Tag Archives: Nigeria

Cycad Aulacaspis Scale (CAS) Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi as a major pest of Sago Palm Cycas spp. in Nigeria (Published)

Cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi) is native to the Southeast Asia specifically Thailand. Due to the trade in cycad plants for ornamental use in the world, it has been introduced widely in Asia, North America, the Caribbean, Europe, Pacific Islands, Ivory Coast and South Africa. Infestation by this scale can kill cycads in only a few months. Its introduction to these countries endangered the ornamental cycad-growing industry. In 2014, an introduced scale insect (Cycad aulacaspis scale) was discovered damaging cycads in a Bank premise, Port Harcourt. Survey was conducted on eight states (Cross River State, Rivers State, Abuja, Edo state, Akwa-Ibom state, Bayelsa state, Delta state and Lagos state) in Nigeria and report of severe damage was recorded. Management methods (cultural, chemical and biological) employed to manage the infestation proves ineffective as the scale insect was significantly seen three weeks after. The scale insect outnumbered their natural enemy tiny black lady beetle (Rhyzobius lophanthae) in these sampled locations and totally covers the entire plant within two months in a whitewashed scale-like appearance leading to chlorotic-yellow-brown leaves and eventual death of the plant. Therefore, this paper is aimed at reporting and creating awareness of the presence and outbreak of this insect pest (Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi) in Nigeria. Also, instant remedial measures should be taken to reduce the spread of this scale insect (Cycad aulacaspis scale) to other parts of Africa as to reduce the distribution of the scale insect on cycad species in this region.

Keywords: Cycad Aulacaspis scale, Damage, Infestation, Nigeria, Sago palm

Contributions of Faith-Based Organizations towards Peace Building for Sustainable Community Development in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

The paper is focused on the contributions of faith-based organizations in peace building process for sustainable development in Rivers state, Nigeria. The explanatory approach was adopted through secondary research materials to clarify understanding of concepts that formed major sub-headings in the discourse. The various views of researchers on the subject matter were adequately addressed. The key concepts in the study were also x-rayed. Activity areas of Faith- based organizations in peace building are highlighted. The study suggested among others, that the State and development agenciesshould synergize with faith-based organizations in areas of funding seminars on peaceful co-existence among the people. Also, Faith-based organizations should keep track of making peace among the people. This will enable them to offer early warning signals about conflicts to the government.


Keywords: Faith-Based, Nigeria, Organizations, Rivers State, peace building sustainable community development

Unions, Government and the University Enterprise in Nigeria (Published)

Permit me to broach this topic with an analogy. A roof is leaking. It needs repairs. Though it sits resplendently on top of a building, it leaks badly inside when the rain falls. In order to get to the top to fix the leakages, one would think naturally, that the mender would fetch a ladder and climb the structure. But this mender is different. He gets a sledge hammer instead and takes down the building to enable him fix the roof! This analogy exemplifies the toxic nature of the subject and the urgency of approach required to conjure a symphony between the unions in our universities today and the gentry (government and university management). The over-charged, over-unionized polity of Nigerian public universities has become a cause for concern, especially as it has begun to affect the quality of teaching, research and community services. Placed side-by-side with the lackadaisical approach of government to the educational sector, it has become evident that new byways needed to be tried out to preempt the imminent and total collapse of this sector. In this work, we shall examine the causes, effects and management of industrial disputes in our universities, and the historical, economic and political nuances involved in the incessant disputes. In other words, we shall carve our positions on the causes of strike, the effects of strikes and the possible alternatives to strikes in Nigerian public universities. The objective of the study is not to apportion blames but to expose the factors which had greatly contributed to the weakening of our HEIs and had forged a corrosive effect on our universities such that the culture of scholarship is being gradually sidetracked and mediocrity being glamourized. Our universities have no place in international rankings, and our graduates who are turned out in multitudes, could no longer said to be competitive in the global market. Stop-gap measures to address challenges could no longer serve the purpose of propping and rejuvenating the Nigerian educational sector especially, in public universities where every rupture has signified a culmination of gradual rust from the primary and secondary sectors of our education. Most of these universities are becoming factories where black-market options with little or no employable skills are mass-produced on a regular basis. Examination malpractices, incessant strikes, cult activities and poor work ethics are fast becoming ‘the new normal,’ which calls for urgent efforts to address quality concerns. This zeal to recover, rediscover and recalibrate the public universities in Nigeria is a project in irredentism that should be executed with all seriousness required so as to rescue the system from near-extinction and launch it back to global reckoning.

