Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Local Clay from Ebonyi State, Nigeria as a Substitute for Bentonite in Drilling Fluids (Published)
The present consumption of bentonite in the drilling operations in Nigeria alone is over 50 thousand tons per year and it is imported from abroad This trend is expected to continue as drilling activities keep increasing. The large consumption and the high importation cost of this material led to an attempt to find a local substitute. This work focuses on the possibility of utilization of local clay as a basic material for drilling fluids. This research evaluates, by means of simple but relevant laboratory tests, the properties of clay deposit from ishiagu-ivo local government area of Ebonyi state, southeastern Nigeria and compared with imported bentonite. The results were analyzed using statistical and graphical methods.Water-based mud was formulated from the local clay and the properties were determined and compared with those of imported bentonite. The results obtained showed that there were significant differences in the formulated drilling fluid’s rheological properties and the pH when compared with that of imported bentonite. When beneficiated with soda ash ( CO₃) and PacR at a concentration of 5.0g and 50g respectively to 350mL of the local mud, the mud pH increased from 5.65 to 10.60 while the apparent viscosity, yield point and plastic viscosity increased from 4.50, 4.00, 3.00 to 11.10, 10.00 and 7.00 respectively. With the addition of barite (BaS ) (10g) to 350mL of the formulated drilling fluid, the density increased from 8.80lb/gal to 9.15lb/gal. Therefore, at considerable concentration, the ishiagu-ivo clay exhibits good rheological properties that could compete favourably with that of imported bentonite when beneficiated with soda ash ( CO₃), potassium chloride and Pac R. This goes to show that a quality drilling fluid could be formulated from ishiagu-ivo clay that could meet the API specification.
This paper focuses on vernacular architecture and the various vernacular architecture in existence in Nigeria. Nigeria as a country is heterogeneous in both its socio-cultural structure and ideological perspective because of its ethnic diversity. This study therefore examines the vernacular architecture of Nigeria with focus on the three major ethnic groups which are the Hausa’s in the Northern Nigeria having Hausa Vernacular Architecture, the Yoruba’s in the South-Western Nigeria having Yoruba Vernacular Architecture and the Igbo’s in the South-Eastern Nigeria having Igbo Vernacular Architecture with focus on their culture, region and identity in order to have a proper perspective on the vernacular architecture of Nigeria. The vernacular architecture of the different ethnic groups in Nigeria are reflected through their culture, region and identity. Ethnic groups with similar culture, region and identity share similar architectural characteristics as it relates to their building layout, size of family, space organization, openings and fenestration, decorations used, roofing type adopted as well as the nature of Building materials used. As such, this paper suggest the classification of the vernacular architecture in Nigeria be considered from the cultural, regional and identity aspect due to the environmental, cultural and historical background in which vernacular architecture exist.
Influence of Institutional Variables on Employability Skills Acquisition among Business Education Students in Tertiary Institutions In Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study determined the influence of institutional variables on employability skills acquisition among Business Education students in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. Survey research design was employed in carrying out the study. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which was validated by two Vocational Educators and an expert in Measurement and Evaluation. A reliability estimate of .80, .81 and .87 was achieved for the research variables using Cronbach Alpha Statistical Analysis, after a trial test was conducted using 20 final year Business Education students in University of Uyo who did not form part of the main study sample. The questionnaire was administered to 400 final year Business Education students using stratified and accidental sampling techniques. Data analysis was done, while two (2) hypotheses were formulated and tested for significance using Simple Linear Regression Statistical Technique. Analyzed data were presented in form of tables and the results revealed that there is significant influence of classroom climate and instructional method on employability skills acquisition among Business Education Students. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that the teacher should always utilize practical method of instruction that can help the students concretize what they learn and apply it in real life situation as learnt.
Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Nigeria: A Conceptual Appraisal (Published)
A recent reality of globalization is the harmonization of accounting standards. Accounting is said to be the language of business; if this assertion holds true, then the move by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to harmonise accounting standards used in the preparation of financial statements across the world is a move in the right direction. This study examined the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria with particular emphasis on the prospects and challenges of IFRS adoption in Nigeria. The major objective of the study was to identify the benefits and challenges of adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria. The descriptive research design was used in the investigation that led to the production of this paper. Data were initially collected through review of existing literature and thereafter through questionnaire administration and personal interviews. Tables and percentages were used in summarizing data obtained. Based on the results of the study, it was found that adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria will help Nigeria and Nigerian corporations, among other benefits, secure access to global capital markets. Thus, the study concluded that Nigeria will benefit to a significant extent from the adoption of IFRS. One of the recommendations made was that Government at all levels, financial regulatory agencies, professional accountancy bodies, private and public companies and institutions, and accountancy firms should fast-track IFRS education in order to boost the acquisition of IFRS knowledge and competences.
