Tag Archives: Nigeria

Influence of Collective Bargaining On Industrial Conflict in Public Health Sector Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)

The focus of the paper was on the influence of collective bargaining on industrial conflict using public health sector Lagos state, Nigeria as the unit of analysis. The study identified legal framework for enforcing collective agreement on industrial conflict and relationship between collective bargaining and industrial harmony. A sample size of 252 was obtained through Yamane sample size formula and structured questionnaire was used as the research instrument to elicit information from the respondents. It was found that there exists strong relationship between legal framework for enforcing collective agreement and industrial harmony where r = 0.921. and collective bargaining has significant effect on and industrial harmony (p ≥ 0.05; t = 0.869).  It was concluded that there exists a strong relationship between legal framework for enforcing collective agreement and industrial harmony in Lagos State Public Health Sector and thus, recommended that the frequency of usage of collective bargaining with respect to matters concerning employees’ terms and conditions of employment should be regular and to be the first point of call at any time on labour matters.

Keywords: Lagos State, Nigeria, collective bargaining, industrial conflict, public health sector

Status of Human Resources and Evaluation Techniques Used For Entrepreneurship Development Programme in Polytechnics in South-East Nigeria (Published)

This study was carried out to find out the status of human resources and evaluation techniques used for entrepreneurship development programme in polytechnics in South-east Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The study was conducted in all the polytechnics in South-east Nigeria. The population of this study comprised all the 390 entrepreneurship lecturers in polytechnics in South-east Nigeria. As a result of the manageable size, the entire population was used. Thus, there was no sampling of respondents. Data were collected for the study through the administration of validated questionnaire on the respondents. The reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach alpha (α) reliability statistic. The overall reliability coefficient obtained was 0.84. Two research questions were formulated to guide the study and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. In analyzing the data collected for the study, mean and standard deviation were used to answer research the questions. T-test inferential statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that the human resources needed for implementing entrepreneurship development programme were available, and all evaluation techniques for entrepreneurship development programme were utilized. The study further revealed that computer, instructional materials and white marker boards, scanner, photocopiers, printers, lecture halls and spacious lecture rooms were available for implementing entrepreneurship development programme of polytechnics in South-east Nigeria. It was recommended, among others that lecturers should continue to use the various teaching methods revealed in study while further efforts should be made to research on other methods that are not included in the option which will also reduce unemployment among the youths.  Entrepreneurship educators should continually appraise themselves in order to make worthwhile adjustment in their teaching techniques


Citation:Charles A. Ejeka (2021) Status of Human Resources and Evaluation Techniques Used For Entrepreneurship Development Programme in Polytechnics in South-East Nigeria, International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education Research, Vol.7, No.3 pp.1-12


Keywords: Human Resources, Nigeria, Polytechnics, South-East, Status, entrepreneurship development programme, evaluation techniques

Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions: Application of Lodging Quality Index Model On Hotels in South East, Nigeria (Published)

This study aimed to assess the relationship between service quality, customer satisfaction and behavioural intentions of guests at selected 3-star hotels in Onitsha business district and Enugu metropolis in South East, Nigeria. Survey design was adopted for the study. The target populations were guests in the 3-star hotels from the ages of 18 years and above.  A structured questionnaire was administered to 200 guests of the hotels. The data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics, such as frequency and percentages, and tested with Pearson Correlations to examine the nature of relationships between service quality dimensions, customer satisfaction, and behavioural intentions. The results show that the service quality dimensions; tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, confidence, communication, had strong relationships with customer satisfaction. The result equally revealed that customer satisfaction had a strong relationship with behavioural intentions. That is, the guests of the hotels were satisfied with the services, and are willing to recommend, revisit, and give positive reviews.

Citation: Okocha, Rejoice Ebere, Agina, Emeka Kenechi, Ojiula, Uchemefuna Benjamin (2021) Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions:  Application of Lodging Quality Index Model On Hotels in South East, Nigeria, British Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. 9, Issue 4, pp.18-35


Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Hotels, LODQUAL, Nigeria, Service Quality

General Mortality Rate in Nigeria: A Case Study of Federal Medical Centre Jabi, Abuja (Published)