Keywords: Government, Nigeria, unions, university enterprise

Understanding the Antecedents of Online Shopping Behaviour: An Empirical Evidence from a Typical Emerging Market Context (Published)

With the increasing number of online shopping in Nigeria, the need to understand the key predictors of consumers’ choice to shop online has become legitimate and urgent. While extant literatures are replete with such investigations, most emerging economy contexts are heavily under-researched. Using this as a point of departure, this paper seeks to answer the question: why do consumers shop online in such emerging economy context as Nigeria? The study was based on selected online shoppers in Awka, a growing metropolitan city in Nigeria that represents an emerging economy context. Data were collected using questionnaire based on a quota sampling of 110 respondents. Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression were used to reduce the data and test the hypotheses respectively. Analysis of the data show that online shopping experience, and impulse purchase orientation are significant in determining online shopping patronage; while online trust is not significant. The finding has serious implication for e-commerce policy formulation and web management decision among others.

Keywords: Emerging Market, Nigeria, Online Shopping, impulse purchase, internet retailing., online shopping experience, online trust

Dividend Tax Policy and Dividend Payout of Food and Beverages Firms in Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the effect of dividend tax policy on dividend payout in selected Nigerian food and beverages firms. The study employed a cross-sectional approach using both explanatory and exploratory design. Fifteen out of twenty one quoted food and beverages firms on the Nigeria stock exchange (NSE) as at December 2018 were randomly selected to constitute the study sample. Four hundred copies of structural questionnaire were distributed but only three hundred and twenty copies were correctly completed and useful for the analysis. The study revealed that dividend tax policy was significant on a dividend payout (f-statistic =27.52; p=0.000) with R-square =0.285. When the moderation variable effect (inflation) was considered, it was also found that dividend tax policy influenced dividend payout of the selected firms (F-statistic=15.89; p=0.000).The study further revealed that tax policy has significant effect on dividend payout in the selected firms. The study therefore recommended that management of firms should adopt more of stock dividend policy than cash concluded payout. 

Keywords: Dividend payout, Nigeria, Tax Policy, dividend, food and beverages

An Assessment of Post-Flood Disaster Risk Recovery and Reconstruction Responses of Urban Households in Makurdi Metropolis, Nigeria (Published)

Flood disaster is increasingly becoming a common occurrence around the world due to unwholesome human activities and climate change affecting urban areas including Makurdi metropolis in Benue state, Nigeria. Given its geographic location in the Benue valley and geophysical characteristics, Makurdi regularly experiences flood disaster during rainy season with the 2012 flood event been the worse with considerable impacts on the lives and properties of urban households. This study assesses the 2012 post-flood disaster risk recovery and reconstruction responses of urban households in Makurdi metropolis. Data was collected from 200 affected households of the 2012 flood disaster in flood prone areas of the town through physical observation and questionnaire administration, and was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. The result of the study reveals different levels of damages caused by the flood in the study area with destruction of residential houses accounting for the highest (30.6%). Post-disaster recovery and reconstruction responses vary among households with low-income households being the most vulnerable and 85% have not fully recovered from the disaster. The study reveals varying nature of recovery efforts undertaking by the affected households in the study area with 38.9% of them rehabilitated their residential buildings. The highest post-flood recovery assistance accounting for 82.4% came from victims’ relatives/friends. Based on the findings, the study recommends for more sensitization of the public on proactive flood disaster risk management through preparedness; readiness, response and recovery/rehabilitation with involvement of all stakeholders in the study area.

