Tag Archives: Nigeria

The Level of Awareness, Knowledge and Infringement on Copyright at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (Published)

The encouragement of intellectual creation is one of the basic prerequisites for social, economic and cultural development of any nation. Copyright was instituted to inspire authors towards more creativity by enabling them to harness the full benefit of their works; however there are issues associated with the compliance on copyright rules. There is a dare need to stem the overwhelming tide of copyright infringement activities going on across the globe. This study examines the level of awareness, knowledge and infringement on copyright at the University of Ibadan. Questionnaire instrument was used for data collection. The population used in the study comprises 150 academic and senior staff of University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study found that there is low level of awareness and knowledge on copyright matters, as many of the respondents were unfamiliar with matters relating to copyright. The study identified a high level of infringement on copyright in University of Ibadan. The study further advocated for intensive sensitization on copyright matters and enforcement of copyright law within University of Ibadan community in order to strengthen copyright protection.

Keywords: Knowledge, Nigeria, awareness, copyright, university of Ibadan

Economic gains of whistle-blowing policy in Nigeria: prospects and challenges (Published)

It is no doubt that corruption is a global plague ravaging world’s economy. Corruption is depleting the scarce economic resources of developed and developing nations though, at varying intensities.  Corruption has also been described as the black hole which must be thoroughly covered. In a bid to fighting corruption in the world, the whistle blowing mechanism was adopted by several countries including the USA, UK, South Africa and Nigeria. To complement the efforts of ICPC and EFCC, the whistle-blowing machinery was adopted in Nigeria by the Muhammadu Buhari/Osinbajo administration in 2016. This paper examined the economic gains, prospects and challenges of the whistle blowing policy in Nigeria. The Role and Framing Theories were adopted in the study to explain the question of morality and persuasiveness through specific communication strategies to the citizens. The methodology used in the study was qualitative deductions from secondary data. The study discovered that the policy has attracted 5,000 tips which led to recovery of several billions of naira. Also discovered, was that there was no law protecting whistle-blowers from victimizations and recriminations. The paper therefore recommends that, the long overdue whistle-blower protection bill of 2011 should be passed into law as an emergency law amongst others

Keywords: Challenges, Corruption, Nigeria, Prospects, Whistle-Blowing, economic gain

Nonlinear and Asymmetric Exchange Rate Pass-Through to Consumer Prices In Nigeria: Evidence from a Smooth Transition Auto-regressive Model (Published)

This paper examines the nonlinearities and asymmetries in the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT) to consumer prices in Nigeria using quarterly time-series data from 1986 to 2013 and the nonlinear smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) method. The standard literature assumes linearity and symmetry in the ERPT to consumer prices in developing counties, despite the importance and presence of potential asymmetries and nonlinearities which are generated by the presence of various factors such as menu costs, capacity constraints, market share objectives and production switching. This study develops a partial equilibrium microeconomic mark-up model to investigate asymmetric and nonlinear behaviour in the ERPT. The study confirms the presence of nonlinear ERPTs due to different inflation levels. The results also show asymmetric ERPTs in the appreciation and depreciation of exchange rates. The magnitude of the ERPT also depends on the size of the exchange rate change. The ERPT is higher during depreciation than during the appreciation episodes of the Naira. Nonlinearity is more prevalent during the high inflationary period of the 1990s than in other periods. The policy implication of the results is that the government, despite temptations to do so, should avoid the devaluation of the Naira during high inflation periods to reduce the impact on consumer prices and the associated costs.

Keywords: Asymmetry, Nigeria, exchange rate pass-through, nonlinearity

Impact of integration of Information and Communication Technologies in Library Instruction Methodology on students in Federal Universities in Nigeria (Published)

The study is on the impact the integration of ICT in library instruction methodology has on students in federal universities in Nigeria.  The study adopted a random sampling method with a sampled population of 496 derived from 2018/2019 session 100 level students.  Two major instruments were developed for data collection and validated by two senior lecturers from the Department of Library and Information Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria with a reliability level of 0.82 and 0.84 respectively using Cronbach alpha (α) procedure.  The outcome of the study shows that there is a diversion from the traditional method (theoretical) of instruction with the integration of ICT which enhances students’ mastery of the use of library and other related technologies.