Mortality is one of the components of population changes; it is completely out of human control and affects every segment of a population. Mortality is a term used to describe the contribution of death to population change and refers to the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after live birth has taken place. This study applies a retrospective design through the conduct of record review using the mortality registers from 2013 – 2017 with key variables of interest extracted. The Chi-square test of independence technique, two ways ANOVA, life table, and population projection model (exponential model) were employed for the analysis of the relevant data. The null hypothesis of “No significant association between causes of death and sex” was accepted; P-value of 0.377 is greater than 0.05, we accept Ho and conclude that there is no significant association between diseases and sex. More males than females died of congestive cardiac failure, diabetes and severe birth asphyxia. About 160 males and females were recorded dead in the 2013 – 2017; out of which 53.8% of them were males and 46.2% of them were females – this implies that the risk of death at any given age is less for females than for males. The five-leading cause of death in Nigeria were Congestive Cardiac Failure (45%), Sepsis (23%), Pneumonia (15%), RVD (12%) and Respiratory Distress (5%). The general population growth rate shows a decrease in the rate of mortality across all ages; but the age specific growth rate shows that infant mortality is on the rise and tends to double in the year 2025 if the current growth rate persists. The life table shows that the life expectancy at birth is 43.5 years (= 8.69) and that a man aged 20 years has about 44% chances of dying before his 50th birthday. The study showed that the risk of death at any given age is less for females than for males, while under – 5 years have the higher risk of dying compared to other age categories with about 28.1% of new born babies dying before reaching age five. Regular medical checks remain optimally essential in prolonging of life as well as ensuring a healthy well-being.   

Keywords: Abuja, Federal Medical Centre, Jabi, Nigeria, general, mortality rate

Examining the Factors Affecting the Adoption of Online Survey Tools amongst Researchers in Nigeria (Published)

Online surveys have become the prominent method of eliciting information in academic research. However, irrespective of its ease of use, quick response rate, and low cost rate, many researchers especially in the developing world are not fully embracing the use of this valuable research tool. Literature reviewed extensively the various types, significance and response rate of online survey, none actually focused on researchers in Nigeria and factors limiting their adoption of online survey. This work seeks to examine the factors inhibiting the adoption of online survey tools by researchers in Nigeria, and to proffer solutions towards the enhancement of usage of this valuable tool in Nigeria and other parts of the world. Survey research design was used for the study. Survey questionnaire was designed and distributed to academic researchers in higher institutions in Nigeria. The study found that inadequate technical skills, Poor access to the internet and other cutting edge facilities occasioned by poor funding and low response rate characterized of online survey in Nigeria are strong limiting factors to the growing use of online research tools in Nigeria. Efforts need to be channeled appropriately towards advocacy programmes and training of researchers in Nigeria on the various research tools. To improve the response rate of online surveys, the sensitization programmes on online survey need to include the benefits derived from surveys by both the researcher and the respondents.

Citation: Okoroma Francisca Nwakaego (2021) Examining the Factors Affecting the Adoption of Online Survey Tools amongst Researchers in Nigeria, European Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Vol.9, No.3, pp.19-28


Keywords: Nigeria, adoption rate, online survey, research tool, researchers

The Indifferent Attitude of the Ibibio to the Biafran Enterprise in the Context of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970 (Published)

The Nigerian civil war (6th July, 1967 – 15th January, 1970) that plunged the entire nation into chaos and devastation involved various ethnic nationalities. The conventional wisdom has been that the Ibibio fought on the side of the Biafra. This study examined the role the Ibibio played in the civil war. The study revealed that a larger proportion of the Ibibio population participated in the war on the side of the federal troops. Few that supported Biafra were former federal military officers and some in the civil service. The support to the federal troops by the Ibibio was as a result of their marginalization and oppression by the Igbo in the Eastern Region of Nigeria. The Ibibio played a significant role in the collapse of the Republic of Biafra. The study had corrected the persistent misconception that the Ibibio fought on the side of Biafra. The study made use of primary and secondary sources, the primary sources included oral interview, archival materials and government publications while the secondary sources were mainly books, articles in journals and unpublished thesis.