Keywords: Flood, Makurdi metropolis, Nigeria, post-disaster risk, recovery and reconstruction, urban households

Energy Security, China’s Strategy: A Guide for Nigeria (Published)

Energy Security has returned to the top of the international agenda in ways not seen since the oil embargoes of the 1970s. Energy security has emerged as a major object of the energy policy agenda and policy makers have engaged in a wide ranging debate over how best to address future energy requirements. Industrial powers like the United States are willing to devote considerable military, political, diplomatic, and economic means to access energy resources around the world. But they are no longer alone in this endeavour. Increasingly, industrializing states like China and India are willing to devote comparable resources to secure sufficient energy supplies to sustain their fast growing economy. In this work – Energy Security, China’s Strategy: a Guide for Nigeria, using a secondary data in a qualitative analysis has undertaken a comprehensive review of Energy security, looking at the global quest for energy, China’s energy security strategy, energy security from Nigeria’s perspective and the examples that the strategy can provide for Nigeria. We have identified three key areas of china’s strategy which equally provides lessons for Nigeria i.e. China has a credible and an efficient energy policy in place, Self-reliance and self-sufficiency in oil and other resources which they took great pride in, that could take care of their domestic needs and establishment of strategic oil reserves.

Keywords: China, Nigeria, Policy, energy security, energy security strategy, security of supply.

Bureaucracy and Corporate Practice in Nigerian Universities (Published)

Granting his maiden interview as Registrar in a first generation federal university in Nigeria, an astute Administrator, who had suddenly come into awareness of the importance of his position and the urgency of reconstruction and rehabilitation, promised to restore ‘faith in the system’. One might wish to ask; what does it take to restore faith in the system?A SYSTEM is a form of mechanism based on the principles of complementarity and symbiosis. The interplay of these two principles energizes the system and makes it function maximally to achieve set goals. Where these structuring principles are lacking, the system would not be able to achieve and attain the heights necessary for its overwhelming success and for achieving the desired organizational goals. More importantly, the ‘workers’ of the system would feel less devoted and less bound to the system such that it would affect the overall productivity of service and consequently, dampen institutional spirit. This study focuses on the importance of building, maintaining and sustaining the consciousness of ‘faith’ in the university bureaucracy. It shall attempt to present in a nutshell the ideas behind bureaucracy, and the intent behind ‘street-level bureaucracy’ as it affects corporate practice in Nigerian universities. It shall further proceed to enumerate merits and de-merits of bureaucracy and its overall impact of university administration in Nigeria.


Keywords: Bureaucracy, Nigeria, Universities, corporate practice

Awareness of Online Public Access Catalogue and Utilization of Library Resources by Undergraduates in Federal Universities in South- South Zone of Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated the influence of knowledge on the use of online public access catalogue and utilization of library resources by undergraduate students in federal universities in South-South Zone of Nigeria. The population of the study comprised 952 registered library users from three selected universities in the study area during 2017/2018 academic session.  Questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. The data collected was analyzed using Mean and Standard Deviation. The hypothesis was tested using simple linear regression and multiple regression analyses respectively.  The regression model produced a regression coefficient of R=.431, which revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between knowledge on the use of Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) and utilization of library resources. The findings further revealed that knowledge on the use of OPAC is relatively low in the universities studied. It was recommended that library program currently being taught in Nigerian universities should be reviewed and taken into cognizance the important of information literacy skills required by students to enhance them access print/digital content of the library.

Keywords: Library Resources, Nigeria, OPAC, Undergraduates, Utilization

Green Marketing and Sustainability of Breweries in Nigeria (Published)

This study appraised the effect of green marketing on sustainability of brewery firms in Nigeria using the South-East geo-political zone of Nigeria as the study area. Specifically, it sought to ascertain the extent green product; green price; green placement; and green promotion on the sustainability of breweries. The study was hinged on diffusion of innovation theory. Descriptive survey design using a sample size of 324 was adopted. Primary data used for the study were sourced with structured questionnaire, and analyzed in frequency tables and percentages, and multiple regression analysis for testing the hypotheses. The study found all the constructs of the study: green product, green price, green place (distribution), and green promotion to be significantly and positively related to sustainability of breweries in South-East of Nigeria. It concluded that green marketing significant positive effect on sustainability of breweries in South East of Nigeria. The study recommended that breweries in South-East Nigeria, and the broader Nigeria should sustain their environmental responsibilities and pay more attention to related issues so as to maintain their company sustainability.

