Local Content Development in the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects (Published)
In the past, the major players in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria were the international oil companies (IOCs). There was inadequate skilled workforce in the industry especially with respect to indigenous participation in the oil and gas projects. Consequently, the IOCs relied heavily on expatriates to carry out projects in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria which ordinarily would have been handled by Nigerians. In order to boost local participation in the oil and gas projects and create more employment opportunities for the locals, the federal government of Nigeria in 2010, enacted the Local Content Act in recognition of the inadequacy of the indigenous human capital development in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. However, the Local Content development policy of the federal government is without some problems which have affected the effective and efficient implementation of the policy. This paper therefore, examines the local content development policy of the federal government, identifies its problems and prospects, and makes appropriate recommendations.
Psychological Distress of Aguata Suburban Female Bankers, Anambra State, Nigeria: Interplay of Perceived Organizational Justice, Job-Related Tension, and Organizational Frustration (Published)
This study examined psychological distress of Aguata suburban female bankers, Anambra State, Nigeria, with the objectives of understanding the interplay of job-related tension, perceived organizational justice and organizational frustration, using 89 participants, age-ranged 26-56 years, mean age 39.19, and standard deviation 7.35, sampled through cluster sampling technique. Reliable/valid instruments used were Job-related Tension Scale, Perceived-Organizational Justice Scale, and Organizational Frustration Scale. Multiple regression statistic tested the hypotheses postulated. The findings were job-related tension had significant positive correlation and significantly predicted 50% with organizational frustration; as well as have negative correlation with perceived-organizational justice of the participants. Perceived-organizational justice did not significantly predict organizational frustration (21% only) of female bankers. Recommendations were: Psychological intervention mechanisms should be provided for bankers. Organizational justice policies need to be complimented with proaction facilitators to reduce psychological distress of female bankers.
The Nigerian society since independence has been disturbingly marked by inter-ethnic hostilities, religious intolerance, unemployment, poverty and intense corruption. The alternation of power between the military and the civilian elites has not yielded lasting solutions to these obstacles to national development. Dramatists like Wole Soyinka, Ola Rotimi, Femi Osofisan and a host of others, have engaged the Nigeria political imperative as they have used their arts to denounce the greed and ineptitude of politicians. They have shown interest in the project of national re-birth in a way that is different from the superfluous and grandiloquent spirit of the politicians. Sometimes these dramatists explore aspects of indigenous cultures to articulate their political and artistic concerns. One significant aspect of indigenous culture being explored in contemporary drama is the tradition of ritual cleansing. In a traditional society like Nigeria, myth, symbols and religious rituals nurture social interactions and regeneration. The practice of ritual cleansing is common to many communities as it is a significant aspect of the people’s religion and civic culture; they dedicate certain occasions to spiritual renewal by individuals and the community as a whole. Thus, this work captures the analysis of Wole Soyinka’s The Strong Breed and Femi Osofisan’s No More the Wasted Breed as they explore ritual as a weapon for social construction and regeneration for community development. Ritual in this study thus becomes the dominant instrument through which the Nigerian society is reflectedly purified. However, the societies captured in the two texts used for this study show different need and importance attached to ritual performance. Thus, Soyinka’s The Strong Breed examines ritual as a cultural ethnic cleansing annually embarked upon and making use of a carrier who takes the cleansing obligation upon himself while in Osofisan’s No More the Wasted Breed, ritual is employed as a dominant instrument of liberation. It is employed as the only way through which the society can be transformed from its ill-state.
States go into treatises in order to permit the nationals of one state to invest in another for mutual economic benefit and advancement. These treaties notwithstanding, disputes do come up as a result of the human tendencies and complexity of commerce. In Nigeria, certain statute such as law governing recognition and enforcement of arbitral agreement, law governing arbitration agreement, law governing substantive issues, law governing recognition and enforcement of award and the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1988 (ACA) and arbitration under Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC) makes provision for arbitration in the amicable settlement of investment disputes. This study therefore reveals that for the aim of having a uniform framework for the settlement of investment disputes, the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) was created. The study also reveals that some of the statute prescribe mandatory arbitration and as such negates agreement and party autonomy. The article recommends that the statutes be reformed to be in line with jurisprudence of arbitration.