Keywords: Federal Universities, Integration, Library, Nigeria, Students, information and communication technologies, instruction methodology

Brand Equity and Purchase Behaviour Among Automobile Owners in Nigeria (Published)

This study centers on the influence of brand equity on the purchase of automobile. Over the last two decades, the majority of automobile users patronized used automobile but with the federal government new automotive policy, there seems a gradual decline in the purchase of these used automobile. Despite this, no empirical study has been done to look at the effect of brand equity on repurchase of automobile. The general objective of this study is to investigate the influence brand equity has on repurchase of automobile in Awka metropolis. The study employed survey research design and the population of study comprises owners of used automobile. Topman’s formula was used to arrive at the sample size of 246 automobile owners. The sampling technique was quota sampling and the research instrument was questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the instrument. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used to test the significance of the hypotheses. It was found out that brand loyalty is the strongest predictor of repurchase then, perceived quality. It was concluded that brand equity management and customer satisfaction strategies are needed for repeat purchase of used automobile. On the strength of the conclusion, we recommend that automobile dealers should as a matter of urgency engage the services of a professional brand equity manager and customer relationship manager. 

Keywords: Brand Equity, Nigeria, automobile market, purchase behaviour

Fiscal Federalism, Resource Control, and Restructuring in Nigeria: The Contending Issues (Published)

The dynamism and complexity of Nigeria’s fiscal federalism have occupied the front burner of academic and political discourse since the return to democratic rule. The discussion on Nigeria’s fiscal practice became necessary because it has created several crises threatening the continued existence and continuity of the Nigerian state. The desertion of true federalism in Nigeria has led to the neglect and marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, where the country generates the bulk of its wealth through oil and gas exploration and exploitation. The Niger Delta region oil-producing states have been very vocal in their agitations for a fair share of the country’s wealth by the restructuring of the parameters for sharing and allocating the wealth of the nation located within their region. The agitations for resource control, it is believed, would make more resources available to the various states to ensure economic and social development. The protests have arisen for the reason that a more substantial portion of the nation’s wealth goes to the federal government at the detriment of the oil-producing states. The Nigerian federal government is yet to make any significant attempt to alter the status quo. No constitutional amendment is has been made to ensure the practice of true fiscal federalism in the country. This paper examined the debate and concept of fiscal federalism. It explores revenue allocation formula in Nigeria and the statutory role of revenue mobilization allocation and fiscal commission, the quest for resource control and Nigeria’s federalism, dimensions of resource control agitations by the Niger Delta region, and causes of the Niger Delta crisis. The paper concludes with some profound recommendations on the way forward.

Keywords: Fiscal federalism, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria, Restructuring, resource control, revenue allocation formula

Psycho-Social Variables of Examination Malpractice Tendencies among Senior Secondary School Students in Calabar Education Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined psycho-social variables of examination malpractice tendencies among secondary students in Calabar education zone of Cross River State. Relevant literature was reviewed to enhance the work and for better understanding. A sample of 520 students was used for the study. Two research questions were posed and 2 hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto design was adopted. Psycho-social variables of Examination Malpractice Tendencies Questionnaire (PVEMTQ) was used to gather data for the study. With stratified random sampling technique, 520 students were selected from 23 secondary schools, using proportionate selection technique. Data gathered were analyzed with one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance from the analysis it was revealed that students attitude to school, student test anxiety do not significantly influence students examination malpractice tendencies. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that, principal should explore other means of assessment of the students for development of better attitude to school, by giving them open test, assignment. Principal should organize educational programmes on examination stress management, to assist students in coping with test anxiety. Principal should build self-confidence on examinees prior to the period of examination, to help reduced malpractice tendencies.

 

Keywords: : examination malpractice, Calabar education zone, Cross River State, Nigeria, Senior Secondary School Students, psycho-social variables

Entrepreneurial Marketing Dimensions and Market Performance of Small and Medium-scaled Enterprises in Niger Delta, Nigeria (Published)

Although small and medium enterprises provide diverse employment opportunities and economic growth in the Nigerian economy, entrepreneurial marketing has received little attention in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in spite of challenges faced by them. The study examined the entrepreneurial marketing dimensions and market performance of small and medium scale enterprises in Delta State. A sample of 245 respondents comprises of owners or managers of SME’s in Warri/Effurun Metropolis were selected for study. Convenience sampling techniques was used to select the sample after the area has been subdivided into zone with quota sampling methods. A survey research design was used to collect data from respondents through the use of questionnaire. Hypothesized relationships between the variables of study were tested using multiple regressions. Findings reveal that all the entrepreneurial marketing dimensions of pro-activeness, opportunity-focused, innovation-oriented, customer intensity, resource leveraging and value creation have significant positive relationship with market performance while risk making have a negative relationship. It is therefore recommended that owners and managers of SME’s should be pro-active, aggressive and innovative in design of strategies towards enhancing market performance in their organization.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Marketing, Market Performance, Niger-Delta, Nigeria, small and medium-scaled enterprises

