Tag Archives: Nigeria

Structure of Road Network Connectivity in the Benue Basin of Nigeria (Published)

The structure of road network connectivity in any region can either promote or reduce agricultural production, market opportunities, cultural and social interactions as well as businesses and employment opportunities. This study evaluates road network connectivity in the Benue Basin of Nigeria. Data on the existing road network including type and conditions, density and length of the roads in the study area were extracted from existing road map of Nigeria, and satellite imagery of the Benue basin. The data was analysed using different methods of network connectivity analysis including beta index, alpha and gamma indices. The findings reveal four types of roads network in the basin which are grouped into three categories namely: federal highways (trunk A), state government roads (trunk B) and local government and community roads (trunk C) which are in various state of deplorable conditions. The result of connectivity analysis reveals a beta index (β) of 0.98 for the basin, alpha index of -0.05, gamma index of 0.2 which indicates that Benue basin has poor road network connectivity. A comparative analysis of road network connectivity among the five states that fall within the basin shows variation among them with Benue and Taraba states having a better connectivity than others in the region. Based on the findings, the study noted that provision of effective roads network connectivity is fundamentally important to the development and well-being of the inhabitants of the Benue basin. The current road network connectivity of the basin needs urgent attentions to reposition the region for rapid socio-economic development. The study recommends funding of road infrastructure particularly building new roads and rehabilitating the existing ones in the region by it policy makers/stakeholders considering the fact that transport is the lifeline of the economy and social interactions.


Keywords: Benue basin, Connectivity, Nigeria, Structure, road network

Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring Of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes

Keywords: Adult Education, Challenges, Monitoring, Nigeria, Programmes, Projects, Prospects, Sustainability

Customer Loyalty and Patronage of Quick Service Restaurant in Nigeria (Published)

This paper assessed the product and seller factors including menu quality, price fairness, personnel quality, restaurant image, restaurant’s atmosphere, customer trust, and customer loyalty that drive customer loyalty and patronage in quick service restaurants in Nigeria, using Awka capital territory of Anambra State as a case. Survey research design was adopted in which 399 patrons were sampled. The questionnaire was used to source the primary data for the study. Frequency tables, percentages correlation were applied in the data analyses. The study found a significant positive relationship between price fairness, food quality, firm’s personnel quality, customer trust, restaurant image, and restaurant’s atmosphere and customer loyalty. Positive relationship was also found between customer loyalty and customer patronage. The study recommended that managers should constantly re-strategize by re-inventing their firm with novel programs that will excite the beliefs system and emotion of the patrons so as to ensure continued patronage and, firm’s profitability.


Keywords: Awka, Customer loyalty, Nigeria, Patronage, restaurant

Achieving-Drive Behaviour and Self-Perception as Influencers of Personal Functioning Among Nigerian Potential Graduates: A Multivariate Analysis (Published)

The study examined achieving-drive behaviour and self-perception as influencers of personal functioning among Nigerian potential graduates. Participants were 191 (16-30 years) sampled through stratified and cluster techniques. Valid/reliable Type ‘’A’’ Behaviour Scale (TABS), Self-perception Scale (SPS), and Personal Function Inventory (PFI) measured achieving-drive, self-perception, and personal functioning respectively. This study had cross-sectional factorial design, linear regressions and multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) statistics. The findings for Nigerian potential graduates were: Achieving-drive behaviour, and self-perception significantly predicted  personal functioning; Elements of personal functioning were significantly influenced by achieving-drive behaviour and self-perception; Achieving-drive accounted for 48% of personal functioning, 43% problem-focused coping, 37% avoidance-focused coping, 33% adaptiveness coping, and 39% emotion-focused coping. Self-perception accounted for 35% of personal functioning, 37% problem-focused coping, 25% avoidance-focused coping, 24% adaptiveness coping, and 30% emotion-focused coping. Recommendations: Nigerian potential graduates and higher institutions should pursue personal competencies and cognitive flexibility for handling challenges.

