Tag Archives: Nigeria

Prevalence and Outcome of Cardiovascular Disease among Admitted Patients in State Tertiary Health Facility, Southwest, Nigeria (Published)

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are major causes of morbidity and disabilities globally with high prevalence in developing countries including Nigeria. Therefore, this study employed a retrospective research survey to determine the prevalence and outcome of cardiovascular diseases among admitted patients in medical wards, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Southwest, Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to: determine the prevalence of CVD among admitted patients; find out the outcome of CVD among admitted patients. This study was a 5years retrospective descriptive study of consecutive adult patient with diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases admitted into male and female medical wards, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, a tertiary health facility in Osun state Nigeria, between January 2014 and December 2019. Data that were extracted from admission and discharge register include age, sex, date of admission, diagnosis, and date of discharge or death, outcome of management and complications. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed 23.1% prevalent rate of cardiovascular disease which was found to be high among males than females. Cardiovascular diseases discovered in the study area were hypertensive heart disease, congestive cardiac failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, ischeamic and hemorrhagic stroke. The study further revealed that majority of the patients improved and discharged home. In conclusion, cardiovascular diseases were observed to be high in the study area with high prevalence among male patients aged 60 – 69 years. It is therefore recommended that early detection, prompt management should be ensured, appropriate preventive measure such as regular exercise, diet regulation and regular check-up should be encouraged to reduce complications, need for hospital admission and improve outcome of cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Nigeria, Prevalence, Southwest, admitted patients, cardiovascular disease, state tertiary health facility

Assessment of Airport Service Quality in Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed the airport service quality (ASQ) in Nigeria using the SERVQUAL Model from both the perspectives of the airlines and air transport passengers as major consumers of airport services in Nigeria. Using the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport (NAIA), Abuja and Murtala Muhammed International Airport (MMIA), Lagos; as case studies, we used questionnaire as survey instrument to elicit the service quality expectations and perceptions of airlines and air passengers in both airports. SERVQUAL model was used to determine the airport service quality which was subsequently compared. The results of the study indicates that from both perspectives of the airlines and air passengers, the airport service quality (ASQ) in both airports are low and cannot meet the service quality expectations of both airlines and passengers. However, the results show that the MMIA, Lagos offers higher quality of airport services than NAIA, Abuja.

Keywords: Nigeria, Service Quality, airline, airport, passengers

Analysis of Mechanisms for Promoting Local Content towards National Development in Nigeria: A Case Study of NOGICD ACT, the Nigerian Content Development and Monitoring Board (NCDMB) and its Community Content Guideline (CCG) (Published)

The quest for the growth of indigenous businesses and investments in the nation’s economy and necessity to maximize participation of Nigerians in oil and gas activities have prompted the “indigenization” policy which was first articulated as a legal instrument in the Nigeria’s Petroleum Act of 1969. The paper considers the situation where the region that produces the bulk of national wealth and contributes so much to global oil wealth, is at the same time, the region where local dwellers ravaged in extreme poverty as reason for the government to constantly review its approach and strategy towards achieving the intention for indigenization. The paper assesses the various initiatives set forth to position Nigerians to fully access the benefits and opportunities within the nation’s oil and gas industry. It observes that the NOGIC Act 2010 which gives birth to the Nigerian Content Development and Monitoring Board (NCDMB) and the consequential  Community Content Guideline (CCG) constitute a paradigm shift in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. The paper concludes that considering the current global economic order, the NOGIC Act provides a viable path to sustainable national economic development while the Community Content Guideline CCG is a veritable vehicle for fast tracking development in community context.

Keywords: CCG, Indigenization, NCDMB, National Development, Nigeria, local content

Analyses of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intention among Undergraduates Students in Nigeria (Published)

Entrepreneurship education and intention are major constructs that have enjoyed extensive investigation in literature as underlying factors for the development of potential and practicing entrepreneurs and the growth of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) sector. This study investigated the analysis of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Nigerian universities. Relevant theoretical framework and models such as Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) by Ajzen (1991) as well as Bandura’s (1986) Self-Efficacy model were employed to underpin the study. A sample of 469 undergraduates was investigated in Nigeria through a cross-sectional survey. A structured questionnaire was distributed online to respondents. Analysis was carried out using simple and multiple regression analysis. The findings from this study and the data analysis outcomes indicated that there is a positive significant relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Nigeria. This is in support of various positions in literature based on previous studies. However, the multi-dimensional perspective of entrepreneurship education only yielded two variables namely, entrepreneurship skills and knowledge as the determinant of entrepreneurial intention. This development gives credence to assess an optimum model for entrepreneurship education among the various antecedent factors that influence entrepreneurship education in relation to entrepreneurial intention. The study therefore recommends that adequate pedagogical approaches and tools be employed in the universities and other tertiary institutions that will impact emphasis on critical entrepreneurship education factors such as skills and knowledge for the management and policy framework for entrepreneurial activities and performance.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, Nigeria, Students, Undergraduates, entrepreneurial intention