The Liberian Conflict And The ECOMOG Operation: A Review of Nigeria’s Key Contributions (Published)

Right from inception, Nigerian foreign policy posture has been Afro-centric. This has made her to be more committed to peaceful coexistence in Africa in general and West Africa sub-region in Particular. Nonetheless, Nigeria has been participating actively in peace operations globally. This study examines Nigeria’s key contributions to the resolution of the Liberian conflict under the ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring Group (ECOMOG). While the theory of Manifest Destiny is adopted to explain Nigeria’s leadership role in the resolution, the work derives it data from the secondary source, which consists majorly of textbooks, journals, articles, reports, internet documents, among others. There is an array of information available on the performance of ECOWAS and ECOMOG hence historical research design is used in the study. The study also discusses the challenges of the mission. The findings show that Nigeria’s proactive leadership role in ECOMOG intervention in Liberia was a benchmark for future operations in Africa continent, and that while the holding of elections in 1997 and the subsequent withdrawal of ECOMOG clearly indicate that the operation was a success. The study calls on Nigeria to maintain her Afrocentric foreign policy posture but with more focus on industrialization and economic development of the region.

Keywords: Conflict, ECOMOG, Ecowas, Liberia, Nigeria

A Framework for Assessing Women’s Economic Empowerment (Published)

Global progress towards gender parity across critical areas of life is still at the disadvantage of women. Women are in a disadvantage position in such areas as the ownership and control over assets, access to affordable credit, social reproduction, to socio-political representation, cultural practices and participation in formal sector of the economy. The consequence of such disparities limits the extent women can exercise choice and make decisions economically, socially, and politically. Therefore, how to flatten the curve and reverse these disparities remains the subject of the subsisting women’s empowerment conundrum about whether others can externally determine empowerment, or if women have to be the agents of their empowerment. What then defines the empowerment framework and understandings of the form that empowerment should take remains debatable. This paper critically reviewed how the empowerment of women has been discussed and conceptualised within development studies, with particular focus on women’s economic empowerment. The paper further looked at issues around women’s empowerment measurement and indicators; identified some frameworks for measuring women’s empowerment. Lastly, the author proposed a conceptual framework within which women’s empowerment might be assessed. To this end, women’s economic empowerment was defined as the extent women exercise control over decisions relating to accessing and use of resources and the resulting household reality.

Keywords: Agency, Empowerment, Nigeria, Women’s Empowerment, economic empowerment framework, indicators

Factors Challenging the Adoption of Cloud Computing Application in E-Learning among Polytechnics in Northeastern Nigeria (Published)

The trend of teaching and learning actives is moving fast towards cloud computing application as the universe becoming global village. The aim of this research is to determine factors that are responsible for the challenges of adopting cloud computing application in e-learning system among Polytechnics in the North East, Nigeria. Sampling techniques was used in to gathering data and average coded total was used in data analysis. The findings of the research revealed that cloud computing application is associated with following challenges: delay/denial of service, compatibility issue, ICT infrastructure, lack of trained personnel; breach of trust, poor policy, managerial issue, confidentiality, integrity, inadequate user access and technological bottlenecks. Also, the research shown that academic and IT staff are familiar with cloud computing application. The study recommended among other things using compile application (user will not have access to the address link) for effective security.

Keywords: Adoption, Application, Cloud Computing, E-learning, Nigeria, challenging, polytechnics northeastern

Effect of Dividend Policy on Shareholders Wealth in Nigeria (1986 To 2016) (Published)

This study investigated the effect of dividend policy on shareholders wealth in Nigeria. Data were generated on market price per share (MPS), dividend per share (DPS), net asset per share (NAPS) and earnings per share (EPS) from annual report and accounts of twenty five quoted companies in  Nigeria stock exchange (NSE) Fact book and daily official list. To analyze the data, the statistical tools that have been used are ordinary least square regressions (OLS), unit root tests, Johansen cointegration and error correction model (ECM) for predicting the dividend policy effect on shareholder’s wealth. The significance of the   various explanatory variables has been tested by computing t-values. To determine the proportion of explained variation in the dependent variable, the coefficient of determination (R2) has been worked out. The significance of R2 has also been tested with the help of F-value. The results show that most of the variable except dividend per share had significant relationship with market price per share. The R2 and F-test shows that earnings, dividend and net assets has combined effect on market price of shares but none of these variables has direct independent influence in determining the price of share in the stock market. This paper, therefore conclude that dividend payout does not have effect on shareholders wealth and shareholders do not react to dividend information. It was therefore recommended that firms operating under this environment should ignore distribution of earning and concentrate with investments that will boost net assets.

