Tag Archives: Nutrition

Effect of Domestic Processing Method on the Proximate and Anti-Nutritional Components of Cnidoscolus Aconitifolius Leaf. (Published)

The effect of domestic processing method on the proximate and anti-nutritional content of the leaf of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius was properly investigated using standard method. The proximate result shows that there were high content of ash, protein, fibre, and carbohydrate, with ranges of 2.20±0.6-2.67±0.5, 2.91±3.0-3.60±1.0, 1.43±0.1-2.50±0.1 and 8.79±2.6-9.65±1.6 respectively and fat between 78.33±0.10-86.30±0.28. Little concentrations of phytate, oxalate and tannin, with ranges of 0.22 ± 0.01% – 0.35% ± 0.01%, 0.14 ± 0.02% – 0.41 ± 0.09% and 1.64 ± 0.03% – 1.94 ± 0.02% were observed. The concentrations of these anti-nutrients were controlled by the treatment process. This result proves that Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves has highly rich nutrients and therefore should be recommended for used as food condiments and feeds for farm animals. The treatment processes affected to a great extent the concentration of the anti-nutritional components of Cnidoscolusa conitifolius leaves.

Keywords: Anti-Nutrition, Cnidoscolusa Conitifolius., Domestic Processing Methods, Nutrition, Proximate

Evaluation of Some Nutritional Properties of Water – Yam (Dioscorea Alata) Cultivars in Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)

The objective of this study is to evaluate some nutritional properties of fourteen water yam (D. alata) cultivars. Samples collected were subjected to proximate analysis expressed in percentage and mg/100g. The investigation revealed that moisture content ranged from 76.08% to 55.10% with a mean value of  63.03%,  ash from 3.54% to 0.34% and mean result  1.81%, protein  from 9.87% to 4.54%, while the mean 7.89%, lipid from 1.86% to 0.86% with an average of  1.46%, fibre  from  4.64% to 1.66% and mean 2.60%, dry matter from  44.90%  to 23..92% and mean  36.97%, carbohydrate from 88.22mg/100g to 80.71mg/100g, average value of 86.17mg/100g, calcium  from 44.56mg/100g to 16.48mg/100g  and mean  22.67mg/100g, magnesium (Mg) from 13.80mg /100g to 8.84 mg/100g and mean 10.83mg, sodium(Na) from 27.78mg/100g to 8.76mg/100g, mean value 14.07mg/100g, potassium (K) from 14.67mg/100g to 4.85mg/100g, average 8.79mg/100g, iron (Fe)  from 3.48mg/100g to 0.36 mg/100g, average 1.08mg/100g, manganese (Mn) from 0.546 mg/100g to 0.256mg/100g average 0.36mg/100g, copper (Cu) from 0.45mg/100g to 0.14mg/100g, mean value 0.25mg/100g, zinc (Zn) from 0.75mg/100g to 0.33mg/100g, average value 0.44mg/100g, and for phosphorus (P)  from 0.54mg/100g to 0.32mg/100g,  mean level 0.41mg/100g respectively of all the cultivars evaluated.  These results are unique to the individual cultivars, so the average values are only representing the number of cultivars investigated in the statistical measure.

Keywords: Cultivars, Dioscorea Alata, Food Crop Production, Nutrition, Water Yam

Effects of Nutrition Education among Pregnant Women using Fruits and Vegetables for the achievement of MDG5 in Odogbolu LGA, Ogun State (Published)

Background: Nutrition education being a component of health education is propitious to create awareness on how to source, prepare, combine and use food resources for promoting good health among all groups of human beings; especially pregnant women who need adequate nutrition for their physiological needs and improve the health of both the mother and fetus.  Studies have suggested that women have low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a framework globally agreed for measuring development, progress, and poverty reduction through focusing efforts on achieving significant measureable improvement in people’s lives. One of the components of MDG5 is nutrition in pregnancy; this component is the main focus of this study. Method: a quasi-experimental study for quantitative method adopting pre-and post test control experimental analysis was used while 194 pregnant women were purposively selected from 11 randomly selected antenatal clinics in Odogbolu local government area to participate. The nutrition intervention was for 3 months. FGD together with structured-validated questionnaire administered before and after the intervention were used to collect data. ANCOVA was used to test the two hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level.Result: There were significant effects of the intervention on the knowledge (F (2.174) = 1554.466, P <.05) and attitude (F (2.134) = 19.866, P <.05) of the women on fruits and vegetables consumption. The findings revealed a positive effect of the intervention; the participants were relatively aware of the importance of fruit and vegetables consumption in pregnancy after the intervention. Conclusion: The nutrition education intervention appears to have changed the attitude of pregnant women after the post test evaluation. Pregnant women apparently consumed more fruits and vegetables than they were doing before the intervention. Therefore, intensive health education should continuously be given to pregnant women on the value of fruit and vegetable.

