Psychology of Politics and Politicians in Nigeria: The Human and Social Governance Consequences (Published)
The research examined political psychology in Nigeria, characterized by political interest, godfatherism, rigging, thuggery, occultism, election litigation, and zoning politics. Participants were politicians and electorates. Information was gathered through direct observations, interviews and print sources, with analytical and descriptive designs. Findings were psychology of politics manifested as: Elitism, machination, group opportunity, business perception, godfatherism politics, socio-cultural consciousness, politics as criminal enterprise, life-time socioeconomic opportunity, including emasculating the Judiciary and Legislature. Psychology of politicians manifested as: Desperation, superiority status, extravagant lifestyle, betrayal of citizens, narcissistic personality, high selfishness/greed, deception/lying as skills/smartness, and pride/euphoria in associating with Federal Government’s might. The human/social governance consequences were: Social polarization, disappointed governance, loss of confidence in electoral system, corruption, poor societal development, misguided rule of law, exponential unemployment, poor standard of living, misguided life virtue, and embarrassing Judiciary. Proffered recommendations were improved political value system, proactive Judiciary, accountable politics/politicians, and stopping irresponsible political extravagant lifestyle.
Trends in historical evolution indicate that the nation-state of Nigeria came into existence since 1914. Her territorial boundaries were fixed with prejudicial colonial interests without considering the interests and aspirations of the traditional ethnic groups involved. Since then, the nation has been governed and exploited by the feudal-bourgeosie, privileged to inherit the nation from the colonial masters. Worst still, the various machineries at different periods and republics charged with the responsibility of ruling the nation has proved anti-social, adopting in their distribution of values, formulas detrimental to the general welfare of the citizenry. Thus, we are left with a fragile nation, drifting apart and her people resorting to communal and individual self-definition. The persistent call for national conference among the various ethnic groups to resolve the national question gives credence to the deduction that the nation was founded upon vested colonial interest, without consulting the component ethnic groups. The issue of national integration has become a re-assessment of the pre-requisite for Federalism towards the continued existence of the sovereign nation state in Nigeria. Thus, the focus of this paper is how to adopt a paradigm shift from the previous abortive methods that have been employed so far, to the pragmatic resolve of using language and culture in attaining the long elusive national integration in Nigeria.
Effect of Corporate Attributes On Environmental Disclosure of Listed Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria (Published)
This study investigates the influence of corporate attributes on environmental disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. The study uses secondary data collected from the annual reports and accounts of 9 randomly selected oil companies for the period 2011 to 2017. The study analysed the data using the logistic regression technique. The study finds that corporate attributes significantly affect the environmental accounting disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study concludes financial leverage has a significant positive effect on environmental accounting disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. Second, profitability has a significant positive effect on environmental accounting disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. Third, the study also find that firm size has a significant positive effect on environmental accounting disclosure. Fourth, the study finds a positive but insignificant effect of auditor types on the environmental accounting disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. The study recommends that the regulators of the oil companies in Nigeria should encourage the use of more debts in the oil companies’ capital structure, which will make them disclose more information about the environment based on the close monitoring and demand by the debt holders.
Mandatory Environmental Disclosures by Companies Complying With IAS/IFRS: A Case of Nigeria (Published)
The Report of the Vision 2020 Committee set up to provide a roadmap that will propel Nigeria among the top 20 world economies by 2020 acknowledged that the country is faced with many environmental problems such as the continuous exploitation of marginal lands, drought and desertification in the north, severe gully erosion in eastern and northern states, uncontrolled logging with inherent problems of the destruction of bio-diversity, inappropriate agricultural practices, destruction of watershed, destruction of vast agricultural lands, creation of burrow pits due to bad mining practices and road works, oil pollution from spillage and gas flaring, urban decay and squatter settlements, industrial pollution and municipal waste generation among other things. In view of the above, this paper examines mandatory disclosure of environmental accounting by companies complying with IFRS/IAS in Nigeria. Contents analysis research design was adopted by reviewing the available literature in the field of this study. It was discovered that Nigeria was facing with challenges of inaccurate data, incompetent manpower, and lack of transparency among companies. Despite these shortcomings Mandatory reporting present several advantages such as the creation of standardized and comparable measures that enable benchmarking and best practices among companies complying with IFRS/IAS in Nigeria. It was concluded that aside from complying with IFRS/IAS, Incentives and enforcement was also identified as a factor for full convergence and comparability among companies.