Credit Expansion and Commercial Banks Soundness in Nigeria: An Application of Multi -Dimensional Analysis (Published)
This study examined the effects of credit expansion on commercial banks soundness in Nigeria. The objective was to ascertain the relationship between credit expansion and commercial banks soundness in Nigeria. Time series data was collected from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and stock exchange factbook. Ordinary least square method was used as data analysis method. Model I had capital adequacy indicator was modeled as the function of bank credit to manufacturing sector, communication and transport, mining and quarrying, agricultural sector and credit to small and medium scale enterprises while model II modeled capital adequacy indicator as the function of credit to private sector, net domestic credits, medium term credits, short term credits and long term credits. From the findings, Model I found that the independent variables explained 77 percent variations on capital adequacy ratio. The beta coefficient found that all the independent variables have positive effects on bank capital adequacy except credit to manufacturing sector. Model II found that the independent variables can explain 81 percent variations on capital adequacy while the beta coefficient found that all the independent variables have positive effects except medium term credit. The study concludes that credit expansion significantly relates to commercial banks soundness in Nigeria. We therefore, recommended for a well-articulated credit policies that will strengthen commercial banks soundness in Nigeria.
Domestic Macroeconomic Drivers of Industrialization in Nigeria: Status and Prospects from the Manufacturing Sub-Sector (Published)
While most advanced economies are in the process of industrializing their economies, plots by successive governments to transform the economy Nigerian, from a commodity-driven to an industrialized one, has not yielded much fruits despite several industrial policies and reforms. Based on the United Nations/World Bank success yardsticks with theoretical framework rooted on the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis and the endogenous growth model, this study utilized K-class estimation procedure on Nigeria’s time series between 1990 and 2016. The result obtained indicates that infrastructural development, institutional framework, bank credit,foreign direct investment, electricity, stable exchange rate, low inflation and economic diversification are key drivers of industrialization. The findings also confirm that except the Nigerian economy achieves improved infrastructure delivery and institutional framework as well as stable domestic and currency prices, the efforts towards economic diversification agenda may be counterproductive. It is therefore expedient that Nigeria focuses on building strong macroeconomic fundamental that would accentuate its take-off to industrialization.
Management of Teachers’ Psychosocial Needs and Their Job Performance in Universities in South-South Zone of Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated the relationship between management of lecturers’ psychosocial needs and job performance in universities in South-South, Nigeria. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a correlational research design. The population of the study comprised all the 9999 lecturers in all the 0000 universities in South-South zone of Nigeria. The sample of the study comprised 999 lecturers. The simple random sampling technique was used to arrive at the sample. Two instruments titled Management of Lecturers’ Psychosocial Needs Scale (MLPNS) and Job Performance Scale (JPS) were used for data collection. Face and content validities were ensured by experts. Cronbach alpha statistics was used to compute the reliability coefficients of MLPNS and JPS to be 0.87 and 0.72 respectively. Simple and multiple regression were used to answer the research questions while t-test and ANOVA associated with simple and multiple regression were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level.
Entrepreneurs all over the world seeks ways of introducing their products to international markets, unfortunately the international marketing environment pose a lot of opportunities and threats to foreign entrants. The cultural environment and political and technological environment has a lot to do in entrepreneurial success in global markets. This study employed the descriptive research design and questionnaires were used as instruments for gathering the much needed data. Findings revealed that the technological advancement has less significant impact on business transactions of international entrepreneurs which could be traceable to the fact that not all entrepreneurs are technological inclined to transact businesses. Furthermore, the political systems and governmental regulations on business dealings have a lot to do with entrepreneurial success in the international markets. The study recommends the establishment of a supportive governmental framework to serve as a platform for the willing entrepreneurs to succeed in the international market.
Domestic Debt and the Performance of Nigerian Economy (1990 -2018): Investigating the Nexus (Published)
The study evaluated the relationship between domestic debt and the performance of Nigerian economy;for the period (1990-2018). Secondary data were used and collectedfrom Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study used Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and was employed as the dependent variable to measure the performance of the Nigerian economy; whereas, Development Stock, Treasury Bill and Interest rate were also employed as the independent variables.Hypotheses were formulated and tested using time series econometrics Models. The result revealed that the variables do not have unit roots. There is also a long-run equilibrium relationship between domestic debt and Gross Domestic Product. The result confirmed that about 72% short-run adjustment speed from long-run disequilibrium. Domestic debthad a causal relationship with Gross Domestic Product. The coefficient of determination indicated that about 64% of the variations of the performance of Nigerian economy can be explained by changes in domestic debt variables. The study concluded that domestic debt had a causal relationship with performance of the Nigerian economy.Thus, the study recommended that Government and policy makers should maintain a debt bank deposit ratio below 35 percent and resort to increase the tax revenue to finance its projects. Government should divest itself of all projects which the private sector can handle including refining crude oil (petroleum product) and transportation. Government should maintain a proper balance between short term and long term debt instruments in such a way that long term instruments dominate the debt market.