Keywords: Nigeria, achieving-drive, personal functioning, potential graduates, self-perception

Influence of Climate Change on Building Design in Enugu South L.G.A of Nigeria (Published)

The effects of climate change on building design is a worrisome issue. Flooding, wind storm among others drastically affect buildings in the study area. This sometimes leads to building failures and in extreme cases, complete collapse. This research employed the use questionnaire and also sourced climate data from NIMET. The data collected were analyzed using percentages, Principle component analysis and regression analysis. The research found out that the respondents are knowledgeable about climate change and agree that it affects building designs, therefore must be factored into the design for proper ventilation and illumination as well as increased resilience and durability of the buildings in the study area. The likert table with a cluster means value of 4.01 > 3.0 and associated standard deviation of 0.65 indicates that the respondents perceived climate changes as contributing to changes in building designs. Bu ilding Designs in Enugu metropolis have changed over time. Component II recorded an eigen value of 1.486 and an additional variance of 16.512% bringing the cumulative explanation of respondents perception of climate influence on building designs to 88.183%. The research concluded that there are stages in the design of buildings whereby climate parameters are considered and that affects important decisions regarding the supposed building. The research recommends the need for building professionals to obtain basic climatic data from meteorological stations nearer to their proposed site and analyze such data for proper design of buildings.


Keywords: Building Design, Climate Change, Enugu south L.G.A, Nigeria

Financial Sector Development and Poverty Reduction Nexus: Evidences from Nigeria (Published)

Previous studies have examined the effect of financial sector development on poverty reduction. This study is unique by adopting the UNDP broader measure of well-being, the Human Development Index (HDI) to provide an argument for financial sector development process and poverty reduction interrelationship in Nigeria for the period 1988-2017. Stationary properties of the series were tested by the ADF unit root test. The paper uses the Johansen Co-integration test to examine the existence of long run relationship among the variables. Generally, it was found that financial sector development has both positive and significant relationship with HDI used as proxy for poverty level. The result also indicates a significant positive relationship between aggregate credit (AGC) and HDI. This shows that financial sector development which manifests in the ability of the banking sector to facilitate borrowing and investment in income earning assets, and stimulate the private sector, in particular, small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs), impacts positively on HDI. Finding also shows that aggregate deposit (AGD) (deposit opportunities available to deposit money banks) is negatively related to HDI and significant. This perhaps suggests that the volume of deposit mobilization by deposit money banks in Nigeria is relatively low to what is needed to transform the economy as well as the standard of living of the people. Realising that Human development is a desideratum and sacrosanct in poverty reduction, the objectives of policies aimed at further strengthening the banking sector should be people focused. 

Keywords: Deposit Money Banks, Human Development Index, Nigeria, Poverty Reduction, financial sector development

Cultural Value Orientations and Satellite Television Preference in Nigeria (Published)

Culture comprises the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, intellectual and emotional features that characterize society, our thought about life, and our ideas. Culture shape the way we see world; it has capacity to bring about the change of attitudes needed to ensure peace and sustainable development which is known as the only possible way forward for life on planet earth. Considering the prominence of Satellite television as a virtual medium, this study sought to know the influence of media imperialism and the claim that it has affected and undermined local Nigerian norms and values. More so, this study examined the cultural value orientation and satellite television preference in the south-western states of Nigeria, the region that is fully immersed with her culture. It specifically examined how satellite television has affected the knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by Nigerians as a member of the society. The research methodology utilizes descriptive statistics with a self-designed questionnaire used to elicit information from a sample of 180 respondents.  The formulated hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using multiple regressions. The findings of the study revealed that the relationship between satellite television preferences and cultural value orientation is high, positive and statistically significant. It was therefore recommended among others that television operators and producers should revamp the culture through interesting educative programme.

Keywords: Consumer preference, Nigeria, cultural value orientations, satellite television

Technical Human Capital Obsolescence and Age Relationship in the Building Construction Industry: A case of Nigeria (Published)

The Building Construction Industry (BCI) is among the businesses that depend on the agility and viability of the workforce. Consequently, it invests heavenly in the development of employees’ knowledge and skills, otherwise known as human capital. However, individual’s human capital is bound to deteriorate owning to atrophy (nonuse of skills) and inevitable changes, which could be as a result of ageing process, wear, injuries, and/or illnesses, in the individual. This deterioration is known technical human capital obsolescence. Thus, using descriptive study, this paper investigates technical human capital obsolescence in the BCI and its relationship with workers’ aging. Three research questions guided the study and questionnaire was administered to 387 randomly selected BCI workers. 278 questionnaires representing 71.83 percent were successfully completed and returned. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis H test statistics and SPSS software. The findings indicate, among other things, that, individual’s technical obsolescence due to wear is not a function of age. It is recommended that the industry and her workers intermittently evaluate their skills with the view of finding the specific obsolescence and providing measure(s) to alleviate its effects in the industry.

