Tag Archives: Nutrient Composition

Comparative Studies of the Nutritional Composition of Some Insect Orders (Published)

Insects are nutrient packed food resources for mankind and livestock. Food profile of Four (4) insects belonging to the Order; Lepidoptera (Cirina forda Westwood), Blattodea (Periplanata americana L), Coleoptera (Rhynchophorus phoenicis F) and Orthoptera (Zonocerus variegatus L) were analyzed according to standard measures and the results obtained showed that C. forda had the highest protein content (74.56%). The protein content of Z. variegatus was 69.52% while P. americana had 70.58% and the least value of 24.58% was obtained in R. phoenicis. Fat content was highest in R. phoenicis (46.56%) while in Z. variegatus, the value obtained was (16.24%). However, the values obtained in C. forda (8.77%) and P. americana (8.53%) compares favourably.  Ash content was low in Z. variegatus (3.21%) and P. americana (3.24%) while the values obtained in R. phoenicis (6.21%) and C. forda (5.32%) compares favourably. The fibre content of R. phoenicis was the highest (7.55%) while the least value was obtained in Z. variegatus (2.42%). The values of carbohydrate in the insects are P. americana (9.44%), R. phoenicis (6.59%), Z. variegatus (3.84%) and C. forda (3.70%) respectively. Moisture content was highest in R. phoenicis (8.53%) while the values obtained in other study insects compared favourably. All the insects are good sources of mineral salts among which are Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Phosphorus. Copper was not detected in any of the insects. The highest value of iron (9.25 mg/100g) was obtained in R. phoenicis while the least value was obtained in P. americana (5.68 mg/100g). Of all the insects sampled, R. phoenicis obtained the highest values in all the minerals. The result shows that all the minerals investigated are consistently higher in R. phoenicis than in all other insects. All the insects had anti-nutrients such as tannin, polyphenol, phytate, oxalate, saponin, alkaloids and flavonoids at tolerant quantities.

Keywords: Arthropods, Insects, Minerals, Nutrient Composition, Periplaneta Americana, Tannin

Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Yield, Lycopene and Some Minerals in Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill) Fruit. (Published)

Lycopene, an antioxidant contained in tomatoes, which is found to reduce the risk of cancer can be affected by management practices. A field experiment was carried out behind Recreational Centre of Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R&T), Moor Plantation, Ibadan (latitude 7o22’N and longitude 3o50’SE). The experiment was done during the rainy season of 2014 between May and July. Effectiveness of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the growth, yield and nutrient composition of tomato were compared in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments which include sole application each of NPK and Organic fertilizer, there complimentary application and the control replicated three times. Tomato premier (variety UC-82-B) was planted at 50 cm × 50 cm at 1 seedling per stand. The Aleshinloye Compost (Grade B) organic fertilizer was applied two weeks before transplanting at 100 kgN/ha at the appropriate plots while NPK 15:15:15 was applied 2 weeks after transplanting at 100kgN/ha.  Parameters assessed were plant height (cm), number of leaves, number of branches, stem girth (mm) while the yield parameters observed were days to 50 % flowering, number of flowers/plot, number of flowers aborted, number of rotten fruits/plot, number of fruits/plot and fruit weight (g). Nutrient component determined in the laboratory were lycopene, potassium and sodium. The fertilizer sources did not affect the growth of tomato but were better than the control plots. At 8 weeks after transplanting (8 WAT), NPK 15:15:15 treated plant had more flower abortion of 34.7 than the lowest flower abortion of 24.67 from the control plots. NPK 15:15:15 at 100 kgN/ha gave the highest fruit yield of 18.60 t/ha while the lowest yield (4.07 t/ha) was obtained from the control plots. Highest value of lycopene content of 2.65 % was found in plots supplied with NPK but is comparable with the control plot but higher than other sources. Potassium content of 20.80 % was lowest in NPK plots while potassium accumulation of 23.20% was highest in the control but not different statistically from each other. Sodium content had highest percentage in untreated plot with 0.43 % and sodium ion was lowest in NPK + organic treated plot which have the value of 0.31%.

Keywords: Fertilizer, Lycopene, Nutrient Composition, Tomato, Yield

NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND SOME ANTI-NUTRITIONAL FACTORS OF THREE EDIBLE MUSHROOM SPECIES IN SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA (Published)

Studies on nutritional composition and some anti-nutritional factors of three edible mushroom species in South Eastern Nigeria such as Termitomyces sp, Russula sp and Pleutotus tuber regium was carried out. Standard analytical methods were used to obtain the proximate composition, mineral composition, vitamin C content anti-nutritional factors (phytin, hydrocyanide, and tannin). The moisture content was highest in the Russula sp (90.2%) and lowest in the Pleutorus tuber regium (60.7%). On the average the crude protein was 41.7%, 30.3% and 15.4% on dry mass basis (dmb) for Termitomyces sp, Russula sp and Pleutorus tuber regium respectively, while the values for crude fibre were 5%, 17.9% and 13.5 respectively. Carbohydrate content ranged from30.2 to 55% while fat content ranged from 3.6% to 7.8% (dmb). Mineral composition indicated appreciable amounts of iron 2093.3 ppm in T. robustus and Rusular 1830.0 ppm and 2001.6 ppm respectively. Other mineral elements such as potasium and phosphorus were also appreciable. The least in all the species examined was Calcium. Vitamin C content was very low (0.01- 0.04 %) in all the species. Phytic acid content ranged from 0.94 – 0.75mg/100g, Hydrocyanic acid from 0.04 – 1.0mg/100g, and tannin was from 0.04 to 0.13 which is quite low to give adverse effect.

