Sedentary Lifestyle Prevalence among Workers in Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization in Kenya (Published)
People who spend too much time being sedentary are more likely to develop musculoskeletal disorders and other non- communicable diseases (NCDs). This health risk is likely to increase with increasing sedentary office setting and lifestyle. In Kenya, the sedentary lifestyle is on the increase while its baseline data has not been documented appropriately. This study investigated sedentary lifestyle prevalence among workers in seven selected institutes within Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO). The study concentrated on a population of 820 office and laboratory workers in seven KALRO institutes located in the Nairobi Metropolitan. The sample size (n= 96), was calculated using Daniel’s formula for prevalence studies. A Cross-sectional survey was employed on respondents and objective questionnaires administered. Waist to height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) was measured using a stretch resistant tape in accordance with WHO, 2008 guidelines. The WHtR (> 0.5) revealed that prevalence of overweight and central obesity was high in females, (92.6%) than in males (88%) while (90.38%) was for combined gender. The WHtR increased with income, (p = 0.516) and had an influence on ailments such as fatigue and muscle soreness after a day’s work (p=0.657). Factors influencing sedentary lifestyle most of which were outside the workplace setting were: use of motorized transport (73%) which increased with earnings and social economic status p<0.05 with no output for respondents earning less than Kenya shillings 15,000; screen time (64.7%); reliance on house help for domestic chores (56.5%) and occupational (78.4%) with p>0.5 for sitting for office and laboratory workers. The study concluded that there was a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle among KALRO employees in the selected institutes. These findings provide a basis for management in KALRO to encourage physical activity among its workers by intervening at individual, environmental and policy level.
Investigation of factors related to Body Mass Index Underweight, Overweight and Obesity prevalence among university students (Published)
The purpose of this study is to examine student body mass and categories it into a grid whether they are underweight, normal body weight, obese or extremely obese. This study was carried out to first year Physical Education University student in Zambezi region of Namibia. A total number of 208 students 46.6% (n = 97) female participants and 53.3% (n =111) male participants, between the ages range of 18 – 37 partook in this study. The data of the study were gathered with the “Student Body Mass Index calculation form” Bathroom scale with 0.1 sensitivity and a static vertical measuring tape.According to the results of current study; (n =26) 12, 5% of university students were found to be underweight, (n = 61) 29,3% were found to have normal bodyweight, (n = 106) 51% were found to be overweight and (n = 15) 7.2% were found to be obese. Although the frequency of being underweight, overweight and obese show higher scores in female participants compared to male. Despite female dominance in 3 BMI grids, male participants scored higher records under normal bodyweight than female by 41% over female’s 21%. Overweight and obese results in all genders are a severe risk to student’s health.
The Economic Burden of the Obesity in Brazil (Published)
Almost one in two people in Brazil is currently obese. Obesity in adults reduces life expectancy, increases health care costs, decreases work performance, and consequently, decreases the GDP. Therefore, we addressed the economic significance of obesity in Brazil. The Brazilian Government has made some policies to promote healthy lifestyles to challenge this international public health dilemma. The article evaluated policies that could significantly improve public health outcomes. Discussion and future research compile the present study.
Citation: Karina Contis Costa, Murillo de Oliveira Dias, Raphael de Oliveira Albergarias Lopes, Jorge Cardoso (2021) The Economic Burden of the Obesity in Brazil, European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research , Vol.9, No.4, pp.35-47,
Obesity is a rising trend worldwide; however, in the KSA its increasing rates are alarming particularly for women. Existing research is limited to quantitative analyses which rely on quantifiable data and which don’t explore the excessive weight in married women. The proposed qualitative study would highlight the causes behind this rising trend in obesity in females in the KSA and explore the relationship of the different causes to obesity and try to establish the measures which would change this trend.
Obesity is an Eating Disorder Not a Disease (Published)
Blood group diet research is gaining popularity among scientists and they are exploring new reasons to preferences of diet in four blood group type individuals. The concept of balanced diet and nutrition seems not to be working properly because diseases like obesity, diabetes, CVD, and cancer are causing millions of deaths each year in the world. Many scientists still did not pay any attention to the strong correlation between blood group diet and diseases except few in the world. There are strong evidences that these four blood group individuals have different taste buds which are the bases for selection of foods which ultimately become nutrition of that individual. A very nutritious food if not selected by a person having a particular blood group will provide no any nutrition to that particular individual. Blood group “A” has bland, “B” has sweet, “O” has saltish, and “AB” has bitter & astringent taste buds. Distribution of blood group types in different regions of the world indicates that there are strong variations in blood group diet because all four blood group types have four different types of tissues (A- nervous, B-epithelial, O-muscular and AB-connective). Macro and micronutrients are also specific to these blood group types (A-Zinc & Magnesium, B-Iron, O-Iodine and AB need additional calcium). Pakistan has blood groups population as “B” 36%, “O” 33%, “A” 21%, and “AB” 9%. USDA Diet pyramids were designed to guide about the diet of Human beings living in different regions of the world. But these diet pyramids are no more valid because of the reason that they are nutritionally and biochemically unsound, but still in many countries these pyramids are being used for the assessment of diet without any positive effects. A diet pyramid based on blood groups is designed to guide about the diet of individuals based on blood groups. Diet charts formulated for four blood group types are based on scientific correlation to prevent diseases and remain healthy.
