Nutrient Composition of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), Grown on Rubber Wood Sawdust in Calabar, Nigeria, and the Nutrient Variability Between Harvest Times. (Published)
Oyster Mushroom (OM) is among over forty (40) species of mushrooms which belong to the genus Pleurotus ostreatus. Little interest has been shown in the cultivation of Oyster mushrooms Nigeria until recently. The aim of this study was to cultivate Oyster mushrooms on rubber wood sawdust as base substrate, and to evaluate the nutrient composition in the first harvest (15th day) and final harvest (34thday). At harvests, phytochemicals including, phenolics, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids, and antinutrients including, tannates, cyanates, oxalates and phytates were detected in the mushrooms. The proximate nutrient composition gave 44.64±0.61mg/100g of total carbohydrate content and a protein content of 21.71±1.09mg/100g. Fat (4.52±0.15mg/100g) and fibre (11.42±1.05mg/100g) were quantified. These values were not significantly different between the 1st and 2nd harvests. The Energy value was 308.08±5.44 Kcal/100g and 316.01±4.75 Kcal/100g for the 1st and 2nd harvests respectively. Vitamins detected included, Vitamin A (81.22±3.51 IU); Vitamin C (27.88±0.05mg/100g); Vitamin D (2.92 ± 0.25mg/100g); Vitamin E (24.61 ± 0.60 mg/100g); Pantothenic acid (89.09±5.72mg/100g); Niacin (27.01±3.75mg/100g) and significant (p<0.05) concentrations of Vitamins B1, B2, B6 and Folic acid. Mineral elements detected in the Oyster Mushroom included, Fe (56.44±2.7mg/100g); Zn (3.44±0.95mg/100g); Se (5.0±0.02µg/100g); Mn (1.55±0.42mg/100g); P (922.05±10.12mg/100g); Mg (15.45±1.41mg/100g) and Cu (0.71±0.22mg/100g). The core electrolyte concentrations detected include, Na (13.21±1.22 mg/100g); K (1085.09±24.08 mg/100g); Ca (32.17±3.77 mg/100g) and chloride (17.44±3.25 mg/100g). The nutrient composition of the mushroom confirms the claims that Oyster mushroom may be classified as a functional food, because it provides health benefits to all ages. We conclude that rubber wood saw dust proved an excellent base substrate for growing Oyster Mushroom in commercial scale, and the quality of Oyster mushroom harvested met national regulatory standards, and international quality standards (EU specified limits) especially with respect to heavy metals contamination, and that CRC should commercialize their product outside the borders of Nigeria.
Obesity is an Eating Disorder Not a Disease (Published)
Blood group diet research is gaining popularity among scientists and they are exploring new reasons to preferences of diet in four blood group type individuals. The concept of balanced diet and nutrition seems not to be working properly because diseases like obesity, diabetes, CVD, and cancer are causing millions of deaths each year in the world. Many scientists still did not pay any attention to the strong correlation between blood group diet and diseases except few in the world. There are strong evidences that these four blood group individuals have different taste buds which are the bases for selection of foods which ultimately become nutrition of that individual. A very nutritious food if not selected by a person having a particular blood group will provide no any nutrition to that particular individual. Blood group “A” has bland, “B” has sweet, “O” has saltish, and “AB” has bitter & astringent taste buds. Distribution of blood group types in different regions of the world indicates that there are strong variations in blood group diet because all four blood group types have four different types of tissues (A- nervous, B-epithelial, O-muscular and AB-connective). Macro and micronutrients are also specific to these blood group types (A-Zinc & Magnesium, B-Iron, O-Iodine and AB need additional calcium). Pakistan has blood groups population as “B” 36%, “O” 33%, “A” 21%, and “AB” 9%. USDA Diet pyramids were designed to guide about the diet of Human beings living in different regions of the world. But these diet pyramids are no more valid because of the reason that they are nutritionally and biochemically unsound, but still in many countries these pyramids are being used for the assessment of diet without any positive effects. A diet pyramid based on blood groups is designed to guide about the diet of individuals based on blood groups. Diet charts formulated for four blood group types are based on scientific correlation to prevent diseases and remain healthy.