Keywords: Green Marketing, Nigeria, South-East, Sustainability, brewery firms

Prevalence and Outcome of Cardiovascular Disease among Admitted Patients in State Tertiary Health Facility, Southwest, Nigeria (Published)

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are major causes of morbidity and disabilities globally with high prevalence in developing countries including Nigeria. Therefore, this study employed a retrospective research survey to determine the prevalence and outcome of cardiovascular diseases among admitted patients in medical wards, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Southwest, Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to: determine the prevalence of CVD among admitted patients; find out the outcome of CVD among admitted patients. This study was a 5years retrospective descriptive study of consecutive adult patient with diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases admitted into male and female medical wards, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, a tertiary health facility in Osun state Nigeria, between January 2014 and December 2019. Data that were extracted from admission and discharge register include age, sex, date of admission, diagnosis, and date of discharge or death, outcome of management and complications. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed 23.1% prevalent rate of cardiovascular disease which was found to be high among males than females. Cardiovascular diseases discovered in the study area were hypertensive heart disease, congestive cardiac failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, ischeamic and hemorrhagic stroke. The study further revealed that majority of the patients improved and discharged home. In conclusion, cardiovascular diseases were observed to be high in the study area with high prevalence among male patients aged 60 – 69 years. It is therefore recommended that early detection, prompt management should be ensured, appropriate preventive measure such as regular exercise, diet regulation and regular check-up should be encouraged to reduce complications, need for hospital admission and improve outcome of cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Nigeria, Prevalence, Southwest, admitted patients, cardiovascular disease, state tertiary health facility

Assessment of Airport Service Quality in Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed the airport service quality (ASQ) in Nigeria using the SERVQUAL Model from both the perspectives of the airlines and air transport passengers as major consumers of airport services in Nigeria. Using the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport (NAIA), Abuja and Murtala Muhammed International Airport (MMIA), Lagos; as case studies, we used questionnaire as survey instrument to elicit the service quality expectations and perceptions of airlines and air passengers in both airports. SERVQUAL model was used to determine the airport service quality which was subsequently compared. The results of the study indicates that from both perspectives of the airlines and air passengers, the airport service quality (ASQ) in both airports are low and cannot meet the service quality expectations of both airlines and passengers. However, the results show that the MMIA, Lagos offers higher quality of airport services than NAIA, Abuja.

Keywords: Nigeria, Service Quality, airline, airport, passengers

Analysis of Mechanisms for Promoting Local Content towards National Development in Nigeria: A Case Study of NOGICD ACT, the Nigerian Content Development and Monitoring Board (NCDMB) and its Community Content Guideline (CCG) (Published)

The quest for the growth of indigenous businesses and investments in the nation’s economy and necessity to maximize participation of Nigerians in oil and gas activities have prompted the “indigenization” policy which was first articulated as a legal instrument in the Nigeria’s Petroleum Act of 1969. The paper considers the situation where the region that produces the bulk of national wealth and contributes so much to global oil wealth, is at the same time, the region where local dwellers ravaged in extreme poverty as reason for the government to constantly review its approach and strategy towards achieving the intention for indigenization. The paper assesses the various initiatives set forth to position Nigerians to fully access the benefits and opportunities within the nation’s oil and gas industry. It observes that the NOGIC Act 2010 which gives birth to the Nigerian Content Development and Monitoring Board (NCDMB) and the consequential  Community Content Guideline (CCG) constitute a paradigm shift in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. The paper concludes that considering the current global economic order, the NOGIC Act provides a viable path to sustainable national economic development while the Community Content Guideline CCG is a veritable vehicle for fast tracking development in community context.