Citation: Godwin Stephen Emah and  Oluwaseun Samuel Osadola (2021) The Indifferent Attitude of the Ibibio to the Biafran Enterprise in the Context of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970, International Journal of History and Philosophical Research, Vol.9, No.3, pp.1-8,

Keywords: Biafra, Civil War, Ibibio, Nigeria, apathy

Utility value of radio for national security and sustainable development in Nigeria: appraisal of radio Nigeria “watch 360” programme (Published)

This paper examined the utility value of radio in addressing the twin issues of national security and sustainable development in Nigeria. The study focused on “Watch 360”, a Radio Nigeria neighbor-hood watch programme created by the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) to promote national security and sustainable development. The objectives of the study were to identify the salient parts of the WATCH 360 radio programme that promote national security and sustainable development; as well as proffer solutions that will enhance the utility value of radio for national security and sustainable development. The researcher utilized the qualitative method of inquiry to appraise the potentials of the programme in fostering national security and sustainable development in the country. The Agenda setting theory provided the theoretical foundation for the study. The study found that the conceptualization, articulation, design and delivery of the programme imbues it with the knack for achieving the desired results. Therefore, it was strongly recommended that in order to achieve optimal benefits of the programme, the management of FRCN should, among others, ensure that its stations all over the country air the programme in their respective stations as well as introduce live streaming and vernacular editions in Nigeria’s three major languages (Housa, Ibo and Yoruba) for better reach and greater impact.

Citation: Odishika, Emmanuel Chukuka  (2021) Utility Value of Radio for National Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Appraisal of Radio Nigeria “Watch 360” Programme, International Journal of International Relations, Media and Mass Communication Studies, Vol.7, No.2, pp.46-54

Keywords: Nigeria, Sustainable Development, Value, radio Nigeria, radio national security, utility, watch 360” programme

Market Orientation in Nigerian Political Parities: A Research Proposition (Published)

The importance of political parties in the democratic governance of Nigeria, in addition to the dynamics of the contemporary Nigerian political environment, initiated the need for this research. This proposed research aims to examine the market orientation strategies employed by Nigerian political parties.  Using qualitative and quantitative research approaches, the research plans to provide insight into the market orientation strategies of Nigerian political parties. The findings from this research would be of relevance for managerial actions in democratic governance, and assist party management and governmental policies and interventions geared towards improving the administration, growth and development of Nigerian political parties. Also, findings from the proposed research will be of relevance to Nigerian politicians, political parties and political regulators in improving their services, programmes, policies and relationships with their relevant target audience. In addition, the proposed research intends to stimulate future research efforts in cognate areas of political party management strategies in Nigeria and other developing economies, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper makes original theoretical, practical, and policy contributions to political parties’ marketing management as it situates the market orientation construct in non- profit organizations (political parties). In addition, the proposed research’s instrument (questionnaire) will assist in empirical testing of the market orientation construct in political parties operating in developing democracies, especially in sub-Saharan Africa

Keywords: Democracy, Market Orientation, Marketing Strategy, Nigeria, political party

Structure of Road Network Connectivity in the Benue Basin of Nigeria (Published)

The structure of road network connectivity in any region can either promote or reduce agricultural production, market opportunities, cultural and social interactions as well as businesses and employment opportunities. This study evaluates road network connectivity in the Benue Basin of Nigeria. Data on the existing road network including type and conditions, density and length of the roads in the study area were extracted from existing road map of Nigeria, and satellite imagery of the Benue basin. The data was analysed using different methods of network connectivity analysis including beta index, alpha and gamma indices. The findings reveal four types of roads network in the basin which are grouped into three categories namely: federal highways (trunk A), state government roads (trunk B) and local government and community roads (trunk C) which are in various state of deplorable conditions. The result of connectivity analysis reveals a beta index (β) of 0.98 for the basin, alpha index of -0.05, gamma index of 0.2 which indicates that Benue basin has poor road network connectivity. A comparative analysis of road network connectivity among the five states that fall within the basin shows variation among them with Benue and Taraba states having a better connectivity than others in the region. Based on the findings, the study noted that provision of effective roads network connectivity is fundamentally important to the development and well-being of the inhabitants of the Benue basin. The current road network connectivity of the basin needs urgent attentions to reposition the region for rapid socio-economic development. The study recommends funding of road infrastructure particularly building new roads and rehabilitating the existing ones in the region by it policy makers/stakeholders considering the fact that transport is the lifeline of the economy and social interactions.

