Occurrence and Sources of Pent acyclic Triterpenol Methyl Ethers and Alkanones as Molecular Indicators in Suspended Particulate Matter from Great Kwa River, Southeast Nigeria (Published)
Occurrence and source identification of Pentacyclic Triterpenol methyl ethers and alkanones as molecular indicators in suspended particulate matter obtained during high and low tides from Great kwa River, South East, Nigeria were characterized using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Pentacyclic Triterpenol methyl ethers (PTMEs), taraxer-12-en-3-one, taraxer-14-en-3-one, taraxerone, taraxerol, miliacin, β-amyrin methyl ether, α-amyrin methyl ether, β-amyrenyl acetate, α-amyrenyl acetate and friedelin were characterized in the suspended particulate matter. Alkanones such as 6,10, 14-trimethyl pentadecan-2-one, pentacosan-2-one, heptacosan-2-one, octacosan-2-one, nonacosan-2-one, triacontan-2-one, hentriacosan-2-one, dotriacotan-2-one and tritriacotan-2-one were also found. These distinct compounds are useful for assessing diagenetic transformation that occurs during transportation of organic detritus. PTMEs are biomarkers of specific higher plants species, while alkanones are indication of direct microbial oxidation of the n-alkanes derived from epicuticular vascular plant wax. The presence of taraxerol and its ketonic counterpart taraxerone in the sample was an indication of dominant inputs from the study area vegetation and also reflect the oxidation and direct biological inputs. The accumulation of these compounds during low tide than high tide was due to sedimentation and oxidative process of the organic matter.
Occurance of Climate Change and its Effects on the Fishing Activities in the Coastal Region of Ondo State Nigeria (Published)
This paper establishes the occurrence of climate change and its effects on the day to day activities of the artisanal fisherfolks in the coastal region of Ondo State, Nigeria. The current knowledge of the artisanal fisherfolks on climate change was also assessed. Data for climate variables in the study area were got from Explore Satellite and reanalyzed. Extractions of all meteorological variables of interest were done using Linux / Ferret. This model was used to establish the fact that climate change has occurred in the coastal region of Ondo State, Nigeria. Kruskal Wallis test was also used, to assess the current knowledge of the artisanal fisherfolks on climate change. There was a noticeable cycle of annual rainfall amount but the steepness of such cycles increased beginning from 1979. Between 1902 and 1910 were years below average temperature followed by above average temperature distribution between in 2003 and 2009. This confirmed the fact that climate change has occurred in the coastal region of Ondo state, Nigeria. It was observed that the fisherfolks in the study area had various inadvertent and intentional adaptation strategies adopted for maximum fish production/catch.