Keywords: CCG, Indigenization, NCDMB, National Development, Nigeria, local content

Analyses of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intention among Undergraduates Students in Nigeria (Published)

Entrepreneurship education and intention are major constructs that have enjoyed extensive investigation in literature as underlying factors for the development of potential and practicing entrepreneurs and the growth of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) sector. This study investigated the analysis of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Nigerian universities. Relevant theoretical framework and models such as Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) by Ajzen (1991) as well as Bandura’s (1986) Self-Efficacy model were employed to underpin the study. A sample of 469 undergraduates was investigated in Nigeria through a cross-sectional survey. A structured questionnaire was distributed online to respondents. Analysis was carried out using simple and multiple regression analysis. The findings from this study and the data analysis outcomes indicated that there is a positive significant relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Nigeria. This is in support of various positions in literature based on previous studies. However, the multi-dimensional perspective of entrepreneurship education only yielded two variables namely, entrepreneurship skills and knowledge as the determinant of entrepreneurial intention. This development gives credence to assess an optimum model for entrepreneurship education among the various antecedent factors that influence entrepreneurship education in relation to entrepreneurial intention. The study therefore recommends that adequate pedagogical approaches and tools be employed in the universities and other tertiary institutions that will impact emphasis on critical entrepreneurship education factors such as skills and knowledge for the management and policy framework for entrepreneurial activities and performance.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, Nigeria, Students, Undergraduates, entrepreneurial intention

Environmental Accounting and Reporting Practices: Significance and Issues and Journey Ahead in Nigeria Corporate Organisation (Published)

Environmental accounting and reporting practices as an emerging trending issue is dynamically fruitful to the fulfilment of the yearnings and aspirations of the key stakeholders in the corporate set up. It introduces transparency and accountability particularly in the area of resources management more so with natural resources. It involves the identification, measuring and controlling of costs, liabilities and consequentially assets that may be affected in the course of ordinary business and it encompasses sustainability reporting as well. A combination of primary and secondary data revealed that environmental accounting is still at infancy and the need for an implementation roadmap backed by the necessary statutes will be desired to ensure that all the accruable benefits of environmental accounting and reporting are enjoyed.

Keywords: Environmental Accounting, Nigeria, corporate organization, reporting practices

Language and Governance in Nigeria: A Symbiotic Relationship (Published)

Language is one of those natural endowments bequeathed to man by nature to empower him and adequately position him to be the lord and master of his environment. Thus, it is unimaginable or even absurd to conceive of any human endeavour where language does not play a prominent role. But given the prevailing attitude in developing world, Africa in general and Nigeria in particular, it would appear much attention is not usually paid to language when the theme of discourse is governance. In fact, if the factors that enhance governance were to be highlighted, language may be the last or not even mentioned at all. In view of this erroneous attitude and impression, this paper sets out to establish that a symbiotic relationship exists between language and governance, that is to say that the two phenomena are unarguably intertwined that none can maximize its potentialities in the absence of the other. The paper further reviews the lapses noticed in the Nigerian language policies, which have retarded language development in Nigeria. The paper, therefore calls on the actors in the theatre of governance to come up with feasible language policy as well as language planning in order to create enabling environment for the development of the existing languages in Nigeria.


Keywords: Governance, Language, Nigeria, symbiotic relationship

Coronavirus Pandemic and the Nigeria’s Entertainment Industry (Published)

This paper hinges on the consequences of the  Coronavirus (COVID-19)  Pandemic on Nigeria’s entertainment industry. It argues that since the outbreak of the pandemic, it has constituted various challenges in different sectors since it led to the total shutdown of the world’s economy including Nigeria.  This was the first time in the history of humankind that all the worship centers in Nigeria were closed down to curtail further spread of the virus. The pandemic also affected drastically the educational activities, business activities, tourism, and even the entertainment industry. Given the grave consequences arising from the outbreak of COVID-19, a lot of studies were conducted by scholars of different disciplinary backgrounds to find out ways of containing the spread of this deadly disease. However, most of these studies rather generalized the effects of Covid-19 on the nation’s economy. As a departure from other academic works, the study, therefore, confines itself to discuss the debilitating effects of COVID-19 on Nigeria’s entertainment industry. Using the documentary method of data collection and social distance theory, the paper reveals that the pandemic has affected the entertainment industry thereby retarding the development of the sector. The study concludes that, for the industry to be stable and vibrant, the further spread of the pandemic must be regulated. In this wise, the paper recommends amongst other measures like social distancing, regular washing of hands, and the prohibition of large gatherings as part of the ways to reduce the spread of the virus.