Information Search Strategies as Correlate of Information Resource Utilization in Academic Libraries (Published)
The study investigated the influence of knowledge of information search strategies on the use of library resources by undergraduate students in federal universities in South-South, zone, Nigeria. The sampled population comprised of 952 registered library users from 3 selected universities in the zone in 2017/2018 academic session. Survey research design method was employed using a structured questionnaire to collect data. Data collected was analysed using mean and standard deviation. The hypothesis was tested using simple linear regression. The regression model produced a regression coefficient of R = .405 which shows that there is a significant positive relationship between knowledge of information search strategies and utilization of library resources. The study equally revealed a relatively low knowledge of information search strategies by undergraduates in the universities investigated. It was recommended among others that libraries should intensify the teaching of information literacy skills, paying particular attention to information search strategies. More so, lecturers should give their students assignments and tasks that require them to do advanced literature search.
This paper x-rays contemporary legal issues and problems associated with population and development in Nigeria. A potpourri of materials namely: statutes, textbooks, journals, articles, reports, case laws, and internet materials have been consulted in the course of writing this paper. The paper states that several studies have revealed that the growth of any nation is basically centered on its developmental strides and policies. The relationship between population and development is very dynamic in nature. A country is regarded as being developed when the institutional framework, policies and structures are functional and effective. Over population affects the environment and in turn, hampers its developmental growth. The environment experiences crisis when its economic growth skyrockets its capacity limit. Developing countries like Nigeria and some other countries in the Sub-Saharan region face an uphill task in trying to manage their ever increasing populace. The paper also examined population policies in Nigeria and reveals a critical gap between population and development and calls for legal and institutional reforms that will bring about an effective enforcement of population and development policies in Nigeria.
Life-Style and University Type as “Predisposers” To Stress among University Academics in Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)
Objectives of the study were to investigate lecturers’ life-style and university ownership variables, and stress experiences accompanying the variables. Participants (110) were sampled using incidental and cluster techniques: Federal University (46), State University (42), and Private University (22), Professors (12), Associate Professors (9), Senior Lecturers (30), Lecturer 1 (24), Lecturer 2 (14), and Assistant Lecturers (21) of cross-sectional and factorial designs, with multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) statistics. Data were collected using valid/reliable life-style, and stress experience inventories of 5-points Likert measurements respectively. Findings were: Life-style significantly predisposed lecturers to stress; life-style significantly predisposed lecturers to stress arising from relationship with colleagues, research stress, and teaching task stress; combination of life-style and university type significantly contributed to lecturers’ stress experiences; finally, variations in the stress were caused by work environment stressors. Recommendations were for lecturers to adopt healthy life-style, while university work environment be improved.
Financial Deficiency Syndrome and Behaviour of Low Income Earners in Rural Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the effect of financial deficiency on the behavior of low income earners in rural communities of Rivers State. The objective was to examine how financial deficiency affects the behavior of low income earner. One hundred respondents were selected from the 10 local governments in Rivers State. Questionnaire were designed and administered to the respondents in the local governments. Descriptive analysis and Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used as data analysis. Findings revealed that financial deficiency have positive effect on the behavior of low income earners in rural communities of Rivers State. The study recommends that government should formulate policies that will reduce unemployment in rural communities, the needs to increase public awareness on financial inclusion in the rural communities. Efforts should be advanced by the government to reduce financial exclusion in the rural communities of rivers state and the regulatory authorities should ensure equitable distribution of financial institutions and financial servicing to the rural communities in Rivers State.
This study examined the effects of cross boarder banking on the growth of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The objective was to examine the relationship that exists between Nigeria cross boarder banking and deposit money banks in Nigeria. Time series data was sourced from Central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Growth of Nigerian deposit money banks was modeled as the function of cross boarder credit, cross boarder banking claims, cross boarder banking assets, cross boarder banking liabilities and cross boarder bank branches. The ordinarily least square method was used as data analysis method. Findings shows that cross boarder bank branches, cross boarder banking liabilities and cross boarder banking assets have positive relationship with the growth of Nigerian deposit money banks while cross boarder bank credit and cross boarder banking claim have negative effect on the growth of Nigerian deposit money banks. The study concludes that cross boarder banking have moderate effects on the Nigerian deposit money banks. We recommend that international financial policies such as cross boarder banking should be formulated by management of deposit money banks and regulatory authorities to achieve positive impact of cross boarder banking on the growth of Nigeria deposit money banks.
Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Settlement of Foreign Investment Disputes in Nigeria (Published)
The need for an elaborate legal and institutional framework for the settlement of foreign investment disputes in Nigeria has become a subject utmost importance. This is because; such sound legal framework attracts foreign investments which automatically lead to greater economic development of the country. Therefore, this work has examined relevant Nigerian legal framework for the promotion and protection of foreign investments in Nigeria. Concepts like models of alternative dispute (ADR) resolution, customary law arbitration, and capital market operations and investment regulations were discussed. The recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments have equally been discussed and fully analyzed. Issues like relevance of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in resolving investment disputes and fostering investment development, challenges associated with ADR and examples of ADR utilization by the Nigerian Government have equally been fully addressed in the present study.
The manufacturing sector is ubiquitously seen as the pathway to economic growth and development due to its driving potentials. Modern theories present population increase in an optimistic light as opposed to the doomsday assertion of Malthus. It is in light of this foregoing that this study examines the impact of population growth on the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria for the stretch of 1981 to 2018. The population growth was ventilated into male population growth, female population growth and youth population to help examine which category of population spur or inhibit the growth of the manufacturing sector output. The test for long-run association between manufacturing output ratio to GDP and population components was done using the normalized co-integration technique. In addition, the study used the error correction mechanism (ECM) to examine the short run dynamics of the variables and the speed at which past year’s disequilibrium will be corrected in the current period. The normalized co-integration showed a positive and significant relationship between male population growth and manufacturing sector contribution to GDP, while a negative and significant long run relationship was found between female population growth, youth population growth and manufacturing sector contribution to GDP respectively. The study hence recommended an aggressive entrepreneurial awareness programmes and starter packs to help draw in the active and vibrant youth population and a parity or non-dichotomy in employment, pay and other employment benefits between male and female employees.
Psychology of Politics and Politicians in Nigeria: The Human and Social Governance Consequences (Published)
The research examined political psychology in Nigeria, characterized by political interest, godfatherism, rigging, thuggery, occultism, election litigation, and zoning politics. Participants were politicians and electorates. Information was gathered through direct observations, interviews and print sources, with analytical and descriptive designs. Findings were psychology of politics manifested as: Elitism, machination, group opportunity, business perception, godfatherism politics, socio-cultural consciousness, politics as criminal enterprise, life-time socioeconomic opportunity, including emasculating the Judiciary and Legislature. Psychology of politicians manifested as: Desperation, superiority status, extravagant lifestyle, betrayal of citizens, narcissistic personality, high selfishness/greed, deception/lying as skills/smartness, and pride/euphoria in associating with Federal Government’s might. The human/social governance consequences were: Social polarization, disappointed governance, loss of confidence in electoral system, corruption, poor societal development, misguided rule of law, exponential unemployment, poor standard of living, misguided life virtue, and embarrassing Judiciary. Proffered recommendations were improved political value system, proactive Judiciary, accountable politics/politicians, and stopping irresponsible political extravagant lifestyle.
Trends in historical evolution indicate that the nation-state of Nigeria came into existence since 1914. Her territorial boundaries were fixed with prejudicial colonial interests without considering the interests and aspirations of the traditional ethnic groups involved. Since then, the nation has been governed and exploited by the feudal-bourgeosie, privileged to inherit the nation from the colonial masters. Worst still, the various machineries at different periods and republics charged with the responsibility of ruling the nation has proved anti-social, adopting in their distribution of values, formulas detrimental to the general welfare of the citizenry. Thus, we are left with a fragile nation, drifting apart and her people resorting to communal and individual self-definition. The persistent call for national conference among the various ethnic groups to resolve the national question gives credence to the deduction that the nation was founded upon vested colonial interest, without consulting the component ethnic groups. The issue of national integration has become a re-assessment of the pre-requisite for Federalism towards the continued existence of the sovereign nation state in Nigeria. Thus, the focus of this paper is how to adopt a paradigm shift from the previous abortive methods that have been employed so far, to the pragmatic resolve of using language and culture in attaining the long elusive national integration in Nigeria.
