried paste are within the age bracket of 40-49 years and also of female folk (100%).The women who engaged in this business (88%) had about 1-9 as household size.(48%)of the respondents had informal education. About   38% of the respondent had processing experience of 15 years and above. while only 12% had processing experience of <5 years. Cowpea processing into fried paste in the study area was found to be profitable with a gross margin of N1286.5/day, operating ratio of 0.64and return per naira invested of 1.56.Constraints of cowpea processing  include high cost of inputs, inadequate capital base, access to soft loan amongst others. The studies recommend the formation of cooperatives by the women entrepreneurs in order to obtain loan so as to increase their capital base.

Keywords: Cowpea Processing, Gross margin, Operating ratio


This paper proposes a generalized two-plan sampling system with multiple repetitive group sampling plan as the reference plan, designated as GTPMRGSS (n; cN, cT), is introduced. The efficiency of GTPMRGSS (n; cN, cT) with respect to smaller sample sizes have been established over the attributes scheme. The sampling inspection scheme will be useful when testing is costly and destructive. The advantages of the sampling inspection scheme over attributes single, double and various reference plans are discussed. Tables are constructed considering various combinations of acceptable and limiting quality levels and with their operating ratios.

Keywords: Acceptable Quality Level, Limiting Quality Level, Markov model, Operating ratio, Two-Plan sampling system