Keywords: Nigeria, coronavirus, entertainment industry, pandemic

Coping Behaviour among Retirees in Anambra State: Influence of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control (Published)

The study focused on locus-of-control and self-esteem vis-à-vis retirees’ coping behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study used Ways of Coping Checklist, Index of Self-Esteem, and Nowicki-Strictland Locus-of-Control Scale; cross-sectional factorial designs; two-way ANOVA statistics, random and snow-balling samplings, 56 retirees (26 males/30 females), 60-81 years retirees’ age-range and SD=1.98. Results: Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively had no significant influence on the retirees’ general coping behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria; Self-esteem and locus-of-control combined had no significant influence on the retirees’ general coping systems; Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively significantly influenced only the retirees’ “avoidance coping” system; Self-esteem, locus-of-control, and their combined effects contributed 98%, 98%, and 90% respectively to retirees’ “avoidance coping” system; finally, Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively did not significantly influence retirees’problem-focused coping”, “social-support seeking coping”, “self-blame coping”, and “wishful-thinking coping” elements of coping system. Recommendations: Effective coping with retirement should involve improved self-esteem, and constructive/positive locus-of-control of retirees. 

Keywords: Anambra State, Nigeria, Retirees, coping-behaviour, locus of control, self-esteem

Determinants of Customer Patronage for Local Food Restaurants in a Typical Sub-Saharan African Context (Published)

This study centers on the determinants of customer patronage for local food restaurant in Awka metropolis. There exists dearth of empirical studies on the patronage behavior of customers of local food restaurants in Awka metropolis. The study employed survey design and the population of study is the customers of local food restaurants in the area. The sampling technique used was quota sampling and the sample size is 246 respondents. The research instrument was questionnaire while data collected were subjected to reliability test using factor analysis. The result of the multiple regression analysis shows that food quality is the best predictor of customer patronage of local food restaurants follow by food varieties, convenient location, cultural influence, physical environment and service quality while price is not a significant determinant. We therefore recommend that local food restaurant operators should improve on the quality of meals served; provision of varieties of meals with different spices and meals should express the culture of the customer among others.

Keywords: Customer patronage, Food Marketing, Nigeria, local food restaurants, sub-Saharan Africa

Generic Structure Potential (GSP) and Discourse Features in Selected Banking Discourses in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the Generic Structure Potential and Discourse Features in selected banking discourses in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. The data, which comprised the recorded interactions between the customer service officer and the customers in the selected banks were transcribed, categorized and analysed based on the Generic Structure Potential model by Halliday and Hasan and the Metadiscourse Model by Hyland and Tse. The findings indicate that the Generic Structure Potential deployed five obligatory elements which are Greeting Initiation (GI), Customer Complaint (CC), Question and Response (QR), Proffering of solution (PoS) and Close (Cls) and four optional elements which are Request for Customer’s Complaint (RCC), Request for Account Details (RAD), Confirmation of Customer Details (CCD) and Apologies for Delay (AD). The Discourse Features include Opening, Closing, Questioning, Turn and Turn taking while the markers deployed by the CSO and customers include transitional markers, frame markers, hedges, attitude markers, self-mention, engagement markers and boosters. The paper concludes that GSP shows the structure of conversations, while Discourse Features help to aid better understanding between CSO and customers in banking discourse.

Keywords: Discourse Features, Generic Structure Potential (GSP), Ibadan, Nigeria, Oyo State, banking discourses