Effect of Corporate Attributes On Environmental Disclosure of Listed Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria (Published)
This study investigates the influence of corporate attributes on environmental disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. The study uses secondary data collected from the annual reports and accounts of 9 randomly selected oil companies for the period 2011 to 2017. The study analysed the data using the logistic regression technique. The study finds that corporate attributes significantly affect the environmental accounting disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study concludes financial leverage has a significant positive effect on environmental accounting disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. Second, profitability has a significant positive effect on environmental accounting disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. Third, the study also find that firm size has a significant positive effect on environmental accounting disclosure. Fourth, the study finds a positive but insignificant effect of auditor types on the environmental accounting disclosure by oil companies in Nigeria. The study recommends that the regulators of the oil companies in Nigeria should encourage the use of more debts in the oil companies’ capital structure, which will make them disclose more information about the environment based on the close monitoring and demand by the debt holders.
Mandatory Environmental Disclosures by Companies Complying With IAS/IFRS: A Case of Nigeria (Published)
The Report of the Vision 2020 Committee set up to provide a roadmap that will propel Nigeria among the top 20 world economies by 2020 acknowledged that the country is faced with many environmental problems such as the continuous exploitation of marginal lands, drought and desertification in the north, severe gully erosion in eastern and northern states, uncontrolled logging with inherent problems of the destruction of bio-diversity, inappropriate agricultural practices, destruction of watershed, destruction of vast agricultural lands, creation of burrow pits due to bad mining practices and road works, oil pollution from spillage and gas flaring, urban decay and squatter settlements, industrial pollution and municipal waste generation among other things. In view of the above, this paper examines mandatory disclosure of environmental accounting by companies complying with IFRS/IAS in Nigeria. Contents analysis research design was adopted by reviewing the available literature in the field of this study. It was discovered that Nigeria was facing with challenges of inaccurate data, incompetent manpower, and lack of transparency among companies. Despite these shortcomings Mandatory reporting present several advantages such as the creation of standardized and comparable measures that enable benchmarking and best practices among companies complying with IFRS/IAS in Nigeria. It was concluded that aside from complying with IFRS/IAS, Incentives and enforcement was also identified as a factor for full convergence and comparability among companies.
Teenage pregnancy continues to rise in today’s society. It is estimated that about 16 million girls are married off every year (WHO, 2018) contributing to the number of teenage pregnancies across the globe. In Nigeria, 23% of females aged between 15-19 years are bearing children. This can be attributed to illiteracy, societal practices and poverty encouraging girls enter into sexual relationship at an early age. This condemnable situation leads to numbers complications which include; sexually transmitted diseases, school drop outs, pressure on the health sector, increased mortality to mention but a few. These impacts of school enrollment and drop out have significant implications on national development and therefor needs to be tackled urgently. This study therefore, seeks to analyze the influence of teenage pregnancy on secondary school education in Nigeria using a case study of Obio-Akpor L.G.A, Rivers State. The instrument for data collation was a semi-structured questionnaire and the data obtained analyzed employing SPSS version 2.0. A total of 802 respondents responded to the interview making the rate of response 96.2 %. Majority of the respondents were teenagers and 151 (18.1%) being parents. Findings from the study revealed that teenage pregnancy significantly impacted school enrollment, that a significant percentage of teenagers are pregnant before 15, lack of education of parents and teenagers increased the probability of teenage pregnancy, poverty and drug abuse increased the likelihood of teenage pregnancy while teenager mothers 61.2 percent likely to withdraw from school because of the financial obligations of being a mother. In addition, the study makes a number of recommendations which include; sensitization programs should be initiated by relevant bodies to educate the populace on the impact of teenage pregnancies, Policies that facilitate better health care services for teenagers should be deployed by government and non-government organizations, Government and non-governmental organizations should make contraceptive services easily accessible and affordable, School-based daycare facilities should be provided for soon to be/already teenage parents, Psychological help should be provided to students in secondary to help them deal with pressures of peers and societal stigmatization.