Keywords: Education, Intervention, Nutrition, Pregnant Women, Vegetables

An Assessment of Undergraduates’ Nutrition Awareness Level on the Scourge of Cancer as a Current Devastating Phenomenon in Nigeria (Published)

The prevalence of cancer continues to increase in Nigeria. The factors that appear to be most responsible are poor nutrition and sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, this study examined the undergraduates’ nutrition awareness level on the scourge of cancer as a current devastating phenomenon in Nigeria. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study. A total of 600 undergraduates were selected through stratified and random sampling techniques from 3 universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire and pilot-tested was used to collect relevant data from the respondents. The data gathered from the study were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that Nigerian undergraduates are not well informed on the importance of nutrition in the prevention of cancer. Also, socio-personal characteristics such as gender, discipline, and school type significantly did not influence on how informed the undergraduate students are on disease prevention and making adequate food choices. In view of the outcome of the findings in this study, it is recommended that public health education be intensified to promote people’s awareness of the consequences of poor nutrition and sedentary lifestyle; and making healthy food choices.

Keywords: Cancer, Nutrition, Undergraduates, awareness

The Challenge of Infrastructure Development on Preservation of Perishable Horticultural Produce for Sustained Urban Food Nutrition in Metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria (Published)

Perishable horticultural crops as fruits and vegetables – rich vitamins, protein, minerals and fiber contents – contribute a lot to human diet. Though Nigeria produces enormous quantity of these produce, shortages in consumption and nutrition exists due to losses in the production value chain system. This is mainly attributed to lack of the development of an efficient management technique in the handling, transporting and storage systems; with attendant consequences on urban food and nutrition security in a rapidly urbanizing Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that this study was undertaken to identify the problems of handling technologies that would result in enhanced shelf-life of these commodities and healthier urban nutrition in metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria; in 2010. Structured questionnaires and schedule interviews were used to randomly collect primary and secondary data. This was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistical analytical tools. Results indicated that the major factors affecting the storage quality of fruits and vegetables are bad roads (40%); improper production, handling and transportation (33. 33%) system; harsh weather (20%); while insect pest infestation (6.67%) was least. Baskets and sacks are still used as the predominant means of storage of produce (35% and 32% respectively). Indeed, a lot of losses are recorded due to bad roads at harvest. Incidentally, the refrigerating system, the most efficient means of preservation is not predominantly used because of its exorbitant cost; and high tariffs on electricity. Where cost is affordable, power supply is epileptic due to an underdeveloped power sector. It is concluded that the intractable challenge of lack of infrastructure poses a major developmental setback in Nigeria. Indeed, this is a key challenge against the evolvement of a sustainable post-harvest management system; as well as a drawback on the fight against hunger, malnutrition and poverty – foremost objective of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s). Consequently, there is an imperative need for massive investment in infrastructural and human capital development. Without doubt, in Nigeria today, post-harvest and infrastructural management of the food production chain remains a major challenge.

Keywords: Development, Horticulture, Infrastructure, Nutrition, Perishables, Post-Harvest, Security, Sustainable

Growth and Nutritional Qualities of Three Ocimum Species As Affected By Methods of Propagation (Published)

Ocimum species are well known for their medicinal values and this have caused increase in their demand by individual and many pharmaceutical industries. In order to meet the demand for this plant species three different Ocimum species (Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum americanum) were propagated by different methods (stem cutting and seed) and were evaluated for their morphometric characters after 6 six and eight weeks. The chlorophyll content, proximate composition and phytochemicals content of the plants were also determined. The result obtained showed that Ocimum species propagated through stem performed better than the seeds. The results also revealed that there were strong correlation between the plants height and other morphometric characters. Also, the Ocimum species propagated by seed contained more phytochemicals than those propagated by stem. However, O. gratissimum propagated by stem cutting appeared to perform better than the other two Ocimum species in term of plant height, leaf number, stem girth and number of branches.