The paper reviews existing literature on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to ascertain the level of corporate social responsibility activities that will enhance the performance/profitability of businesses in Nigeria. It revealed that the success of an organization depends on the extent to which the organization is capable of managing its relationship with key groups, such as financial and stakeholders, but also customers, employees, and even communities or societies. Stakeholders must be considered in the decision making process of the organization. CSR is a concept that includes many different activities and actions which businesses have to involve themselves in for the purpose growth sustainability and growth of businesses. Businesses that voluntarily participates in local community development, such as providing the community with donations, assisting them with projects and sharing some of its profit with the community, helps to increase the business profitability in the long-run.
Empirical Investigation of Human Capital Investments and Its Effect on Economic Growth In Nigeria (1990-2017) (Published)
The study examined the empirical investigation of human capital investments and its effect on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1990-2017. Secondary data were used and collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study used Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and was employed as the dependent variable to measure the human capital investments on economic growth in Nigeria; whereas, government expenditure on health and government expenditure on education were also used as the independent variables to measure human capital investments in Nigeria. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using Ordinary Least Square econometrics techniques. The study showed that government expenditure on education had a significant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Government capital expenditure on health sector had a significant effect on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicated that about 69% of variations in Gross Domestic Product can be explained by changes in government capital expenditure variables in Nigeria. The study concluded that human capital investments had a significantly effect on economic growth in Nigeria. The study recommended that Government should ensure proper management of human capital expenditure in a manner that will promote growth and development in the economy. The government and policy makers should increase its investments in health and education; since, it would increase the level of development in the economy as well as the standard of living. Government should encourage and manage the funding of the education and health sectors. The policy makers should ensure that appropriate evaluation techniques should be used for projects that will ensure that capital expenditure is not made in an extravagant manner.
Sustainable agriculture has remained a subject of debate in Nigeria for decades without tangible results. Between 2001 and 2007, agricultural sector accounted for 40 percent of Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and 51 percent of job creation. However, in 2015 agriculture accounted for only 17.77% of Nigeria’s GDP (National Bureau of Statistics, 2015). These figures are indications that agriculture has not met the need of the country, and reveal the dwindling nature of the sector. The declining nature of agriculture calls for a new strategy that will support agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper aims to advance agripreneurship education in Nigerian Universities by attempting to develop a curriculum that will trigger agriprenuership taught classes in Universities in Nigeria in attempt to increase youth and farmers participation in agripreneurship and improve the agricultural sector in general.
Impact of Primary Mortgage Institutions’ Investments on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1995-2017) (Published)
The study examined the impact of primary mortgage institutions’ investments on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1995-2017. Secondary data were used and collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study employed Gross Domestic Product as proxy for Economic Growth and used as the dependent variable; whereas, Primary Mortgage Institutions Investment, Primary Mortgage Institution Deposit, Primary Mortgage Institutions’ Loan and used as the explanatory variables. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using Ordinary Least Square econometrics techniques. Primary mortgage institutions’ investments had asignificant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Primary mortgage institutions’ deposithad a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Primary mortgage institutions’ loan had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicated that about 68% of the variations in economic growth can be explained by changes in primary mortgage institutions’ investments variables in Nigeria.The study concluded that primary mortgage institutions’investments had a significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria.The study recommended that the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria should relax some of the regulations guiding the operations of the PMIs and liberalize the subsector for more effective performance. The primary mortgage institutions should redirect major parts of their loan able funds to building and renovation of residential buildings instead of concentrating on commercial buildings and neglecting residential properties. Such redirection is expected to increase their impact on provision of housing and enhance their contributions to real estate development in Nigerian economy. Allocation under the Land Use Act of 1978 that has made land acquisition more difficult should be readdressed. The delay in getting Certificate of Occupancy is a major problem. Government should review or repeal the Act to enable easy land acquisition by individuals.
An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 82 (Eighty two) plant species belonging to 43 (Forty Three) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases(STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.
The accountancy profession is a unique one and should be concerned with the provision of true and definitive financial information that can assist all the stakeholders in taking appropriate decisions after meeting auditor’s requirements. Undoubtedly, an expectation gap always exists between the stakeholders (as they appear not knowing the exact the duty of a statutory auditor) and auditor (whose duty is spelt out in the statute irrespective of the high demand by the stakeholders). The first objective of this study is to determine whether or not the stakeholders / users of financial statements are conversant with the duty of an auditor under the Nigerian law. The second objective is to find out through the stakeholders’ perceptions whether the audit expectation gap can influence them in taking decisions. Questionnaire is used as the instrument for collecting the required data. Descriptive statistic and simple regression (after conversion) are used in analyzing the data. The study reveals that majority of the stakeholders are not familiar with the statutory duty of an auditor and that the audit expectation gap is less significant in taking their decisions. Other finding is that the auditors’ report is not detailed enough with a view to disclosing any gap that may arise. The recommendations of the study are that the management and directors of companies should adequately educate the stakeholders on the statutory duty of auditor and the report of the auditor should be detailed enough in order to meet the needs of shareholders especially on any gap that may arise.