Use of Social Media in Mobilising Support for Abductees in Nigeria: A Study of Epe School Kidnap (Published)
This work examines social media usage to support abductees in Nigeria, beaming its searchlight on the case of the 6 Epe school boys, who were kidnapped at The Lagos State Model College on May 24, 2017. This study seeks to know various ways the social media contribute to the freedom of abductees in Nigeria and how potent the social media could be in mobilising support for them. The survey method was adopted, and questionnaire was used to collect data. For this study, 528 questionnaires were given to respondents in the 66 streets on Eredo Local Council Development Area (LCDA), in Epe Local Government of Lagos State. 521 of the questionnaire were returned. Eredo has a population of 18,590, and 3% of the population was used. Purposive sampling method was chosen for this study. This is adopted in order to select the members of the population that are fit to give the correct answers to the research questions. The findings of this study reveal that the contributions of Nigerians and social media outcry made the government and its agencies to take speedy action on the abduction of the Epe school boys. This study finds out that the social media has the power to reach a large number of Nigerians faster than other media of communication. This study therefore recommends that the Civil Society organisations in Nigeria and Human Right Groups should explore the advantages of the social media to reach the people and the government alike. The study also recommends that Nigerians still need orientations on how to maximize the power of the social media.
There can be no sustainable national development without vocational and technical education, and there can be no vocational and technical education without skills acquisition. The issue of sustainable national development is not a one-day event, but constant or continuous process that affects the citizens positively. The paper x-rayed the peculiar characteristics of vocational and technical education in providing necessary skills to the populace for sustainable national development. The conceptual clarification of vocational education, technical education, vocational and technical education, and sustainable national development were considered. The paper further discussed a brief history of vocational and technical education in Nigeria, during the pre-colonial, colonial and the post-colonial era. The paper examines the importance of vocational and technical education in Nigeria development. It further highlighted the role of vocational and technical education in sustainable national development. The paper concluded that non-acquisition of saleable skills has been a major factor in the countries under development and high rates of poverty and other social vices. Therefore, VTE as the type of education with these values should be recognized and taken serious for sustainable national development to strive.
A Public Officer Convicted Of Breach of the Code of Conduct for Public Officers in Nigeria Cannot Be Granted Amnesty: A Legislative Overkill (Published)
Paragraph 18(7) of the Code of Conduct for Public Officers, contained in Part I Fifth Schedule of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as amended and section 23 (7) of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (LFN) 2010 provide that a public officer who is punished for breach of these laws cannot be granted pardon under prerogative of mercy. Most of these prohibited acts under the two laws appear civil in nature or at most quasi-criminal such as failure to declare assets or doing so late, combining public service job with another job save farming, accepting gratification while in office, maintenance of foreign accounts etc. Curiously, under the same constitution, people who are convicted of heinous crimes such as murder, armed robbery, kidnapping, even coup plotting etc. enjoy state pardons on regular basis during national festivities. The same constitution provides against discrimination of any kind in section 42. This paper argues that though this provision of the constitution on pardon is aimed at stopping corruption in the country that time has come for the removal of this discriminatory provision so that all convicts in Nigeria like in most jurisdictions in the world can enjoy presidential or gubernatorial amnesty as the case may be.
This study examined the impact of board activism on performance of quoted insurance companies in Nigeria. The study evaluates the effect of board meetings on the financial performance of 15 listed insurance companies existing on the Nigeria stock exchange between the period 2006-2017.Panel data regression and descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data obtained from the annual report of the sampled companies. The result of the study revealed a negative relationship with no significant impact between the board meeting and performance of insurance firms in Nigeria with emphasis on Return on Equity, Return on Asset and Tobin’s Q. It was suggested that regulatory authority focus their attention more on the skill and experience of directors at meeting of the board for good performance.