Keywords: Growth, Nutrition, Ocimum, Propagation

IMPACT OF MICRO-CREDITS ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN MALAWI (Published)

Almost 20 years have passed since micro-credit programs have been introduced in Malawi. Various reports had been written, but almost none has analyzed the link between micro-credit and nutritional status of children. This paper, therefore, focused at investigating the role of income obtained from micro-enterprises in improving nutritional status of children in Malawi. A comprehensive cross-sectional study collected data on current levels of knowledge, attitude and practice of health in the households, and measured levels of different health indices (anthropometry, hematology, biochemistry, and parasitology) in the rural households in 2011/12. Based on recent data, this research paper, however, focused on comparing micro-credit participants and non-participants through investigating the impact of income obtained from micro-enterprises in improving nutritional status of children in Malawi. Using stratified random sampling, a total of 630 under-five children were identified from all 471 households. Of these, 251 households ran micro-enterprises funded by rural lending institutions, and 220 did not run micro-enterprises; and 353 and 277 under-five children were identified in the households, respectively. Children under the age of 5 years constitute approximately 17.2% of the Malawian population (MDHS, 2010), and in this research under-fives constitute 15% and 11.8% of the total 2350 persons in the 471 households surveyed with and without microenterprises, respectively.Incomes obtained from micro-enterprises ran through micro-credits had positive but not significant impact on nutritional status of under-five children through additional expenditure on food items and/or medical provisions, other things being held constant. Possibly, the positive implications were through increased total income of households with micro-enterprises compared to those households without micro-enterprises, as well as, increased food and non-food expenditures per month for those households with micro-enterprises. Neither children from households with micro-enterprises nor children from households without micro-enterprises were better off on measurements of children nutrition status. However, children in households with micro-enterprises had significantly less sick days per month than those households without micro-enterprises. The difference is attributed mostly due to the extra income that was obtained from the micro-enterprises, and helped those households to buy medications for their children. Involvement of women and men in owning and managing micro-enterprises funded by micro finance institutions has positive effects on total household income, and on food and non-food expenditures. But, anthropometric measurements have shown no significant differences in nutritional status of children between rural households with and without micro-enterprises in Malawi. The continued lack of access and inadequate credit (or micro-finance) for the resource poor rural households to run meaningful business have hardly helped the household to abate the grinding poverty including malnutrition among their children in Malawi.42-56

Keywords: Micro-Credits, Micro-Enterprise, Morbidity, Nutrition, Under-Five Children

IMPACT OF MICRO-CREDITS ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN MALAWI (Review Completed - Accepted)

Almost 20 years have passed since micro-credit programs have been introduced in Malawi. Various reports had been written, but almost none has analyzed the link between micro-credit and nutritional status of children. This paper, therefore, focused at investigating the role of income obtained from micro-enterprises in improving nutritional status of children in Malawi.

 

A comprehensive cross-sectional study collected data on current levels of knowledge, attitude and practice of  health in the households, and measured levels of different health indices (anthropometry, hematology, biochemistry, and parasitology) in the rural households in 2004/05  and 2010/11.  Based on recent data, this research paper, however, focused on comparing micro-credit participants and non-participants through investigating the impact of income obtained from micro-enterprises in improving nutritional status of children in Malawi.

 

Using stratified random sampling, a total of 630 under-five children were identified from all 471 households. Of these, 251 households ran micro-enterprises funded by rural lending institutions, and 220 did not run micro-enterprises; and 353 and 277 under-five children were identified in the households, respectively. Children under the age of 5 years constitute approximately 17.2% of the Malawian population (MDHS, 2010), and in this research under-fives constitute 15% and 11.8% of the total 2350 persons in the 471 households surveyed with and without microenterprises, respectively.

 

Incomes obtained from micro-enterprises ran through micro-credits had positive but not significant impact on nutritional status of under-five children through additional expenditure on food items and/or medical provisions, other things being held constant. Possibly, the positive implications were through increased total income of households with micro-enterprises compared to those households without micro-enterprises, as well as, increased food and non-food expenditures per month for those households with micro-enterprises. Neither children from households with micro-enterprises nor children from households without micro-enterprises were better off on measurements of children nutrition status. However, children in households with micro-enterprises had significantly less sick days per month than those households without micro-enterprises. The difference is attributed mostly due to the extra income that was obtained from the micro-enterprises, and helped those households to buy medications for their children.

 

Involvement of women and men in owning and managing micro-enterprises funded by micro finance institutions has positive effects on total household income, and on food and non-food expenditures. But, anthropometric measurements have shown no significant differences in nutritional status of children between rural households with and without micro-enterprises in Malawi. The continued lack of access and inadequate credit (or micro-finance) for the resource poor rural households to run meaningful business have hardly helped the household to abate the grinding poverty including malnutrition among their children in Malawi

Keywords: Micro-Credits, Micro-Enterprise, Morbidity, Nutrition, Under-Five Children