Environmental Accounting and Reporting Practices: Significance and Issues and Journey Ahead in Nigeria Corporate Organisation (Published)

Environmental accounting and reporting practices as an emerging trending issue is dynamically fruitful to the fulfilment of the yearnings and aspirations of the key stakeholders in the corporate set up. It introduces transparency and accountability particularly in the area of resources management more so with natural resources. It involves the identification, measuring and controlling of costs, liabilities and consequentially assets that may be affected in the course of ordinary business and it encompasses sustainability reporting as well. A combination of primary and secondary data revealed that environmental accounting is still at infancy and the need for an implementation roadmap backed by the necessary statutes will be desired to ensure that all the accruable benefits of environmental accounting and reporting are enjoyed.

Keywords: Environmental Accounting, Nigeria, corporate organization, reporting practices

Language and Governance in Nigeria: A Symbiotic Relationship (Published)

Language is one of those natural endowments bequeathed to man by nature to empower him and adequately position him to be the lord and master of his environment. Thus, it is unimaginable or even absurd to conceive of any human endeavour where language does not play a prominent role. But given the prevailing attitude in developing world, Africa in general and Nigeria in particular, it would appear much attention is not usually paid to language when the theme of discourse is governance. In fact, if the factors that enhance governance were to be highlighted, language may be the last or not even mentioned at all. In view of this erroneous attitude and impression, this paper sets out to establish that a symbiotic relationship exists between language and governance, that is to say that the two phenomena are unarguably intertwined that none can maximize its potentialities in the absence of the other. The paper further reviews the lapses noticed in the Nigerian language policies, which have retarded language development in Nigeria. The paper, therefore calls on the actors in the theatre of governance to come up with feasible language policy as well as language planning in order to create enabling environment for the development of the existing languages in Nigeria.


Keywords: Governance, Language, Nigeria, symbiotic relationship

Coronavirus Pandemic and the Nigeria’s Entertainment Industry (Published)

This paper hinges on the consequences of the  Coronavirus (COVID-19)  Pandemic on Nigeria’s entertainment industry. It argues that since the outbreak of the pandemic, it has constituted various challenges in different sectors since it led to the total shutdown of the world’s economy including Nigeria.  This was the first time in the history of humankind that all the worship centers in Nigeria were closed down to curtail further spread of the virus. The pandemic also affected drastically the educational activities, business activities, tourism, and even the entertainment industry. Given the grave consequences arising from the outbreak of COVID-19, a lot of studies were conducted by scholars of different disciplinary backgrounds to find out ways of containing the spread of this deadly disease. However, most of these studies rather generalized the effects of Covid-19 on the nation’s economy. As a departure from other academic works, the study, therefore, confines itself to discuss the debilitating effects of COVID-19 on Nigeria’s entertainment industry. Using the documentary method of data collection and social distance theory, the paper reveals that the pandemic has affected the entertainment industry thereby retarding the development of the sector. The study concludes that, for the industry to be stable and vibrant, the further spread of the pandemic must be regulated. In this wise, the paper recommends amongst other measures like social distancing, regular washing of hands, and the prohibition of large gatherings as part of the ways to reduce the spread of the virus.

Keywords: Nigeria, coronavirus, entertainment industry, pandemic

Coping Behaviour among Retirees in Anambra State: Influence of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control (Published)

The study focused on locus-of-control and self-esteem vis-à-vis retirees’ coping behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study used Ways of Coping Checklist, Index of Self-Esteem, and Nowicki-Strictland Locus-of-Control Scale; cross-sectional factorial designs; two-way ANOVA statistics, random and snow-balling samplings, 56 retirees (26 males/30 females), 60-81 years retirees’ age-range and SD=1.98. Results: Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively had no significant influence on the retirees’ general coping behaviour in Anambra State, Nigeria; Self-esteem and locus-of-control combined had no significant influence on the retirees’ general coping systems; Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively significantly influenced only the retirees’ “avoidance coping” system; Self-esteem, locus-of-control, and their combined effects contributed 98%, 98%, and 90% respectively to retirees’ “avoidance coping” system; finally, Self-esteem and Locus-of-control respectively did not significantly influence retirees’problem-focused coping”, “social-support seeking coping”, “self-blame coping”, and “wishful-thinking coping” elements of coping system. Recommendations: Effective coping with retirement should involve improved self-esteem, and constructive/positive locus-of-control of retirees. 

