Bioproductivity of two contrasting watershed management system were evaluated in pot and field experiment to ascertain the effect of management and slope on the productivity of okra. The field studies were conducted on four slope gradients of watershed in an experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The pot experiments were carried out on the soils of the two management practices (managed and unmanaged) and were arranged in a complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. NPK fertilizer 15:15:15 at the rate of 150kg/ha was applied as blanket treatment and okra used as test crop. The experiment was carried out on a sandy loam typic paleudult in Amawbia Anambra state southeast Nigerian. The data generated from the study were subjected to analysis of variance and significant mean differences were separated using least significant difference (LSD). The result of the study showed that natural environments of the four slopes in managed plots significantly increased the growth and yield parameters of okra than the unmanaged plots. Slope 4 (plain) of the managed watershed recorded statistically similar productivity with the unmanaged plots by virtue of their non-significant difference (P < 0.05) exhibited in most of the parameters assessed. The NPK fertilizer result indicated that the treatment boasted the productivity of both managed and unmanaged watershed ecosystem.
Field Evaluation of Some Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) Varieties in the Humid Tropics, Rivers State (Published)
A study on the suitability of seven different Okra Varieties (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) was conducted at the Rivers State University Teaching and Research Farm Nkpolu-Oruworukwo, Port Harcourt. The seven Okra varieties comprise of five exotic and two landraces (Kirikou, Madison, Clemson Spineless, Hire, Sahari, Ogbami and Chuku-chuku) were planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. The results obtained showed that Madison variety had the highest (P<0.05) mean plant height followed by Clemson spineless variety. Clemson Spineless and Madison varieties significantly (P<0.05) matured earlier at 10 weeks after planting. Clemson Spineless variety consequently produced higher (P<0.05) yield of okra (29.13 t/ha) and supported higher okra growth, number of leaves and leaf area than other studied varieties. A positive correlation was established between total weight of fresh okro and 8th weeks leaf area (r = 0.85); total insect count and 8th weeks leaf area (r = 0.95) respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05) on the insect pest damage on the leaves of the studied okra varieties. The result established that the Okra flea beetle Podagrica spp. remain the major insect pest of Okra in the study area causing very severe damage (defoliation) on the leaves of the tested exotic okra varieties. The experimental results however revealed higher susceptibility of the two land races (Ogbami and Chuku-chuku) to waterlogged environment due to excessive heavy rainfall. This experiment therefore recommends the cultivation of Clemson Spineless, Sahari and Madison okra varieties to our farmers for higher and better Okra production.
Varietal Resistance of Sunflower and Okra Bio-Primed Seeds Against Root Infecting Fungi and Establishment of Crop Plants (Published)
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) varieties like OH-152, Arka anamika and unknown variety and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) varieties like S-278, Hysun-39 and unknown variety after bio-priming with leaf extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile Sapindus mukorossi (L.) and microbial antagonists (Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium meliloti) at different time intervals (10, 20 minutes) were screened against root infecting fungal pathogens (Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp) and growth of crop plants. Results obtained showed that among all the three varieties of sunflower, variety S-278 after bio-priming with A. nilotica leaf extract for 10 minutes and T. harzianum conidial suspension for 20 minutes was found to be most effective for the establishment of plants and completely control the colonization of M. phaseolina followed by Hysun-39 and unknown variety. Whereas in case of okra, variety OH-152 after bio-priming with A. nilotica leaf extract, T. harzianum and R. meliloti cell/conidal suspension for 10 minutes was recorded to be most effective for the complete inhibition of M. phaseolina and significant elevation of growth of plants followed by A. anamika and unknown varieties
Quality Of Postharvest Handling Of Marketable Okra Fruits Sold In Minna, Niger State, Nigeria (Published)
An appraisal of the current practices used in the post harvest handling of fresh fruits in Minna was conducted to identify the inherent problems involved. This is with the view to generate useful information and results to maintain quality and curtail losses. The Investigative Survey Research Approach (ISRA) was used, thus structured questionnaires were administered to the okra farmers and marketers in the selected locations within Minna environs i.e. Sabon–gida, Garatu, Gidan-mangoro and Minna central market through personal interviews. The result shows that the current post harvest system was faced with a lot of problems, some of which were poor road network, lack of pre-cooling systems, poor harvesting methods, unavailability of desired vehicles for transportation and the produce from to farms the homes or to the markets at the right time, have been identified as the major points where the reduction in quality occur. The result of the study suggests that better methods should be paid to these points in order to reduce / minimize the current losses and maintain the quality of marketable okra.