Teenage pregnancy continues to rise in today’s society. It is estimated that about 16 million girls are married off every year (WHO, 2018) contributing to the number of teenage pregnancies across the globe. In Nigeria, 23% of females aged between 15-19 years are bearing children. This can be attributed to illiteracy, societal practices and poverty encouraging girls enter into sexual relationship at an early age. This condemnable situation leads to numbers complications which include; sexually transmitted diseases, school drop outs, pressure on the health sector, increased mortality to mention but a few. These impacts of school enrollment and drop out have significant implications on national development and therefor needs to be tackled urgently. This study therefore, seeks to analyze the influence of teenage pregnancy on secondary school education in Nigeria using a case study of Obio-Akpor L.G.A, Rivers State. The instrument for data collation was a semi-structured questionnaire and the data obtained analyzed employing SPSS version 2.0. A total of 802 respondents responded to the interview making the rate of response 96.2 %. Majority of the respondents were teenagers and 151 (18.1%) being parents. Findings from the study revealed that teenage pregnancy significantly impacted school enrollment, that a significant percentage of teenagers are pregnant before 15, lack of education of parents and teenagers increased the probability of teenage pregnancy, poverty and drug abuse increased the likelihood of teenage pregnancy while teenager mothers 61.2 percent likely to withdraw from school because of the financial obligations of being a mother. In addition, the study makes a number of recommendations which include; sensitization programs should be initiated by relevant bodies to educate the populace on the impact of teenage pregnancies, Policies that facilitate better health care services for teenagers should be deployed by government and non-government organizations, Government and non-governmental organizations should make contraceptive services easily accessible and affordable, School-based daycare facilities should be provided for soon to be/already teenage parents, Psychological help should be provided to students in secondary to help them deal with pressures of peers and societal stigmatization.
Use of Social Media in Mobilising Support for Abductees in Nigeria: A Study of Epe School Kidnap (Published)
This work examines social media usage to support abductees in Nigeria, beaming its searchlight on the case of the 6 Epe school boys, who were kidnapped at The Lagos State Model College on May 24, 2017. This study seeks to know various ways the social media contribute to the freedom of abductees in Nigeria and how potent the social media could be in mobilising support for them. The survey method was adopted, and questionnaire was used to collect data. For this study, 528 questionnaires were given to respondents in the 66 streets on Eredo Local Council Development Area (LCDA), in Epe Local Government of Lagos State. 521 of the questionnaire were returned. Eredo has a population of 18,590, and 3% of the population was used. Purposive sampling method was chosen for this study. This is adopted in order to select the members of the population that are fit to give the correct answers to the research questions. The findings of this study reveal that the contributions of Nigerians and social media outcry made the government and its agencies to take speedy action on the abduction of the Epe school boys. This study finds out that the social media has the power to reach a large number of Nigerians faster than other media of communication. This study therefore recommends that the Civil Society organisations in Nigeria and Human Right Groups should explore the advantages of the social media to reach the people and the government alike. The study also recommends that Nigerians still need orientations on how to maximize the power of the social media.
There can be no sustainable national development without vocational and technical education, and there can be no vocational and technical education without skills acquisition. The issue of sustainable national development is not a one-day event, but constant or continuous process that affects the citizens positively. The paper x-rayed the peculiar characteristics of vocational and technical education in providing necessary skills to the populace for sustainable national development. The conceptual clarification of vocational education, technical education, vocational and technical education, and sustainable national development were considered. The paper further discussed a brief history of vocational and technical education in Nigeria, during the pre-colonial, colonial and the post-colonial era. The paper examines the importance of vocational and technical education in Nigeria development. It further highlighted the role of vocational and technical education in sustainable national development. The paper concluded that non-acquisition of saleable skills has been a major factor in the countries under development and high rates of poverty and other social vices. Therefore, VTE as the type of education with these values should be recognized and taken serious for sustainable national development to strive.
A Public Officer Convicted Of Breach of the Code of Conduct for Public Officers in Nigeria Cannot Be Granted Amnesty: A Legislative Overkill (Published)
Paragraph 18(7) of the Code of Conduct for Public Officers, contained in Part I Fifth Schedule of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as amended and section 23 (7) of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (LFN) 2010 provide that a public officer who is punished for breach of these laws cannot be granted pardon under prerogative of mercy. Most of these prohibited acts under the two laws appear civil in nature or at most quasi-criminal such as failure to declare assets or doing so late, combining public service job with another job save farming, accepting gratification while in office, maintenance of foreign accounts etc. Curiously, under the same constitution, people who are convicted of heinous crimes such as murder, armed robbery, kidnapping, even coup plotting etc. enjoy state pardons on regular basis during national festivities. The same constitution provides against discrimination of any kind in section 42. This paper argues that though this provision of the constitution on pardon is aimed at stopping corruption in the country that time has come for the removal of this discriminatory provision so that all convicts in Nigeria like in most jurisdictions in the world can enjoy presidential or gubernatorial amnesty as the case may be.