Keywords: Benue basin, Connectivity, Nigeria, Structure, road network

Assessment of the Effects of Plants on Market Environments in Garki of Abuja as an Avenue to Improve Architectural Practices in Nigeria (Published)

The quality of architectural practices in Nigeria with regards to the use of plants for landscape in market buildings is not satisfactory when it is compared with international standards and this is a problem. To reduce this problem, a market in Garki in Abuja was studied with the aim of assessing the effects of plants in its environs, in order to generate guidelines from the research feedbacks to improve architectural practices with regards to the use of plants in the design of Nigerian markets. There are seven regional built-up markets under the control of Federal Capital Territory Markets Management Committee. Out of these markets, a market in Garki was studied via purposive sampling method. The instruments used for the collection of the primary data are questionnaires, focus group discussion and observation schedule. The secondary data were obtained from the review of relevant literature. Among the research findings are: most of the market buildings have no plants for landscape architecture; the use of personal electric power generators for artificial cooling and ventilation due to inadequate circulation of fresh air from plants in and around the market buildings causes fire outbreaks in the market. Among the generated guidelines are: it must be ensured by the Architects that all the market buildings should have plants for landscape architecture at the design stage; however, markets must have general electricity generator houses to minimise the use of personal electric power generators, in order to stop fire outbreaks as a result of their uses for artificial cooling and ventilation.


Keywords: Nigeria, Plants, architectural practices, environs, markets

Curtailing Illegal Mining Operation in Nigeria (Published)

Nigeria as a nation is blessed with relevant resources of solid mineral that have the capacity to lure investors and business investments to enhance growth economically in the nation. These resources go from Copper, Columbite, Iron, Tin, Gold, Diamond, and so on.Unfortunately, this resource gifts is being underplayed by continuous unlawful mineral mining by people including nationals of other countries, believed to be financed by illegal investors. The Nigerian government may have lost billions of naira in years, owing to unlawful and unjust activities of operators in her mineral sector. Unlawful and unlicensed mineral mining started getting obvious immediately after Nigeria got independence in 1960. The federal government primarily own mining rights but it releases licenses for exploration work, mineral mining and its sales. Where there is no adequate policy, unlawful mineral mining continues unchecked federal government may lose royalties and revenues accruable to it. This paper presents the loopholes and the ways to curtail the activities of illegal mining of minerals in Nigeria.

Keywords: Government, Minerals, Mining, Monitoring, Nigeria, Reform, foreigners, illegal, license, mining rights, services

Non-Governmental Appraisal of the Frameworks for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in Nigeria (Published)

Non-governmental organization are key actors in human rights promotion and protection in Nigeria. As also key players in international human rights mechanisms and particularly the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process of the Human Rights Council (HRC), non-governmental stakeholders in Nigeria have participated in the three UPR circles of Nigeria and submitted reports appraising the normative and institutional frameworks for the promotion and protection of human rights. As a creation of the HRC in 2006, the UPR is a peer mechanism to review, on a periodic basis, the human rights records of all Member States of the United Nations based on three distinct sources of information submitted to the HRC. One of such sources of information is the reports from non-governmental organization operating in Nigeria classified as ‘other reports’ and compiled by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.  Focusing on the ‘other reports’ submitted to the HRC on the normative and institutional frameworks for the promotion and protection of human rights in Nigeria, this article which is descriptive in nature concludes that despite advances claimed in its national UPR reports by the Government of Nigeria, non-governmental stakeholders are still of the view that there are evidently several weaknesses in the normative and institutional frameworks for the promotion and protection of human rights in Nigeria.

Keywords: Civil Society, Human Rights, Nigeria, non-governmental, normative and institutional framework, universal periodic review

A Review of United Nations Development Programme Reports on Human Capital Development in Nigeria (Published)

The objective of this paper is to review the United Nation Reports on Nigeria Human Security and Development for 2015 and 2016 and to synthesize the selected indices of growth and development for policy formulation. More so, to compare and contrast the current socio-economic situation with the projections revealed by these reports. This survey (i)provides an overview of the socio-economic condition of the Nigerian state, (ii) reviews the literature provided by the 2015 and 2016 reports (iii)summarizes the methods and materials employed by the reports (iv) the report’s findings were critiqued vis-à-vis current economic realities and (v)  recommendations. The review revealed that the hard economic situation in the country was compounded by 2016 recession and Covid-19 pandemic. It was also discovered that political sentiments and absence of political will were causes of underdevelopment in Nigeria. Based on this, the paper recommends that, governments at all levels should be accountable, transparent, purposeful and people-centered to enhance capabilities and opportunities and growth of the country.

