Tag Archives: Nigerian

Nigerian Cretaceous coal deposits and their petroleum source rock characteristics (Published)

Some Nigerian Cretaceous coal deposits have been mapped and characterized for their petroleum source rock potential based on Rock Eval pyrolysis. These coal deposits which occur entirely within the Anambra Basin/Benue Trough have been mapped at Owukpa, Okaba, Ogboyaga, Omelehu, Lafia-Obi and at Gombe-Kumo. Some of these coal deposits lie deep down at great depths in the Anambra Basin and Benue Trough where they constitute active source rocks. Stratigraphically, the coals in the Anambra Basin and Upper Benue Trough are deposited within fluvio-deltaic Maastrichtian succession of the Mamu and Gombe Formations, respectively, while those in the Middle Benue Trough are embedded in Turonian-Coniacian paralic-shallow marine facies of the Awgu Formation. Although not studied here, Turonian-Coniacian coal deposits also occur in the Lower Benue Trough at Amansiodo and in the Upper Benue Trough at Lamza. Rock Eval pyrolysis results on the coal deposits show Hydrogen Index values of between 206-283mgHC/gTOC for the Anambra Basin coals with Tmax in the immature to sub-mature zone (419-428oC) while the coals in the Middle Benue Trough gave HI values of 54-58mgHC/gTOC and Tmax values that show maturity within the main oil window. Results obtained on the Gombe-Kumo coals are similar to those of the Anambra Basin. Interpretation of the results using the Van Krevelen and HI-Tmax diagrams indicate that the coals as source rocks are characterized by Type II/III kerogens for the Maastrichtian deposits, oil and gas prone and generally sub-mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation at the present depth of study. The coals in the Middle Benue Trough are characterized by Type III/Type IV kerogens, gas prone and mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. At greater depths, the Middle Benue Trough coals would have completed generation and reached over-cooked facies while the Maastrichtian coals would have entered the main oil window except the Gombe coals which are stratigraphy too shallow.

Keywords: Nigerian, cretaceous coal deposits, petroleum source, rock characteristics

The Role of Religious and Cultural Diversity on SMES in Cross River State, Nigeria: Implications From SMES Management Perspective (Published)

This paper studied the role of religious and cultural diversity on SMEs in Cross River State, Nigeria:  Implications from SMEs management perspective. The primary aim of this research study was to find out the impacts that these diversity elements have on the growth and expansion of SMEs within the scope of the country as distinct from the existing general global studies. The research involved an initial pilot study with fifteen SME employees to validate the survey questionnaire which would be filled by their colleagues during the study. A further sixty seven respondents comprising SME employees from the four major geographical regions of Nigeria participated in completing the survey and their results were collated to determine the impacts of religiously and culturally based diversity measures on the growth and performance of the Nigerian SMEs. The diversity measures analyzed were selected on the basis of extensive review of past literature of the workplace diversity. The findings of this research showed some agreement with the results of past literature reviews in terms of affirming the presence of conflicts in the workplace due to diversity. The changes in human resource management practice recommended by this research will be very useful to both SME managers and business owners in harnessing the potentials of the multi-cultural and multi religious configuration of the country while reducing the disadvantages of such diversities. 

Keywords: Cultural Diversity, Implications, Management Perspective, Nigerian, Religious, SMEs

The Effectiveness of the Whistle Blowing Policy in Combating Corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector (Published)

This study investigated the effectiveness of the WBW Policy in combating corruption in the Nigerian public sector. The study was carried out in Delta, Edo, Enugu, and Anambra States respectively. Data were obtained through structured questionnaire. Survey design was employed in the study. A total of one hundred and two (102) auditors and 162 accountants were sampled in the public sector. Judgmental Sampling Technique (JST) was employed in selecting the 264 respondents in the four states’ public organisations. Descriptive statistical techniques such as, charts, mean, standard deviation, tables, and percentages response analysis were used in analyzing the data. Cronbach alpha coefficient was used to test for reliability of the research instrument and the result was (0.7110). The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) was employed in testing the hypothesis. SPSS 23.0 was used. The results revealed that the WBW Policy is effective combating corruption in the public sector of Nigeria. The study hereby concluded that the WBW Policy have been effective in combating corruption in the public sector.  It was recommended that the state and local government should also initiate suitable WBW programme, continuous advert on WBW should be on the media, adequate protection of whistle blower should be guaranteed, and the rewards for the whistle blowers should be increased.

Keywords: Corruption, Effectiveness, Nigerian, Public Sector, Whistle-Blowing, combating

The Role of Religious and Cultural Diversity on SMEs in Cross River State, Nigeria: Implications from SMEs Management Perspective (Published)

This paper studied the role of religious and cultural diversity on SMEs in Cross River State, Nigeria:  Implications from SMEs management perspective. The primary aim of this research study was to find out the impacts that these diversity elements have on the growth and expansion of SMEs within the scope of the country as distinct from the existing general global studies. The research involved an initial pilot study with fifteen SME employees to validate the survey questionnaire which would be filled by their colleagues during the study. A further sixty seven respondents comprising SME employees from the four major geographical regions of Nigeria participated in completing the survey and their results were collated to determine the impacts of religiously and culturally based diversity measures on the growth and performance of the Nigerian SMEs. The diversity measures analyzed were selected on the basis of extensive review of past literature of the workplace diversity. The findings of this research showed some agreement with the results of past literature reviews in terms of affirming the presence of conflicts in the workplace due to diversity. The changes in human resource management practice recommended by this research will be very useful to both SME managers and business owners in harnessing the potentials of the multi-cultural and multi religious configuration of the country while reducing the disadvantages of such diversities. 