This study examined the impact of board activism on performance of quoted insurance companies in Nigeria. The study evaluates the effect of board meetings on the financial performance of 15 listed insurance companies existing on the Nigeria stock exchange between the period 2006-2017.Panel data regression and descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data obtained from the annual report of the sampled companies. The result of the study revealed a negative relationship with no significant impact between the board meeting and performance of insurance firms in Nigeria with emphasis on Return on Equity, Return on Asset and Tobin’s Q. It was suggested that regulatory authority focus their attention more on the skill and experience of directors at meeting of the board for good performance.
Lung cancer has been linked to exposure to the naturally occurring ionizing radiation, radon gas (22Rn). Radon is ubiquitous in our environment. However, the level of concentration of this gas is influenced by the geological, geographical, meteorological conditions of a particular environment. The indoor radon concentration is also influenced by factors such as air-conditioning system, ventilation, age of building etc. In this study, the level of indoor radon was measured in 55 offices located within Abia State University, Uturu in South Eastern Nigeria using a Corentium digital radon detector. Uturu is well known for vegetation with high granitic and sedimentary rocks. Offices were chosen to vary between those that are furnished with air conditioning systems and those that are without such facility. Measurements were taken between December 2017 to June 2018. The result of the measurements showed that the indoor radon concentration for all the offices varied between. This value is lower than the intervention level of recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The annual effective dose for the offices ranged from which is below the recommended ICRP intervention level of. Hence, there is low risk of adverse health effect and lung cancer induction to the staff of Abia State University.
Linguistic Politeness Forms in English among Igbo Bilinguals in Nigeria: The Case of Reprimand (Published)
The study examined Igbo perception and expression of reprimand speech act in line with politeness as a conversation strategy in the conversational English of Igbo native speakers which is unexplored. Through a purposive sampling process, 3 000 questionnaires in the form of Discourse Completion Task depicting ten scenarios of imagined role-play between interlocutors written in English were distributed to undergraduates of Igbo extraction at seven universities systematically selected from South-East and South-South zones in Nigeria. Results showed that reprimands were conversational norms of Igbo bilinguals and were evident in their English language conversations as participants engaged in reprimanding occasioned by forms of misconduct. Findings also revealed that to achieve the conversational demands of reprimand speech act across horizontal, vertical and diagonal relationships as the case may be, the Igbo culture reflected observance of context, social status, social distance and severity of offence variables a consideration of which at the instance of a conversation underlies the choice/use of a particular strategy or another. The study concluded that speech act is culture-bound hence the need to incorporate pragmatics in language teaching
Comparative Analysis of Business and Consumer Buying Behaviour and Decisions: Opportunities and Challenges in Nigeria (Published)
Business markets and consumer markets are alike in some key ways. For example, both include people in buying roles whose purchased decision is to satisfy needs. But business markets also differ in many ways from consumer markets. For one thing, the business market is enormous, far larger than the consumer market. Within Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries the business market includes more than 13 million organizations that annually, purchased trillions of Naira worth of goods and services. This paper also focused on the traditional tools and techniques employed in the marketing of goods and services to the business sector. Attempt was made to draw attention on the major differences between consumer and business markets – dissimilarities that, while using the same basic marketing tools and techniques, spelled the difference between success and failure in the contemporary business marketing environments.
Climate Change Implications for Agricultural Sustainability in Enugu in the Guinea Savanna Eco-Climatic Zone of Southeastern Nigeria: Input from Climate Change Proxies (Published)
Climate change poses debilitating effects for agriculture and food security in low technology countries such as sub-Saharan Africa. The trends and variations of some climatic variables that influence agriculture were analysed using integrated statistical techniques. The aim is to examine the possible effects of climate change on agricultural sustainability in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria using lessons drawn from trend analysis of historical time series of meteorological variables in monthly time step in the area. The area whose economy is largely agrigarian has continued to witness incidence of poor crop productivity. Significant long-term trends were identified in some of the variables and non-significant trends in others. Inferences were made with considerable support of evidence and high degree of confidence. The climate of the area is changing in a manner that concern for agricultural sustainability is on the front burner of the long-term resulting consequences. The need for pre-season and on-season climate information dissemination system is advocated to provide timely and accurate agro-meteorological information
This study examined the impact of money supply on inflation in Nigeria between 1980 and 2009, using Vector Error Correction Mode (VECM). The data for the variables were sourced from CBN statistical Bulletin. The results of the test established a significant long run positive relationship between money supply and inflation in Nigeria. Based on this finding, the study recommended that, government intensify the effort to combat inflation by encouraging the monetary authority to put in place policies measures that are gear toward reducing the volume of money in circulation in Nigeria.