Keywords: : Human Capital, Industry, Nigeria, Technical, age relationship, building construction, obsolescence

Effects of Financial Innovations on the Profitability of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the effects of financial innovation on the profitability of deposit money banks in Nigeria. the general purpose of the study was to examine the effect of financial innovation on the profitability while the specific objectives was to examine the effect of  automated teller machine, electronic fund transfer,  internet banking, mobile banking and investment on information  communication technology on return on equity of deposit money banks.   The study formulated four hypotheses and used panel data regression to analyze the secondary data extracted from the annual reports and accounts of the fourteen firms for the period 2009 to 2017. Return on equity was the dependent variables while automated teller machine, electronic fund transfer, internet banking, mobile banking and investment on information communication technology on return were the independent variables. Findings of the study revealed that automated teller machine and electronic fund transfer have negative relationship with return on equity while    internet banking, mobile banking and investment on information communication technology have positive relationship with return on equity. The study recommends that deposit money   banks should adopt financial innovations, deposit money banks invest in technological innovations and banks should transform banking service by adapting to mobile banking and agency banking so that not only to providing jobs but also increase market share.

Keywords: Banks’, Deposit, Money, Nigeria, Profitability, financial innovations

Working Capital Management Firm Liquidity and Stock Market Seasonality: Evidence from Nigeria (Published)

This study examines the relationship between Working Capital Management Firm Liquidity and Stock Market Seasonality among quoted firms in Nigeria. Six hypotheses were formulated following the dependent variable of Stock Market Liquidity. The independent variables employed for this study include: Liquidity Ratio, Account Payable Day, Account Receivable Day, Inventory Day, Firm Leverage and Firm Size. This study is based on ex-post facto research design and employed a panel data set collected Fifty (50) non-financial companies over an eight year period ranging from 2011 to 2018 financial year.  We analyzed the data set using descriptive statistics, correlation and Panel Ordinary Least Square Regression Analysis. Our finding lends credence to the efficient market theory which holds that share markets prices are unpredictable and as such cannot be forecasted. Specifically, the finding suggests that market liquidity cannot predict stock market returns irrespective of the season of the year. Hence, we carefully hold that the stock market in Nigeria is efficient due to its randomness and will rapidly respond to any information or anomalies presented to it. The study recommends among others that policy makers in emerging markets such as Nigeria should ease entry barriers for prospective firms so as to enhance liquidity. The study further recommends that, proper inventory management system should be put in place in order to avoid working capital mismanagement.

Keywords: Firm, Liquidity, Management, Nigeria, Stock Market, Working capital., seasonality

Mitigating stakeholder conflicts in Nigerian tertiary institutions: The Ignatius Ajuru University and Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic examples (Published)

Several crises in tertiary institutions in Nigeria have been traced to poor policy communication, stakeholders’ rejection of decisions or the management of conflicts. However, while some tertiary institutions in the country often encounter internal crises, the Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic have remained relatively calm. This study investigated the communication flow patterns and decision-making approaches of these institutions, especially since conflicts and crises in many campuses in Nigeria have been linked to poor policy communication or disagreements arising from decisions. Among other objectives, the study investigated the structures that encourage participatory decision-making in Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic. The study was anchored on the Stakeholder theory. The descriptive survey research design was used to study a population of 21, 089 from which a sample size of 375 was drawn. Findings of the study showed that the authorities of Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic involve staff and students of the institutions in decision-making through designated participatory structures. It was also found out that participatory decision-making mitigated stakeholder conflicts in the institutions. The study recommended, among other things, that the authorities of tertiary institutions in Nigeria should create and sustain structures that enhance wider stakeholders’ participation in decision-making in order to mitigate the occurrence and escalation of stakeholder conflicts.

Keywords: Nigeria, Tertiary Institutions, participatory decision-making, patterns of stakeholder communication, stakeholder conflicts, stakeholders’ participation

Local Content Development in the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects (Published)

In the past, the major players in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria were the international oil companies (IOCs). There was inadequate skilled workforce in the industry especially with respect to indigenous participation in the oil and gas projects. Consequently, the IOCs relied heavily on expatriates to carry out projects in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria which ordinarily would have been handled by Nigerians. In order to boost local participation in the oil and gas projects and create more employment opportunities for the locals, the federal government of Nigeria in 2010, enacted the Local Content Act in recognition of the inadequacy of the indigenous human capital development in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. However, the Local Content development policy of the federal government is without some problems which have affected the effective and efficient implementation of the policy. This paper therefore, examines the local content development policy of the federal government, identifies its problems and prospects, and makes appropriate recommendations.