The bioenteric balloon (BIB) or spatzs ballon are widely applied in the management of obesity. This is a report on the efficacy and safety of Ballon device in the first 106 cases. Patients referred for Balloon between 2015 till 2016 were evaluated retrospectively. Balloon was inserted for 6 months according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In 106 cases, 22 cases were males (16.8%) and 84 cases were females (83.2%), mean age 33.2 (±10.44) years, mean BMI 35.9 (±4.65) kg/m2. None of the patients exhibited balloon migration or perforation. The balloon was removed upon request in 3 patients due to exaggerated intolerance (2.9%). The mean weight loss was 15.5 kg (±4.67), mean EWL 64.12% (±23.48%). The mean BMI at extraction was 29.7 kg/m2 (±4.48) with a BMI loss of 6.2 kg/m2 (±2.0). 87 patients (88.7%) achieved target EWL (32.1% of excess weight), and 87 patients lost >12.2% of their basal weight (88.7%). 70 patients achieved BMI loss >5.7 kg/m2 (71.4%). BIB and spatzs balloon achieves acceptable success with minimal complications. In further long term, prospective studies are needed to evaluate obesity related comorbidities when using such modality and to compare it to other available devices.
Objective: Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are widely spread and were associated with chronic diseases. The goal of our study is to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in obese individuals and its association with the metabolic parameter. Method:A cross sectional study of individuals attending diet center located in Taif, Saudi Arabia, conducted between October 2015 and June 2016. We included those with BMI >25 and have vitamin D level. Vitamin D ≤ 20 ng/ml was considered to be deficient. Result:A total of 148 participants were enrolled with a mean age of 36 years, mainly female and married .The mean weight was 95.9 kg, mean BMI of 37.3 Kg/m2, 94.6% were obese, and the mean vitamin D level was 15.7. Compared to those who are vitamin D sufficient ,those who are deficient were more likely to have class III obesity (p 0.891), exercise <150 min per week (p 0.453), have asthma (P 0.149), have higher mean total cholesterol level (p 0.310) and higher mean fasting blood glucose (p 0.632). Partial correlation adjusting for age, gender, exercise, diabetes, and hypertension showed non-significant negative correlation between vitamin D and BMI (r -.121, p0.202), vitamin D and cholesterol (r -.039, p 0.678) and vitamin D and blood glucose (r -.122, p 0.198).Conclusion: Non-significant negative correlation was found between BMI and vitamin D level, the average vitamin D level in overweight group was 21 ng/ml while the average in obese class 3 was 15 ng/ml.
Weight Loss by Intragastric Balloon (Published)
Introduction: The bioenteric balloon (BIB) or spatzs ballon are widely applied in the management of obesity.Aim of the work: This is a report on the efficacy and safety of Ballon device in the first 101 cases.Methods: Patients referred for Balloon between 2014 till 2015 were evaluatedretrospectively. Balloon was inserted for 6 months according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: In 101 cases, 17 cases were males (16.8%) and 84 cases were females (83.2%), mean age 33.2 (±10.44) years, mean BMI 35.9 (±4.65) kg/m2. None of the patients exhibitedballoon migration or perforation. The balloon was removed upon request in 3 patients dueto exaggerated intolerance (2.9%). The mean weight loss was 15.5 kg (±4.67), mean EWL 64.12% (±23.48%). The mean BMI at extraction was 29.7 kg/m2 (±4.48) with a BMI loss of 6.2 kg/m2 (±2.0). 87 patients (88.7%) achieved target EWL (32.1% of excess weight), and 87 patients lost >12.2% of their basal weight (88.7%). 70 patients achieved BMI loss >5.7 kg/m2 (71.4%). Conclusion: BIB and spatzs balloon achieves acceptable success with minimal complications. In further long term, prospective studies are needed to evaluate obesity related comorbidities when using such modality and to compare it to other available devices.
The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing and obesity has reaching epidemic proportions. The aim was to investigate whether obesity influences the kidney stone forming. 421 patients, 31.6% women and 41.6% men were overweight (OV), and 25% and 9.6% were obese (OB), respectively. Serum uric acid increased significantly OB women(p<0.001), differences between gender(p<0.001). Creatinine increased in OB men(p<0.05), and men respect to women(p < 0.001), urea between OB women and men(p<0.05). PTH increased in OB women(p<0.05). Urinary excretion phosphorus(p<0.05), uric acid(p<0.01) increased in OB women. Creatinine clearance was higher in OB both sexes(p<0.05), and differences compared women to men(p<0.001). BMI was positively correlated with serum uric acid, sodium, potassium and PTH in both sexes and urinary uric acid excretion, calcium, sodium, phosphate in women and oxalic acid in both sexes. Glomerular filtration rate, urine specific gravity and pH were inversely related to BMI. Uric acid is main stone constituent in obese women(86.36%) and overweight men(86.66%). In conclusion, higher body weight could be associated with an increased risk of renal stone forming and some metabolic gender differences were found.
The obesity has become a serious problem of public health. It´s associated to an increase of the general morbid-mortality and it´s considered a risk factor of different illnesses. The bariatric surgery is one of the pillars in the obesity treatments; its main objective is the control of the weight, to reduce the comorbidities and in this way to improve the life quality and patients’ survival.