This study examined the influence of corporate governance on return on assets of quoted banks in Nigeria. The study used secondary data from 2013 to 2017.Data sourced from selected Annual Report and Accounts of three Quoted banks by the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study utilised both Descriptive Statistics and Ordinary Least Square-Multiple Regression method with the aid of using E-view 9 to analyse the data. The results shown that, the corporate governance has significant influence on return on assets as (F-statistics = 23.46, P <0.05). The results further indicate that, the proportion of shareholders more than 10,001 share, board of composition size and bank size exerts a positive and considerable relevance to return on assets of quoted banks in Nigeria and bank size has significant influenced on return on assets with (β=2.09, t=3.94, p<0.05). Findings suggest that board of directors size of quoted banks in Nigeria should not be too large and must be meeting regularly to effectively and efficiently carry out their oversight functions and responsibilities
This study examined the relationship between ethical work climates (EWCs) and supplier selection decisions (SSD), and the moderating roles of party politics and personal values on this relationship. A total of 600 senior level personnel from 40 Nigerian public sector organizations were surveyed. Results show that both high and low levels of external political pressures significantly reduce the perception that organisational SSDs are ruled-based and pro-social in nature. Furthermore, regardless of the level of perception of instrumental personal values by employees, instrumental ethical climates significantly determine SSDs; principled/cosmopolitan climate and benevolent/cosmopolitan climate only become significant perceptible determinants when there is less room for the accommodation of personal goals during SSD processes. We conclude that the EWC dimensions do really reflect the Nigerian public sector SSD outcomes. Important implications for theory and practice are also presented.
Women Participation in Agriculture, Prospects and Challenges for Increased Food Production in Enugu State – Nigeria (Published)
The paper examined women participation in agriculture, their prospect and challenges for increased food production in Enugu State-Nigeria. It explained elaborately how committed women are in making food available for the fast growing population in Nigeria. Women activities in production, processing, marketing of agricultural products among other, were highlighted. The challenges women are facing to enhance food production were also pointed out. These challenges include; lack of access to productive resources like land, customs and tradition in some parts of Nigeria, low level of training /education among others. Recommendations to improve on the challenges were proffered, these include that the level of women training in agricultural production needed to be enhanced, that government should look into laws of land tenure and tradition placed on land acquisition and use, especially as it affect women in agriculture.
Comparative Analysis of the Training Needs and Job Performance Constraints among Block Extension Supervisors in Abia and Akwaibom States, Nigeria (Published)
Comparative analysis of the training needs and job performance constraints among block extension supervisors in Abia and Akwa Ibom states was studied. Primary and secondary data were collected with structured questionnaire from 28 BESs drawn from Abia and Akwa Ibom states. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and t-test were employed in data analysis. Result shows that BESs in Abia and Akwa Ibom states had highest need for training in control of ecto-parasite (X= 3.93) and endo-parasite (X= 4.29) respectively. In fishery practices, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had greatest need for training in fish pond construction (X = 3.71) and site selection for pond. In extension message delivery, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had highest training needs in reporting farming/field problems, identification of new farmers (X=4.93) for each practice and coordination of farmers meeting (X=4.64) among others. In soil science, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had highest training needs in fertilizer application methods (X= 4.93) and (X= 4.57). In Agroforestry, the BESs in Abia and Akwa Ibom states had highest need for training in establishment of snail farm (X= 4.21) and (X= 3.93). In agronomic practices, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had highest need for training in site selection for crops land preparation, planting technique and fertilizer application (X= 4.79) and (X= 4.64). The major problems facing the BESs were poor input backup, lack of tangible facility for movement on the field, irregular supply of OFAR and SPAT inputs e.tc for Abia and Akwa Ibom states. Recruitment of more EAs and constant in-service training were recommended among others.
Infrastructural constraints in Nigeria militate against efficient performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) and adversely affect industrial growth in the country. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship that exists between manufacturing SMEs production and industrial growth in Nigeria. Secondary data were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics publications for the period 2002-2016, and regression analysis was used in analysing the data. Findings of the study revealed that manufacturing SMEs production has a statistical significant relationship with industrial growth in Nigeria. This implies that manufacturing SMEs are capable of accelerating industrial growth through their contributions to the economy. The study, however, advocates more government intervention of facilitating access to concessional funds to SMEs to trigger SMEs sustainable growth and industrial growth in Nigeria.