Keywords: Antinutrients, Nutrient Composition, South Eastern Nigeria., local edible Mushrooms

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZER ON THE YIELD AND NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF JUTE MALLOW (Published)

Soil fertilization influences crop yield and nutrient composition of the leafy vegetable. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the yield and nutrient composition of Jute Mallow. The treatment consists of eleven fertilizer applications (2.5t/ha OBF, 5.0t/ha OBF, 2.5t/ha OBF +50kg NPK, 2.5t/ha OBF+75kg NPK, 2.5t/ha OBF+100kg NPK,5.0t/ha OBF+50kg NPK, 5.0t/ha OBF+ 75kg NPK,5.0t/ha OBF+100kg NPK,50kg NPK,75kg NPK,100kg NPK ) and a control. Jute seeds were sown into the pots at the rate of two plants per stand. The experiment was arranged in a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) with three replicates. Organic sunshine fertilizer was applied two weeks before planting to allow the fertilizer to mineralize in the soil for prompt absorption of nutrients after planting. Two weeks after planting, the supplementary application of inorganic fertilizer was carried out using compound fertilizer (N: P: K: Mg 12:12: 17: 2).The results demonstrated that at eight weeks after planting (8WAP), plant heights levelled-out across the treatments applied. There was significant difference(p<0.05) in the number of leaves per treatment but a comparable highest number of leaves was found in pots treated with 2.5t/ha OBF+50kg NPK and 5.0t/ha OBF +75kg NPK.Whereas the control pots had the least number of leaves. The effect of fertilizer application significantly influenced the nutrient composition of Jute leaf number, yield performance, plant height, and stem diameter. There was a positive correlation between fertilizer application, crop yield and nutrient composition of jute mallow.

Keywords: Fertilizer, Jute Mallow, Nutrient Composition

Effect of Organic and inorganic fertilizer on the yield and nutrient composition of jute Mallow (Review Completed - Accepted)

Soil fertilization influences crop yield and nutrient composition of the leafy vegetable. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the yield and nutrient composition of Jute Mallow. The treatment consists of eleven fertilizer applications (2.5t/ha OBF, 5.0t/ha OBF, 2.5t/ha OBF +50kg NPK, 2.5t/ha OBF+75kg NPK, 2.5t/ha OBF+100kg NPK,5.0t/ha OBF+50kg NPK, 5.0t/ha OBF+ 75kg NPK,5.0t/ha OBF+100kg NPK,50kg NPK,75kg NPK,100kg NPK ) and a control. Jute seeds were sown into the pots at the rate of two plants per stand. The experiment was arranged in a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) with three replicates. Organic sunshine fertilizer was applied two weeks before planting to allow the fertilizer to mineralize in the soil for prompt absorption of nutrients after planting. Two weeks after planting, the supplementary application of inorganic fertilizer was carried out using compound fertilizer (N: P: K: Mg 12:12: 17: 2).The results demonstrated that at eight weeks after planting (8WAP), plant heights levelled-out across the treatments applied. There was significant difference(p<0.05) in the  number of  leaves per treatment but a comparable highest number of leaves  was found in pots treated with 2.5t/ha OBF+50kg NPK and 5.0t/ha OBF +75kg NPK.Whereas the control pots had the least number of leaves. The effect of fertilizer application significantly influenced the nutrient composition of Jute leaf number, yield performance, plant height, and stem diameter. There was a positive correlation between fertilizer application, crop yield and nutrient

Keywords: Fertilizer, Jute Mallow, Nutrient Composition

Effect of Organic and inorganic fertilizer on the yield and nutrient composition of jute Mallow (Review Completed - Accepted)

Soil fertilization influences crop yield and nutrient composition of the leafy vegetable. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the yield and nutrient composition of Jute Mallow. The treatment consists of eleven fertilizer applications (2.5t/ha OBF, 5.0t/ha OBF, 2.5t/ha OBF +50kg NPK, 2.5t/ha OBF+75kg NPK, 2.5t/ha OBF+100kg NPK,5.0t/ha OBF+50kg NPK, 5.0t/ha OBF+ 75kg NPK,5.0t/ha OBF+100kg NPK,50kg NPK,75kg NPK,100kg NPK ) and a control. Jute seeds were sown into the pots at the rate of two plants per stand. The experiment was arranged in a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) with three replicates. Organic sunshine fertilizer was applied two weeks before planting to allow the fertilizer to mineralize in the soil for prompt absorption of nutrients after planting. Two weeks after planting, the supplementary application of inorganic fertilizer was carried out using compound fertilizer (N: P: K: Mg 12:12: 17: 2).The results demonstrated that at eight weeks after planting (8WAP), plant heights levelled-out across the treatments applied. There was significant difference(p<0.05) in the  number of  leaves per treatment but a comparable highest number of leaves  was found in pots treated with 2.5t/ha OBF+50kg NPK and 5.0t/ha OBF +75kg NPK.Whereas the control pots had the least number of leaves. The effect of fertilizer application significantly influenced the nutrient composition of Jute leaf number, yield performance, plant height, and stem diameter. There was a positive correlation between fertilizer application, crop yield and nutrient composition of jute mallow

Keywords: Fertilizer, Jute Mallow, Nutrient Composition