Keywords: Dividend Policy, Nigeria, Shareholders Wealth

Cashless Policy and the Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (Published)

The main objective of the study is to investigate the effect of cashless policy on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria (2009-2018). The specific objectives are to: Investigate the effect of automated teller machine, examine the effect of point of sale, assess the effect of mobile banking, and to examine the effect of internet banking respectively on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. We employed Econometric techniques involving Descriptive Statistics, Augmented Dicker Fuller and Philip Perron Tests for Unit Roots and the Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL) for cointegration and coefficient analysis. The result of the study indicates that Automated Teller Machine (ATM) and Internet Banking each has a positive and significant effect on return on equity (ROE). Point of Sale (POS) has a positive but insignificant effect on return on equity, while Mobile Banking (MB has a negative and statistically significant effect on ROE, The study thus concludes that cashless policy has positively affected the performance of money deposit banks in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should provide uninterrupted power supply and adequate communication link while shortfalls should be covered by banks through back-up arrangement to power standby generator in case of power outage.

Keywords: Automated Teller Machine, Internet Banking, Nigeria, economic growth, mobile banking, point of sale

Entrepreneurial Marketing Dimensions and Market Performance of Small and Medium-scaled Enterprises in Niger Delta, Nigeria (Published)

Although small and medium enterprises provide diverse employment opportunities and economic growth in the Nigerian economy, entrepreneurial marketing has received little attention in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in spite of challenges faced by them. The study examined the entrepreneurial marketing dimensions and market performance of small and medium scale enterprises in Delta State. A sample of 245 respondents comprises of owners or managers of SME’s in Warri/Effurun Metropolis were selected for study. Convenience sampling techniques was used to select the sample after the area has been subdivided into zone with quota sampling methods. A survey research design was used to collect data from respondents through the use of questionnaire. Hypothesized relationships between the variables of study were tested using multiple regressions. Findings reveal that all the entrepreneurial marketing dimensions of pro-activeness, opportunity-focused, innovation-oriented, customer intensity, resource leveraging and value creation have significant positive relationship with market performance while risk making have a negative relationship. It is therefore recommended that owners and managers of SME’s should be pro-active, aggressive and innovative in design of strategies towards enhancing market performance in their organization.

 

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Marketing, Market Performance, Niger-Delta, Nigeria, small and medium-scaled enterprises

Analysis of the Effect of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on the Manufacturing performance in Nigeria (1981 – 2018) (Published)

Theoretically, and indeed empirically it has been postulated that Exchange Rate fluctuations has had a significant effect on manufacturing performance in terms of output growth and contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This study aimed to examine the Exchange Rate fluctuations on manufacturing performance in Nigeria over a period of 37 years (from 1981-2018), using annual data obtained from collected from CBN, NBS and Index Mundi Nigeria. An ARDL approach was used for the analysis. The empirical results of the study shows that an exchange rate volatility has negatively affect the performance of the Nigerian manufacturing sector as can be seen from the from the respective coefficients of the estimated variables, , the long run relationship analysis and the causal relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. The study recommends encouraging and improving exchange rate stability in Nigeria as this may help improve the capacity of the country’s manufacturing sector, hence expand its contribution to GDP growth.

Keywords: Nigeria, ardl model, economic growth, exchange rate fluctuations, manufacturing performance

Impact of Library Services and Resources on Undergraduate Students as users of faculty Library: A case study of Faculty of Management Science Library, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Ogbomoso, Nigeria (Published)

This paper examined the impact of library resources and service on undergraduate students as users of Faculty library. The research also based on the type of materials accessed by users, impact of library services provided, adequacy of library resources and service, problem faced in the usage of faculty library and solution. To retrieve the necessary information, a questionnaire was randomly distributed to a sample of 300 respondents drawn from a population of 600 library users of undergraduate students of Faculty of Management Science Library, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. The findings revealed that library resources were not stressful to access to students as a result of adequacies emanating from resources.  A response rate of at least 100% was achieved. The researcher used frequency and simple percentage to analyze the data, the outcome results indicated that the majority of 78% of the respondents find the resources and service of Faculty Library effective. 85% of the respondents agreed that the Faculty Library resources are adequate for their various information needs. Base on the finding, recommendations were made in order to boost the library services and resources provided to meet more of the demands of teeming population of users. It was recommended among others that electronic /online information resources should be made available in the library to help students and scholars to have access to current materials. Also the library collection should be well organized to ensure that the catalogue and other bibliographic access resources reflect the truth content of the library.