Keywords: Anambra State, Nigeria, Retirees, coping-behaviour, locus of control, self-esteem

Determinants of Customer Patronage for Local Food Restaurants in a Typical Sub-Saharan African Context (Published)

This study centers on the determinants of customer patronage for local food restaurant in Awka metropolis. There exists dearth of empirical studies on the patronage behavior of customers of local food restaurants in Awka metropolis. The study employed survey design and the population of study is the customers of local food restaurants in the area. The sampling technique used was quota sampling and the sample size is 246 respondents. The research instrument was questionnaire while data collected were subjected to reliability test using factor analysis. The result of the multiple regression analysis shows that food quality is the best predictor of customer patronage of local food restaurants follow by food varieties, convenient location, cultural influence, physical environment and service quality while price is not a significant determinant. We therefore recommend that local food restaurant operators should improve on the quality of meals served; provision of varieties of meals with different spices and meals should express the culture of the customer among others.

Keywords: Customer patronage, Food Marketing, Nigeria, local food restaurants, sub-Saharan Africa

Generic Structure Potential (GSP) and Discourse Features in Selected Banking Discourses in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the Generic Structure Potential and Discourse Features in selected banking discourses in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. The data, which comprised the recorded interactions between the customer service officer and the customers in the selected banks were transcribed, categorized and analysed based on the Generic Structure Potential model by Halliday and Hasan and the Metadiscourse Model by Hyland and Tse. The findings indicate that the Generic Structure Potential deployed five obligatory elements which are Greeting Initiation (GI), Customer Complaint (CC), Question and Response (QR), Proffering of solution (PoS) and Close (Cls) and four optional elements which are Request for Customer’s Complaint (RCC), Request for Account Details (RAD), Confirmation of Customer Details (CCD) and Apologies for Delay (AD). The Discourse Features include Opening, Closing, Questioning, Turn and Turn taking while the markers deployed by the CSO and customers include transitional markers, frame markers, hedges, attitude markers, self-mention, engagement markers and boosters. The paper concludes that GSP shows the structure of conversations, while Discourse Features help to aid better understanding between CSO and customers in banking discourse.

Keywords: Discourse Features, Generic Structure Potential (GSP), Ibadan, Nigeria, Oyo State, banking discourses

The Nigeria-Biafra War: Economic Challenges and Quest for Survival in Biafra, 1967-1970 (Published)

Nigeria was artificially structured and named by the British. This nomenclatural coloration brought different ethnic nationalities together. These ethnic nationalities located in different parts of the country with distinct languages, history and cultural backgrounds and values, were made to coexist together under the same political unit. Little effort was made by the British to achieve political unity among these groups. With the first and second military coups in 1966, ethnicity became a major factor in Nigeria’s political lexicon. By 1967, Nigeria experienced a major conflict that almost dismembered the country. The war had serious economic consequences on Biafra as a result of the economic blockade and other stringent policies imposed on them by the Nigerian government. This paper therefore, interrogates issues emanating from the economic blocked and the challenges faced by Biafran citizens during this period. It examines survival strategies adopted by the Biafran government, Biafran citizens and efforts made by international humanitarian organisations to support the people. In the content analysis, this paper made use of both primary and secondary sources. The study identified both positive and negative survival efforts made by the people of Biafra.

Keywords: Biafra, Nigeria, War, economic challenges, survival in Biafra

Understanding the Nexus between Electronic Service Performance and Customer Satisfaction among Online Shoppers in a Typical Emerging Economy (Published)

The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the influence of electronic service performance on customer satisfaction among online retail customers in Anambra State, Nigeria. The development of information and communication technology (ICT) and its wide application to business especially retailing led to the development of alternative methods of distributing goods and service hence, the emergence of many online retail shops that are challenging the traditional methods of retailing. In view of this and in view of the fact that customers are keying into this emergent phenomenon, customer satisfaction with the online retail shops is imperative. Hence this study set out to examine service performance and customer satisfaction among online retail shoppers in Nigeria. The study was based on a survey of 288 online shoppers in Anambra State. The data collected were analysed with multiple regressions and the outcome was useful to online shoppers, online retailers among others.


Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Emerging Economy, Nigeria, Online Shoppers, Service Performance

Global News Agencies: Economic, Political and Socio-Cultural Implications of Their Negative Reportage of Developing Nations like Nigeria (Published)

Global news agencies have played vital roles in the growth and development of mass communication, they provided on -the spot reports of events from around the globe, in-depth investigations and analysis of events that have shaped the world. But the imbalance of their reportage has not gone down well with developing countries who have alleged that their part of the world is been under reported and unfairly treated in terms of content. According to studies, this negative reportage has led to some implications on the economic, political and socio-cultural aspects of their lives. These allegations were x-rayed to verify its authenticity. Having realized the implications and examined it, some recommendations were made and they include: The stereotypes on Nigeria, Africa and other developing countries caused by the negative reports by the global news agencies especially Western media must be deconstructed using scientific and educational tools. The media’s approach towards Africa must be revised and their informative strategies realigned to consider the trends, contexts and positive events occurring in the continent. Sensitization and educational programmes involving the Western public are required at various levels to promote the desire to have better in-depth and qualified information on the African reality. Gate keeping theory of mass communication served as the theoretical framework for this research while the internet served as source of data collection.

Keywords: Developing Nations, Economic, Nigeria, Political, global news agencies, negative reportage, socio-cultural implications

Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainability Development Goals: The Achievement So Far In Nigeria Educational System. (Published)

This study focuses on examining the extent of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) achievement in Nigeria so far. It is a well-known fact that (MDGs) came as a result of relief to most developing countries and has been seen as a way of rampaging the issue of poverty. A lot of people in high positions have benefitted in this as they siphon/embezzle the funds meant to alleviate poverty slated for the less privileged by MDGs. Nigerian government is not able to dedicate funds reasonable enough to carter for the Education of its citizenry and effort to inculcate male and female gender in education has not been given a fair attention due to endemic corruption that has eaten deep into the fabric of the Nigerian development. The study aims at outlining the challenges facing Nigerian government in realization of MDGs in its education, gender equality and women empowerment and the way forward towards achieving this very desirable venture after the elapse of the duration of 2015 ultimatum for quality education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Millennium Development Goals (MDGS), Nigeria

The COVID 19 Global Pandemic: A Panacea for Diversifying to Hospitality and Tourism in Nigeria (Published)

The COVID 19 global pandemic has provided Nations another opportunity to look inwards on the development and expansion of its economic activities and growth! The hospitality and tourism industry has proven to be one of the most valid sectors for diversification of economic activities in Nigeria, considering the continuous dropping of crude price in the international market, and the fast growing demand on the bio-fuel products in the world today! The researchers are of the opinion that developing the hospitality and tourism in Nigeria is one of the most viable options to continuously increase the Nations GDP! The realistic test and interviews were conducted and presented in simple percentage table, and graphs were also deployed to show the reliability of the test! It was concluded that hospitality and tourism still remain the most viable economic activity and sector that will always stand the challenges of time, if properly developed! And was recommended that the government and agencies in charge of tourism and hospitality should fully divert its attention to the development of the hospitality and tourism sector in Nigeria

Keywords: Diversification, Hospitality, Nigeria, Tourism, global pandemic

Environmental Quality of Enugu, Nigeria As Impacted by the Primary Air Pollutants in the Area (Published)

Air pollution activities have increased over the years in urban areas of most developing countries like Nigeria. The same has been experienced in Enugu metropolis. This study therefore examined how environmental quality of Enugu metropolis has been impacted by the polluted air in the environment. The metropolis was classified into different neigbourhoods and then stratified into low, medium and high density areas. Samples were randomly collected from these neighborhoods. In determining the residential environmental quality of the area factor analysis (principal component analysis was used to reduce the various environmental quality variables into single factor known as “Y” variable. This served as dependent variable. Primary air pollutants; particular matter, Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide constituted the independent variables as x1, x2, x3 and x4 respectively. Using multiple regression model a relationship between the dependent and independent variable was established. The coefficient of determination in the result showed that adjusted r2=.917, indicating that 91.7% variation in the   residential environmental quality could be predicted from air pollution. Health challenges of reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood, chronic bronchitis and worsening respiratory illnesses were identified as some of the effects. Also identified, are acidification of soils, staining of fabrics among others on the environment. Making petroleum products like kerosene available and affordable to all by the federal government of Nigeria, among others have been recommended.