Keywords: Development, Industry, Nigeria, Oil and Gas, local content

Local Content Development in the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects (Published)

In the past, the major players in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria were the international oil companies (IOCs). There was inadequate skilled workforce in the industry especially with respect to indigenous participation in the oil and gas projects. Consequently, the IOCs relied heavily on expatriates to carry out projects in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria which ordinarily would have been handled by Nigerians. In order to boost local participation in the oil and gas projects and create more employment opportunities for the locals, the federal government of Nigeria in 2010, enacted the Local Content Act in recognition of the inadequacy of the indigenous human capital development in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. However, the Local Content development policy of the federal government is without some problems which have affected the effective and efficient implementation of the policy. This paper therefore, examines the local content development policy of the federal government, identifies its problems and prospects, and makes appropriate recommendations.

Keywords: Content, Development, GAS, Industry, Nigeria, local, oil

Psychological Distress of Aguata Suburban Female Bankers, Anambra State, Nigeria: Interplay of Perceived Organizational Justice, Job-Related Tension, and Organizational Frustration (Published)

This study examined psychological distress of Aguata suburban female bankers, Anambra State, Nigeria, with the objectives of understanding the interplay of job-related tension, perceived organizational justice and organizational frustration, using 89 participants, age-ranged 26-56 years, mean age 39.19, and standard deviation 7.35, sampled through cluster sampling technique. Reliable/valid instruments used were Job-related Tension Scale, Perceived-Organizational Justice Scale, and Organizational Frustration Scale. Multiple regression statistic tested the hypotheses postulated. The findings were job-related tension had significant positive correlation and significantly predicted 50% with organizational frustration; as well as have negative correlation with perceived-organizational justice of the participants. Perceived-organizational justice did not significantly predict organizational frustration (21% only) of female bankers. Recommendations were: Psychological intervention mechanisms should be provided for bankers. Organizational justice policies need to be complimented with proaction facilitators to reduce psychological distress of female bankers.

Keywords: Nigeria, Psychological Distress, female-bankers, job-tension, organizational-frustration, organizational-justice

Deployment of Ritual for Social Regeneration in Contemporary Nigerian Drama (Published)

The Nigerian society since independence has been disturbingly marked by inter-ethnic hostilities, religious intolerance, unemployment, poverty and intense corruption. The alternation of power between the military and the civilian elites has not yielded lasting solutions to these obstacles to national development. Dramatists like Wole Soyinka, Ola Rotimi, Femi Osofisan and a host of others, have engaged the Nigeria political imperative as they have used their arts to denounce the greed and ineptitude of politicians. They have shown interest in the project of national re-birth in a way that is different from the superfluous and grandiloquent spirit of the politicians. Sometimes these dramatists explore aspects of indigenous cultures to articulate their political and artistic concerns. One significant aspect of indigenous culture being explored in contemporary drama is the tradition of ritual cleansing. In a traditional society like Nigeria, myth, symbols and religious rituals nurture social interactions and regeneration. The practice of ritual cleansing is common to many communities as it is a significant aspect of the people’s religion and civic culture; they dedicate certain occasions to spiritual renewal by individuals and the community as a whole. Thus, this work captures the analysis of Wole Soyinka’s The Strong Breed and Femi Osofisan’s No More the Wasted Breed as they explore ritual as a weapon for social construction and regeneration for community development. Ritual in this study thus becomes the dominant instrument through which the Nigerian society is reflectedly purified. However, the societies captured in the two texts used for this study show different need and importance attached to ritual performance. Thus, Soyinka’s The Strong Breed examines ritual as a cultural ethnic cleansing annually embarked upon and making use of a carrier who takes the cleansing obligation upon himself while in Osofisan’s No More the Wasted Breed, ritual is employed as a dominant instrument of liberation. It is employed as the only way through which the society can be transformed from its ill-state.