Appraisal of Some Chemical Elements of Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars in Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)
We are aware that many studies had been carried out in plantain research but less attention has been paid to individual characteristics of the nutrient composition in cultivars. A knowledge about specific traits in a cultivar will help to address issues concerning dieticians, nutritionists (human and animals), medical questions, pharmaceutical industries and others to effectively utilize the findings in their various disciplines. Appraisal of ten plantains(Musa paradisiaca) cultivars was carried out in Wilberforce Island, 2016, Bayelsa State,Nigeria. Materials were collected from Bayelsa State and Rivers State all in Nigeria. Crops were harvested late 2017 and samples were collected randomly and were subjected to proximate (%) and mineral nutrient analyses (mg/100g). Our records showed that moisture content in peels and food ranged from 73.825% Taraipe to 86.67% Indouberiba with a mean value of 81.6404% while in food it ranged from 53.8% Oyobaberiba to 78.64% Kalaasinberiba with an average value of 68.98%.Percentage ash content in peels swayed from 1,48% Keniipe to 2,124% Opuaasinberiba and the mean value is 1.65%, while that of the food ranged from 1,36% Keniipe to 2,246% Opuasinberiba with average content 1.806%.The values of percent protein in peels ranged from 3.87% Kalaasinberiba to 5.56% Agalaberiba and mean value 4,557%, that of food from 6.482% Sorainipe to 8,84% Agalaberiba with an average level of 7.661%. Lipid content in peels and food ranged from 1.488% Opuasinberiba to 3,28% Agalaberiba in peels and 1.426% Nianipe to 2.86% Agalaberiba in food with subsequent mean values of 2.1249% and 1.9971%.Percent composition of NFE in peels and food ranged from 86.03% Agalaberiba to 88.939% Taraipe and 0% Indouberibato 86.42% Niaipe with averages 88.1741% and 76.7284%. Calcium content in peels and food ranged from 16.64mg/100g Opoasinberiba to 34.72 mg/100g Agalaberibaand14.92mg/100g Opuasinberiba to 30.84mg/100g Keniipe with mean values of 23.721mg/100g and 22.092mg/100g.Magnesium (Mg) content in peels and food varied from 7.54mg/100g Keniipe to 10.6mg/100g Agalaberiba and 5.78mg/100g Maiipe to 8.74mg/100g Agalaberiba, while their mean values are 8.871mg/100g and 7.118mg/100g. Sodium (Na) content (mg/100g) in peels and food ranged from 10.66mg/100g Soranipe to 19.9mg/100g Agalaberiba and 8.46mg/100g Sorainipe to 17.84mg/100g Oyobaberiba with mean values of 14.414mg/100g and 12,217mg/100g.Potassium (K) content (mg/100g) in peels and food in ranged from 14.36mg/100g Oyobaberiba to 16.76mg/100g Indouberiba and 10.6mg/100g Keniipe to13.6mg/100g Sorainipe having mean values of 15.623mg/100g and 12.502mg/100g.Iron (Fe) content (mg/100g) in peels and food of plantain cultivars varied from 0.168mg/100 Indouberiba to 0.74mg/100gKeniipe and 0.287mg/100g Indouberiba to 0.725mg/100g Keniipe with average values of 0.4065mg/100g and 0.4687mg/100g. Manganese (Mn) of content in peels and food swayed from 0.138mg/100g Indouberiba to 0.216mg/100g Agalaberiba and 0.194mg/100g Taraipe to 0.242mg/100g Agalaberiba, while their mean values are 0.1749mg/100g and 0.2176mg/100g respectively.Copper (Cu) content (mg/100g) in peels and food ranged from 0.02038mg/100g Indoubariba to 0.092mg/100g Keniipe and 0.0342mg/100g Nianipe to 0.087mg/100g Keniipe with average values of 0.05054mg/100g and 0.0545mg/100g.Zinc (Zn) content (mg/100g) in peels and food oscillated from 0.106mg/100g Indouberba to 0.426mg/100g Keniipe and 0.136mg/100g Opuasinberiba to 0.42mg/100g Keniipe and means 0.2255mg/100g and 0. 2262mg/100g.Phosphorous (P) content (mg/100g) in values varied from 0.227mg/100g Indouberiba to 0.486mg/100g Agalaberiba and 0.354mg/100g Indouberiba to 0.542mg/100g Sorainipe with average values of 0.3214mg/100g and 0.424mg/100g.