Keywords: Faculty, Library, Library Resources, Nigeria, Students, Undergraduate, University, impact of library service

Firms Debt Structure and Shareholder Returns: Moderating Role of Foreign Director of Multinational Companies in Nigeria (Published)

Financing decision is one of the important areas in managerial finance to increase shareholders’ wealth. Firms can use either debt or capital to finance their business. This study uses two-stage least squares model and examines the impact of foreign directors as moderating variable on the relationship between firm debt structure and shareholders’ returns of quoted multinational firms in Nigeria.  Secondary data were extracted from the annual reports of six (6) most active quoted multinationals firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange for the period 2006 to 2018. After running the OLS regression, a robustness test was conducted for validity of statistical inferences. A multiple regression was employed using PCSE regression model and FGLS regression model respectively for model one and two. The study documents in model one that debt to total asset has a positive and significant effect on shareholder returns while debt to equity and debt to turnover have negative and significant effect on shareholders returns though foreign director has no significant impact of shareholder returns. The model two, revealed the moderating role of foreign director, where the debt to equity has a positive and significant effect on shareholder returns while debt to turnover revealed a negative and significant effect on the return to shareholder funds. Though, debt to total asset has no significant effect on shareholders returns. In line with the findings, the study recommended that board of directors of the study firms should ensure that listed multinationals firms in Nigeria should appoint foreigner in their board composition so that the interest of various shareholder’s would be fully protected by avoiding unnecessary debt and proper management of the company debt file and sales improve upon their turnover and reduction of unnecessary cost.

Keywords: Multinational Firms, Nigeria, debt structure, shareholder returns

Self-Concept and Its Influence on Antisocial Behaviour-Personality of Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC) Personnel in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

The study examined “self-concept and its influence on antisocial behaviour/personality of Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC) personnel in Awka, Anambra State”, with 327 participants sampled through cluster and incidental methods. Valid/reliable Self-Concept and Psychopathic Deviant Scales measured self-concept and antisocial behaviours respectively, adopting cross-sectional design and ANCOVA statistics. Findings: Self-concept significantly contributed to NSCDC personnel’s antisocial personality (p< .001≥ .000; N = 327; Fs = 3.057, 3.551, 4.198, & 12.950). Self-concept did not significantly influence the personnel’s psychopathic personality (p< .001≥ .000; F = .934; N = 327). Self-concept significantly influenced the personnel’s antisocial personality (p< .001≥ .000; F = 5.691; N = 327), criminal behaviour (p< .001≥ .000; F = 6.797; N = 327), fraudulent behaviour (p< .001≥ .000; F = 10.559; N = 327), and delinquency (p< .001≥ .000; F = 5.610; N = 327). Recommendation: NSCDC should inculcate healthy/ethnics-oriented self-concepts in the personnel.

Keywords: Anambra State, Civil Defence, NSCDC, Nigeria, Personality, Self-Concept, antisocial behavior

Gender Influence on the Use of Information and Communication Technology by Lecturers in Library Schools in South-East and South-South Zones of Nigeria (Published)

The general purpose of the study is to determine the gender influence on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by lecturers in library schools in South-East and South-South Zones of Nigeria. The study covers the entire population of 162 lecturers in library schools in South-East and South-South zones of Nigeria. 145 copies of the questionnaire were completed and returned for analysis representing 89.5%. The result of the finding shows that both male and female lecturers use ICT. This is evident to the fact that lecturers whose gender makes them appreciate the use of ICT had mean value of 3.0. The study recommends that seminars and workshops on ICT should be organized for lecturers. This will help to expose them to the potentials which ICT offers in the field of academic, and through this way arouse their interest more towards the use of ICT. Again lecturers with negative attitudes to ICT because of gender barrier should be encouraged through ICT training programme. This will make such lecturers to develop positive attitudes towards ICT and use it for their academic activities.

Keywords: Nigeria, South-East, South-South, gender influence information and communication technology, lecturers’ library schools, zones

Herders Insurgency and Federalism in Nigeria (Published)

The paper is on Herders Insurgency and Federalism in Nigeria. The North Central of Nigeria has been griped with Herdsmen insurgency, the problem of insecurity that have almost affected the Federal system of government in Nigeria, were unity in diversity is no longer seen as hallmark for forming a federal state. The main objective of the study is to investigate causes and effects of Herders insurgency and its implication on Federalism in Nigeria. The Study employed secondary sources of data collection, using theoretical framework of conflict theory as an analytical tool. One major finding is that, Herders insurgency is due to the influence of Boko Haram, which has it negative implication for the Co-ordinate existence of Nigeria Federalism. We therefore, recommend restructuring of the Federal System and a transparent conflict resolution means by the state, to encourage trust and confidence among the federating units, for national integration and unity.

Keywords: Federalism, Insurgency, Nigeria, headers