Keywords: Enugu, Environment, Impact, Nigeria, Quality

Board Diversity as Moderator on Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance of Listed Conglomerate Companies in Nigeria (Published)

Financial performance of companies has attracted a lot of attention globally from financial experts and management of firms as a result of 2008 global financial crisis and the failure of major companies.  Prior studies on the effect of firm characteristics on financial performance have reported mixed and contradictory results suggesting the existence of certain factors that have not been factored in modeling the relationship. It is against this backdrop that this study examined the effects of firm characteristics on financial performance of listed conglomerate firms in Nigeria in the presence of board diversity. The population of the study consists of six (6) listed conglomerate firms in Nigeria as at 31st December 2017. The six (6) firms were selected to form the sample of the study for the period of eleven years (2007-2017). The census sampling technique was adopted for the study. Secondary data was extracted from the annual report and accounts of the sampled companies A multiple regression analysis was used to test the null hypotheses of the study. The Hausman test indicated random effect model as the appropriate model for the study. The results of study show that leverage has negative and significant effect on return on asset, while firm size and operating expense revealed an insignificant positive effect on return on asset. The sales growth shows a negative and insignificant effect on the return on asset. For model two, it also documented that foreign director positively and significantly moderates the relationship between leverage and sales growth to financial performance of the listed conglomerate firms in Nigeria. It is recommended among others that the management of conglomerate firms in Nigeria should make it mandatory to have an average of 32% of their board members as foreign directors. Also reduce their debt structure to avoid high cost of operation

Keywords: Financial Performance, Nigeria, board diversity, conglomerate companies, firm characteristics

Perceived Effect of Use of Information and Communication Technology Tools for Instructional Delivery in Tertiary Institution in Nigeria. (Published)

One of UNESCO’s overriding aim is to ensure that all tertiary institutions both colleges of education/polytechnics, and universities have access to the best of educational facilities necessary to prepare young people to play full roles in modern society and to contribute to a knowledge nation. They maintain a capacity to advise national government on the use of technology in schools and in particular on the use of institutional delivery tools. It defines ICTS, classified four basic institutional uses of such as retrieval of new knowledge and integration of evolving technologies for the management of teaching and learning. Moue so, e-learning, blended learning, open and distance learning, learner centered environment, Title conference, telecollobration as well as to improve quality of education were highlighted challenges confronting institutional delivery were examined. Recommendations were made which include the parliamentarian should pass a bill on stabilizing the price of educational tools in the markets to make it affordable for students to acquire at a reduced rate. Also conferences, workshops and symposium should be organized to train people and enlighten them on the need for instructional delivery in schools.

Keywords: ICT, Nigeria, Tertiary Institution, Tools, instructional delivery

Understanding the Nexus between Electronic Service Performance and Customer Satisfaction among Online Shoppers in a Typical Emerging Economy (Published)

The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the influence of electronic service performance on customer satisfaction among online retail customers in Anambra State, Nigeria. The development of information and communication technology (ICT) and its wide application to business especially retailing led to the development of alternative methods of distributing goods and service hence, the emergence of many online retail shops that are challenging the traditional methods of retailing. In view of this and in view of the fact that customers are keying into this emergent phenomenon, customer satisfaction with the online retail shops is imperative. Hence this study set out to examine service performance and customer satisfaction among online retail shoppers in Nigeria. The study was based on a survey of 288 online shoppers in Anambra State. The data collected were analysed with multiple regressions and the outcome was useful to online shoppers, online retailers among others.

Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Emerging Economy, Nigeria, Online Shoppers, Service Performance

The Level of Awareness, Knowledge and Infringement on Copyright at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (Published)

The encouragement of intellectual creation is one of the basic prerequisites for social, economic and cultural development of any nation. Copyright was instituted to inspire authors towards more creativity by enabling them to harness the full benefit of their works; however there are issues associated with the compliance on copyright rules. There is a dare need to stem the overwhelming tide of copyright infringement activities going on across the globe. This study examines the level of awareness, knowledge and infringement on copyright at the University of Ibadan. Questionnaire instrument was used for data collection. The population used in the study comprises 150 academic and senior staff of University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study found that there is low level of awareness and knowledge on copyright matters, as many of the respondents were unfamiliar with matters relating to copyright. The study identified a high level of infringement on copyright in University of Ibadan. The study further advocated for intensive sensitization on copyright matters and enforcement of copyright law within University of Ibadan community in order to strengthen copyright protection.

Keywords: Knowledge, Nigeria, awareness, copyright, university of Ibadan