EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF RELIGION ETHICS, AGE FACTORS, INCOME LEVEL, PROFESSIONAL, EDUCATIONAL, AND GENDER PERCEPTIONS ON TAX EVASION BEHAVIORS: A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH (Published)
A current survey is lacking on the impacts of religion ethics, age factor, income level, profession, educational, and gender perceptions on the growth of related issues of tax evasion and the impact on the official economy. This quantitative, non-experimental research was to examine the perceptions of people regarding the activities of tax evasion and consequently, its insinuations on official economies. Tax evasions have been of increasing concern among government officials, policy makers, and social scientists. In the past, discussions were on; size and growth of tax evasion activities, currently, attention is being strained on people’s perceptions towards tax evasion and related issues for several reasons. Unemployment is rising, with the attendant problems of financing public expenditure, there is also a global anxiety about the present economic crisis and social policies. Policy makers and politicians have become increasingly aware of the need to solve problems associated with tax evasion both at the state and the national level. Insinuations from the study are made to encourage economic policy-making and to identify areas in which additional research is particularly warranted.
ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIETAL NORMS AND PUBLIC STATUS ON TAX MORALE AND SHADOW ECONOMY BEHAVIORS: A WORLDWIDE APPROACH (Published)
More and more people around the world are operating businesses off the data grid in order to avoid payment of taxes. The boom in underground economies leave governments insufficient revenue to provide adequate public services, which include health care, roads, education, or even better tax collection. Numerous literatures exist on the single aspect of the hidden economy focusing on the size, causes, consequences, characterizing of its presence, a current study is lacking on the impacts of people’s perception on the growth of shadow economy. It is likely that this dearth of research on the impacts of peoples’ perception regarding underground economy activities in the past is the result of the difficulties in providing reliable official indicators for direction of intended government policy measures. Presently, attention is being drawn on people’s perceptions towards the shadow economy. This research study was conducted to address these limitations relating to underground economic activities from peoples’ perspective.
Research experts on countries that are transiting from one economic state to another (transition countries) and developing countries have claimed that a large part of economic activities were done within the shadow. In applying the estimation techniques for measuring underground economy for the period 1995–2008, the results indicated the size of shadow activities to be 35–44% of GDP for developing economies, 21–30% of GDP for the countries transiting from communist to capitalist economy (transition economies) and 14–16% of GDP for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) economies. For advance economies, the value of underground activities grew from 7.9% of GDP in 1976 to about 16% in 2008. Since 2005, academic and political debate on development finance and development aid has raised the issue that shadow economy in countries worldwide is becoming larger than can be imagined, consequently, the need to be concerned about its composition.