This paper provides empirical evidence linking exports and foreign aid to international reserve accumulation. Country-specific data spanning from 1981-2015 on oil and non-oil exports and foreign aid in Nigeria were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and analyzed using error correction mechanism (ECM) in addition to unit root and cointegration tests. As observed from the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test unit root, the variables are mixed integrated. Long run relationship was established amongst the series from the Johansen cointegration test result. The parsimonious ECM that lagged values of oil exports impact positively on foreign reserve holding. 1 percent increase in lag two of oil exports leads to 0.367 percent in the external reserve. Similarly, the first lag of non-oil exports is positively linked to external reserve. With 1 percent increase in non-oil exports, international reserve increases by 0.499 percent. The error correction estimate (-0.5099) indicates that the model is well behaved as any short run disequilibrium in the system is reconciled at the speed of 50.9 percent to achieve long run equilibrium position. On the basis of the findings, it is concluded that exports are helpful in boosting the foreign reserve holding in Nigeria. Thus, this paper recommends for the diversification of the export base in order to keep the foreign reserve holding on the path of rapid and sustainable growth.
Building Institutional Repository: Knowledge Management, Content, Understanding of Key Issues and the Librarians Role (Published)
Institutional Repositories (IRs) are increasingly becoming crucial library resources, and more use of digitized material is fundamental in building sustainable IRs. With a series of universities and research sites distributed throughout the continent, a lot of researchwhich requires preservation is obviously carried out in the institutions. However, a majority of the research generated from these institutions ends up in various libraries which are hardly accessed by learners. As such, many African scholars rely greatly on information from developed nations and reduce Africa to just a consumer of information, rather than a source, hence building an accessible IR allows the display of the works of scholars to the broader community and considerably assists in the advancement of an institution and its outreach. The successful establishment of an institutional repository needs careful arrangements and enthusiasm from the entire institutional community such as students, faculty members and academic staff. Critical decisions have to be made before making any designs and redesigns on IRs such as the funds, staff, technology, metadata, content, building operations and successful management and running of the IRs. This paper explores knowledge management in terms of software and the evolution of how knowledge is managed, the inclusion process of content through structured content organization and modular content publishing, issues of IRs in Nigerian Universities, and the roles of the librarian in building institutional repositories.
Producing oil from deep offshore fields poses serious risk especially due to peculiar pressure and temperature regimes characterizing the fields. These variables affects the bubble point of the produced hydrocarbon in such fields. The significance of Bubble point pressure and gas solubility has led researchers to continually develop correlations to accurately predict these reservoir oil properties. In this work, measured bubble point pressure is first evaluated and a new correlation is established to estimate crude oil bubble point pressure for deep offshore region of West Africa. Nonlinear Multiple Regression analysis was utilized. The correlation applies to API crude oils ranging from 38 to 56. Comparison with other published ones of this new correlation indicates that it is much more precise than the others. The developed correlation’s Average Absolute Percent Error (percentage) is 4.8 percent. The result is indicative of an agreement between the measured and estimated data.
This paper aims to examine the relationship between organisational change and exit, voice, loyalty and neglect (EVLN) behaviours of employees in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. By adopting a quantitative approach, the tools employed in analysing data collected through the use of questionnaires from 322 employees are factor analysis from the Analysis of Moments of Structure (AMOS 22.0) for windows. The study statistically revealed that organisational change is positively and insignificantly correlated to the Nigerian oil and gas employees’ exit, voice, loyalty and neglect behaviour. These findings reveal the type of sector employees’ work for and the role of trade unions in times of change. This study is intended to support managers and practitioners in assessing and evaluating organisational change programmes, particularly in the context of a developing country like Nigeria that is heavily dependent on revenues from the oil and gas sector.
Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)
The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria.
The period we are in Nigeria is a unique time in history as a nation. The country has in recent times, witnessed an unprecedented magnitude of violence that has shaken the unity of Nigeria. The study therefore examined the challenges to peace building in Nigeria. . The study had adopted descriptive perspective in its analysis of the secondary data obtained for the study. The data obtained indicated that violent conflict from the ramous region and tribes of Nigeria is rooted in the conflict diversity of the citizens and bad governance structure. The study concluded that gives the present political and economic structure, the prospects of achieving peace are less probable, unless, the government of Nigeria would generate political will to address huge human capital development afflict, invest In infrastructure, and re-engineer political consensus on socio-economic and political development in the country.