On Colonial Nostalgia Case Study: Algeria (Published)
The colonization of Algeria lasted for one hundred thirty-two years. The war that broke up on November 1, 1954, cost much blood, 1.5 million people killed. At this juncture, the colonized regarded Western colonialism, in general, French one, in particular as a system with undeniable damaging effects. In these recent years, however, there has been much talk in progress, both in the settler country and in the formerly colonized. This talk is about a presumed positive role. In other words, a new political discourse and a new literature aiming at justifying and sanctifying the role and the impact of colonialism is coming to the fore. The colonists, having never given up yearning for Paradise Lost, are seeing to rehabilitate what they consider a distorted image of colonialism. Their main argument is grounded in the fact that it had unquestionably been beneficial not only to them but also to the natives. In short, the argument lies in that the civilizing mission proved a success. Likewise, in Algeria, a population, mainly young, born after independence, and which can only guess the far reaching consequences of such a system, is led to think that its embrace would have enabled it not to miss the rendez-vous with modernity. To put it simply, the widespread idea among these youth lies in that having driven the colonists out of the country has affected the country in all domains. This article looks at this colonial nostalgia with Algeria as a case study. This has been done by examining the writings of pros and cons concerning this nostalgia.
The current paper investigates the experiences of passage and home nostalgia in four selected Arab-American short stories. These short stories are: O’Lebanon, by Evelyn Shakir, Death and Lebanon, by Barbara Bedway, The Calling, by Nahid Ratchlin, and The Top, by Kaldas Pauline, all which represent three different angles of indigenous cultures in Lebanon, Iran, and Egypt. The four stories celebrate the trauma of ‘transition’ in the light of Arnold Van Gennep’s and Victor Turner’s concepts of passage and transition. Nostalgia of return is approached under the concept of Svetlana Boym’s ‘reflective nostalgia’. The four stories involve home nostalgia as a common trait which colours their symbols of behavior and draw their maps of transition.
Issue of Identity and Double Consciousness in A Colonized Nation: An Analysis of Ali’s “Twilight in Delhi” (Published)
The aim of this research is to represent the nostalgic condition of Indians being faced as the result of colonization. It throws light on the issue how colonized Indians become the victim of double consciousness between the original identity inherited from their ancestors and westernized identity attained through the mimicry of western colonizers. The issue of identity and double consciousness, a sub-category of postcolonial theory, is used as theoretical framework in this research. Bhabha uses the word “hybridity” in order to explain the conflict of identity in colonized people. In Ali’s Twilight in Delhi the character of Asghar suffers from such nostalgic situation due to the clash between his parental and western identity.
AS IT WAS IN THE BEGINNING, SO SHALL IT BE, WORLD WITHOUT END”RETRO-MARKETING: THE ART OF BRINGING BACK TO LIFE/REVITALIZING AN OLD BRAND (PRODUCT) – THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE (Published)
Retro-marketing revolution, revitalising, revivals, remakes, rejuvenating, returns, re-enactments, reissues and recreations are all around us in Nigeria and worldwide. From the simple wigs and high heel shoes worn by university, polytechnic, and college girls, to the re-launch of macleans close up appeal adverts. Retro and rejuvenating is one of the most pervasive marketing trends of our time. Branding is the process by which companies distinguish their product offerings from the competition. Doyle (1989). By developing a distinctive name, packaging, and design, a brand is created. Some brands are supported by logos. By developing an individual identity, branding permits customers to develop association with the brand, (e.g. prestige economy) and eases the purchase decision of the product. The American Marketing Association defines a brand as ‘a name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers as to differentiate them from those of competitors (AMA in Kotler, P. and Keller, K, 2010). A brand adds dimensions that differentiate the offering in some way from other offerings designed to satisfy the same need. These differences may be functional, rational or tangible, related to the brand’s product performance. They may also be more symbolic, emotional or intangible related to what the brand represents. (Kotler 2007). Brand encompass not only consumer goods, but other offerings such as people (e.g. politicians, pop-stars e.g. Michael Jackson, Sunny Ade), places (e.g. Nigeria, Lagos, South Africa, Durban), companies (e.g. Coca Cola, Nigerian Breweries), industrial products, services, products, etc. A brand is more than just the sum of its component parts. It embodies for the purchaser or user additional attributes which are intangible but real (deChernatony and McDonald 2006). This paper which is a literature review, conceptual reflection and research observation of some revitalised brands, products and services in Nigeria, it examines the rapid rise of Retro-marketing/Rejuvenating of old brands, it will explain the historical evolution of brands, the extend to which consumers search for brand information, issues associated with effective brand name and building successful brands. It will explain the demographic, socio-economic, cultural and organisational factors that have precipitated the latter day retro-rejuvenating outbreak in Nigeria. It will also look at how companies can manage brands. Why do companies rejuvenate? Rejuvenating “has been” brands is a systematic approach for revitalizing brands. It offers managerial causes and solutions on the best ways to revitalise old products. It concludes that retro/rejuvenating involves searching for authenticity in an inauthentic world, and present some basic factors that companies and managers bent on brand revival needs to consider