Keywords: Nigeria, Ritual, drama rebirth, social regeneration

Resolution of investment disputes through arbitration in Nigeria (Published)

States go into treatises in order to permit the nationals of one state to invest in another for mutual economic benefit and advancement. These treaties notwithstanding, disputes do come up as a result of the human tendencies and complexity of commerce. In Nigeria, certain statute such as law governing recognition and enforcement of arbitral agreement, law governing arbitration agreement, law governing substantive issues, law governing recognition and enforcement of award and the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1988 (ACA) and arbitration under Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC) makes provision for  arbitration in the amicable settlement of investment disputes. This study therefore reveals that for the aim of having a uniform framework for the settlement of investment disputes, the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) was created. The study also reveals that some of the statute prescribe mandatory arbitration and as such negates agreement and party autonomy. The article recommends that the statutes be reformed to be in line with jurisprudence of arbitration.

Keywords: Arbitration, Nigeria, investment disputes, resolution

Information Search Strategies as Correlate of Information Resource Utilization in Academic Libraries (Published)

The study investigated the influence of knowledge of information search strategies on the use of library resources by undergraduate students in federal universities in South-South, zone, Nigeria. The sampled population comprised of 952 registered library users from 3 selected universities in the zone in 2017/2018 academic session. Survey research design method was employed using a structured questionnaire to collect data. Data collected was analysed using mean and standard deviation. The hypothesis was tested using simple linear regression. The regression model produced a regression coefficient of R = .405 which shows that there is a significant positive relationship between knowledge of information search strategies and utilization of library resources. The study equally revealed a relatively low knowledge of information search strategies by undergraduates in the universities investigated. It was recommended among others that libraries should intensify the teaching of information literacy skills, paying particular attention to information search strategies. More so, lecturers should give their students assignments and tasks that require them to do advanced literature search.

Keywords: Information resources, Library Resources, Nigeria, Undergraduates, Utilization, search strategies, south-south zone

Population and Development in Nigeria: Contemporary Issues and Prospects (Published)

This paper x-rays contemporary legal issues and problems associated with population and development in Nigeria. A potpourri of materials namely: statutes, textbooks, journals, articles, reports, case laws, and internet materials have been consulted in the course of writing this paper. The paper states that several studies have revealed that   the growth of any nation is basically centered on its developmental strides and policies. The relationship between population and development is very dynamic in nature. A country is regarded as being developed when the institutional framework, policies and structures are functional and effective. Over population affects the environment and in turn, hampers its developmental growth. The environment experiences crisis when its economic growth skyrockets its capacity limit. Developing countries like Nigeria and some other countries in the Sub-Saharan region face an uphill task in trying to manage their ever increasing populace. The paper also examined population policies in Nigeria and reveals a critical gap between population and development and calls for legal and institutional reforms that will bring about an effective enforcement of population and development policies in Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Issues, Nigeria, Population, Prospects

Life-Style and University Type as “Predisposers” To Stress among University Academics in Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

Objectives of the study were to investigate lecturers’ life-style and university ownership variables, and stress experiences accompanying the variables. Participants (110) were sampled using incidental and cluster techniques: Federal University (46), State University (42), and Private University (22), Professors (12), Associate Professors (9), Senior Lecturers (30), Lecturer 1 (24), Lecturer 2 (14), and Assistant Lecturers (21) of cross-sectional and factorial designs, with multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) statistics. Data were collected using valid/reliable life-style, and stress experience inventories of 5-points Likert measurements respectively. Findings were: Life-style significantly predisposed lecturers to stress; life-style significantly predisposed lecturers to stress arising from relationship with colleagues, research stress, and teaching task stress; combination of life-style and university type significantly contributed to lecturers’ stress experiences; finally, variations in the stress were caused by work environment stressors. Recommendations were for lecturers to adopt healthy life-style, while university work environment be improved.

Keywords: Anambra State, Nigeria, Stress, academics/lecturers, life-style, university-type

Financial Deficiency Syndrome and Behaviour of Low Income Earners in Rural Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the effect of financial deficiency on the behavior of low income earners in rural communities of Rivers State. The objective was to examine how financial deficiency affects the behavior of low income earner. One hundred respondents were selected from the 10 local governments in Rivers State. Questionnaire were designed and administered to the respondents in the local governments. Descriptive analysis and Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used as data analysis.  Findings revealed that financial deficiency have positive effect on the behavior of low income earners in rural communities of Rivers State. The study recommends that government should formulate policies that will reduce unemployment in rural communities, the needs to increase public awareness on financial inclusion in the rural communities. Efforts should be advanced by the government to reduce financial exclusion in the rural communities of rivers state and the regulatory authorities should ensure equitable distribution of financial institutions and financial servicing to the rural communities in Rivers State.

Keywords: Behaviour, Low Income Earners, Nigeria, Rivers State, Rural Communities, financial deficiency syndrome