Impact of Brewery Effluent Discharge into Niger River: A Case Study of Interfact Brewery Plc Onitsha Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)
In this study, effluent discharged from brewery was collected to assess its impact on the water quality of Niger River, Onitsha. The values of the effluent discharge from brewery were compared with values recorded for its receiving river. Parameters investigated include total suspended solid (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BODs), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, Temperature, conductivity and Dissolved Oxygen (Do). ANOVA test was used for the analyses of these parameters, with the exception of the pH, all the parameters measured from the brewery effluent site as well as in the river indicated higher levels than those permitted by the Nigerian industrial standard and WHO. The study revealed that effluent from the wastes treatment plant has higher BODs (142 Mg/L) and COD (400Mg/L) than those of receiving river (88.6 Mg/L and 198.22 Mg/L means) respectively. The indicators of all pollutions exceed the WHO and Nigeria industrial standard recommendations. It is therefore, being recommended that the brewery authorities as well as the Nigerian industrial standard must ensure that the brewery effluents meet quality standards. This action is urgently warranted as high level pollution of the industrial effluents cause environmental problems which will affect plants, animals and human lives.
Analysis of the Performance of Commercial and Residential Property Investments in Onitsha Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)
Real estate investment in urban areas in Nigeria like Onitsha are done mostly by private investors; and this group of investors put considerable sums of money into real estate investments annually without investor’s knowledge and understanding of the performance of the sectors to provide basis for better investment decision and risk management for real estate investors in Onitsha and in other comparable location in Nigeria. This article therefore examined the performance of commercial property investments and residential property investment in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria. The comparative analysis of the performance of these two types of property investments within the period of nine (9) years (2007to 2016) was conducted, focusing on the annual returns, risk profile and risk-return profile. Data for the study consist of rental and capital values of commercial and residential property investments in the study area and were sourced from the Estate Surveying and Valuation firms practicing in the study area. Data collection was analyzed using Arithmetic Mean Return (AMRR), Geometric Mean Return (GMRR), Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variation. The average rental values and capital of both residential and commercial property investment were assessed in order to arrive at the annual returns (Arithmetic mean rate of return and Geometric mean rate of return). The risk inherent (Standard Deviation) and the risk-return profile (Coefficient of Variation) of both residential and commercial property investments were equally ascertained and determined respectively. The results showed that commercial property investment performed better than residential property investment within the period studied with an annual return of 19% as against 17% for residential property investment. On the contrary, residential property investment performed better in terms of risk-return profiles within the period under study with 11.34% of risk and 0.67 risk-returns as against 15.88% of risk and 0.84% risk-return for commercial property investment. The performance indicators as shown by this parameter indicate that property investments in Onitsha are very viable but that commercial property investments perform better in return than residential property investment. The study concluded that a risk avert investor will prefer to invest in residential property properties than commercial properties, whereas, an investor who is a risk taker will choose to invest in commercial properties than residential properties not minding the higher risk involve as shown in this work. Investors in commercial properties are sure of their rents as at when due as tenants in commercial properties will prefer to protect their goodwill than vacating the premises; unlike tenants in residential properties who has no goodwill to protect in such premises and so become troublesome in paying their subsequent rents after the first rent has been collected. This article finally recommended that a periodic portfolio performance analysis be done from time to time to aid property portfolio managers or investors in selecting the investment return and reduction of the association risk.
Evaluation of the Effect of Slum on Property Values in Onitsha Metropolis of Anambra State (Published)
This study evaluated the effects of slum on property values at Onitsha metropolis. The study adopted the questionnaire survey method and interview to ascertain the effects of slum on property values in Onitsha metropolis. The study found that the slum occurrence was as a result of rural migration to urban areas and lack of original planning in the area and confirm that slum was responsible for the low property value in the area. From the foregoing, the study recommended that there is a big necessity for this area to be reorganized in order to reduce the increase of slum, good planning policies has to be formulated so as to prevent this ill occurrence, construction of drainages, infrastructures and general urban renewal should be employed in the area, thereby demolishing dilapidated structure and modernizing the old structures, roads should be tarred and alternative routes created in order to open up the area. Furthermore, it is recommended that the government should redevelop the area, by relocating the inhabitants and then building low cost houses for the inhabitants. For the property owners, a low interest or non interest credits should be provided for them in order to encourage them to renovate their properties.