 

Keywords: Cultural Diversity, Implications, Management Perspective, Nigerian, Religious, SMEs

The Failure of Lehman Brothers and Merril Lynch: A Lesson for the Nigerian Banking Industry (Published)

In recent times, the global instability that experienced in the financial system and banking sub-sector in particular was as a result of institutional failures. Consequently, banking experts in Nigeria said that, the failure of the two banks was an enough signal to the Nigeria banking industry. Therefore, the study examined the collapse of Lehman Brothers and Merril Lynch  as a rethink lesson for the Nigerian Banks. However, the study reveals that the two banks were absolutely limiting to the size and age in determining the future of their banks instead of depending on the efficiency and effective management of risky assets. Also the conventional lending procedures were not instituted rather they depend on subprime mortgage arrangement that did not have collateral securities. The declining home prices had made refinancing more difficult as a result of inadequate innovations in securitization. We therefore, recommend that the regulatory bodies should not be over confident on the conventional tools of banking supervision rather they employ more non-conventional methods of obtaining insider information. The current crops of bankers should closely be monitored to avoid manipulation as could be seen from the consolidation exercise. CBN should have full autonomy to run the finance market efficiently. Finally, government should also allow CBN to have the air of confidence in discharging its responsibilities.

Keywords: Banking Industry, Failure, Lehman Brothers, Lesson, Merril Lynch, Nigerian

The Image of Women in Chinua Adchebe’s Novels Things Fall Apart, No Longer At Ease and Arrow of God (Published)

This paper explores and discusses the image of women in Chinua Achebe’s novels: Things Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease and Arrow of God. In Things Fall Apart (TFA), there is a great marginalization of women in Nigerian society. Although there are many tasks undertaken by women such as educating the children by narrating folk stories to them, upbringing their daughters, and serving as priestesses of gods (e.g. Chillo). The reader of such novels can effortlessly internalize the image of women in Chinua Achebe because it is very obvious. This Image has been improved through the development of the society in TFA. The citizens are ignorant, but are educated in the second novel No Longer at Ease. When a girl was asked to fulfill an application form and reaching to sex activities item, she wrote twice a week. It is the same case in Arrow of God, when Ezulu wants to send his son to the church in order to enable him to learn the lifestyle of the white This was evident when his mother asked him “Why do you send my son ?” and his a answer is that ” How does it concern you while I do with my son”. Regardless of his changeable Image from time to time, we have to acknowledge that Chinua Achebe, belittles, scorns, and underestimates women in his early and modern novels.

Keywords: Achebe, Nigerian, Scorn, Women, belittle, image

GENDER AND CREATIVITY: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF NIGERIAN FEMALE WRITERS (Published)

Argument on the eroding creative prowess among Nigerian writers of the contemporary period has been rift in recent writing of Charles Nnolim. The basic tenet of his argument is that the “fleshly school” of writers focuses on women, wine, club and fun and therefore “lacks fiery, vituperative and caustic commitment of the older generation”. The ideological trust of this research opposes this view. Available evidences in the last two decades reveal that literary creativity has received a boast in the hands of Nigerian female writers whose thematic pre-occupation centered on gender theories and gender-related issues. Nigerian writers like Zulu Sofola, Tess Onwueme, Irene Salami-Agunloye, Tracie Chima Uto-Ezeajugh, Julie Okoh, Chimamanda Adichie , to mention but a few have established themselves as creative genius, winning National and International Awards. Presently, gender equality has assumed a central stage in the world political and literary scene, it is therefore unfair to regard such huge creative output as “trivialities” simply because they address issues that affect mostly women. This paper seeks to evaluate the contributions of these women to the growth of world literature in general and Nigerian creative writings in particular and concludes that the corpus of works by most of these writers is great works of arts in all ramifications.

Keywords: Creativity, Female, Gender, Nigerian, Writers

THE AFTERMATH OF FOREIGN MISSIONARIES’ POLICIES ON AFRICAN MISSIONS: THE NIGERIAN BAPTIST CONVENTION AS A CASE STUDY (Published)

This article entitled “The Aftermath of Missionaries’ Policies on African Missions: The Nigerian Baptist Convention (NBC) as a case study” is aimed at examining the reasons for inadequate finance for the NBC in the funding of her ministries. From its inception, the usual slogan has been “NO MONEY.” This was because the pioneering missionaries did not encourage the indigenous Christians to give towards missions, but rather the latter were over pampered. This lack of funds, has affected the growth of the Baptists in Nigeria. The article is of the view that Henry Venn’s missionary policies can be of help in solving the problem. The research demands the use of multi-dimensional approaches; which include phenomenological cum historical methods and the conduction of interviews especially on financial policies on the NBC and Missionary’s records. Quantitative approach was also used by subjecting the BMN attrition policy on the NBC into statistical analysis. Among others, it has been demonstrated in this research that lack of discretion and courage on the part of the BMN in keeping strictly and consistently to the attrition policy was the major factor behind slow growth and non-rapid financial advancement of the NBC. On the contrary, if Venn’s mission’s financial policy is adopted, we hope, it will go a long way in ameliorating the financial inadequacies and promote missions in Africa in general and the NBC in particular.

Keywords: African Missions, Baptist Convention, Foreign Missionaries’, Nigerian, policies