Keywords: Human Security, Human development, Nigeria, Policy Formulation, United Nations

Foreign Trade and External Reserves in Nigeria (Published)

This study empirically examined the effect of foreign trade and external reserves in Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to; examine the impact of oil import, non-oil import, oil export, non-oil export and exchange rate on external reserves in Nigeria. Time series data from 1980 to 2019 was collected from CBN statistical bulletin. The study employed the techniques of ADF unit root test, co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model. The results of the estimated model showed that all the time series were stationary at order one. Also, the model depicted by the co-integration result showed that there is a long run equilibrium relationship among the variables. Similarly, the vector error correction result showed that the coefficient of ECM has the hypothesized negative sign and statistically significant at 5% level. Furthermore, the Vector Error Correction result revealed that oil and non-oil exports impacted positively on external reserves although the impact of non-oil export was insignificant while oil imports, non-oil imports and exchange rate had significant negative impact on external reserves in Nigeria. Specifically, oil export, oil imports, non-oil imports and exchange rate were significant at 5 percent. This implies that they impacted significantly on external reserves in Nigeria during the period covered by the study. In addition, the granger causality test revealed that oil export had a uni-directional causal relationship with external reserve while there was a bi-directional relationship between exchange rate and external reserve. Based on these findings, the study recommended amongst others the diversification of the export base of the nation as a possible measure of improving external reserves in Nigeria. Also, the study suggests that importations be discouraged especially for commoditites that can be produced locally. Finally, the study recommends that the CBN as the custodian of Nigeria’s foreign reserves, stabilize the value of local currency taking into cognizance the external shocks that stem from exchange rate volatilities.

Keywords: Foreign Trade, Nigeria, VECM, external reserves

Psychological Impact of Downsizing on Survivor-Managers in a developing Economy (Published)

Despite the importance of psychological wellbeing of survivors to the attainment of the envisaged goal of the downsizing practice, research on this group of workers is still limited particularly in Nigeria. The study aims at exploring the psychological impact of downsizing on survivor managers in Nigeria using a qualitative research approach. More specifically, unstructured and semi-structured interviews were carried out at different stages with a total of 20 interviewees. Data were analysed and coded using a data-driven thematic analysis. The finding revealed that anxiety, a feeling of uncertainty, insecurity of job, reduction in individual motivation and poor communication influenced the survivors negatively. These negative psychological and emotional impact exhibited by the survivor employees are linked to lack of jobs, high rate of unemployment, and lack of social security and culture. The outcome of the study would provide implications for human resources managers in Nigeria who often deal with downsizing and engaged in psychological contract breach.

Keywords: Developing Economy, Nigeria, Survivor-managers, downsizing, psychological impact

Cultural Factors Influencing Psychological Contract (PC) Experiences among Survivor Managers (Published)

Most researches on psychological contract are conducted in the banking sector while limited local enquiries focused on the experiences of the survivor-managers in developing economy particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore, examines the cultural factors influencing PC experiences and responses among survivor-managers in Nigeria. The study adopted a qualitative approach and more specifically interviews. Data were analysed using empirically driven thematic analysis. The findings revealed that; unemployment, values of dependency, corruption, family obligations, beliefs, spirituality among others shape attitudes and responses of the survivor-managers’ with respect to downsizing exercise. Therefore, human resource managers who are part of the downsizing exercise should embrace open and transparent process as well as being sensitive to the wellbeing of the victims and survivors to reduce the negative psychological contract experiences and responses among Survivor-managers. In addition, the research created awareness on the need to diversify research in terms of methods adopted.

Keywords: Culture, Developing Economy, Nigeria, Survivor-managers, psychological contract

Incessant Kidnapping and Killings in Nigeria: Has The Country Returned To The State Of Nature? (Published)

The rate of insecurity in Nigeria does not only call for concern but raises a loud alarm that no one is safe. The unending occurrence of killing, banditry and kidnapping affect all regions of the country and fear grips the mind of citizens, both the rich and the poor. The government at various levels have tried making security policies, giving security a primary attention in the national budget, purchasing sophisticated ammunitions, reshuffling the rank and file in the army, creating regional security outfits and other proactive steps, yet insecurity in the country prevails by the day and government appears to be handicapped in taking charge of internal sovereignty of the country. The government has however, often times, being excused of liability, especially when the cause of death is not directly connected with any of the government’s agencies despite the primary purpose of government is the security and welfare of the citizens. It is in the light of this that the research aims at examining the sole responsibility of government in protecting citizens in the country, and the government’s corresponding liability in this regard. Relying on both primary and secondary of information, the article revealed the failure of the government to protect lives and properties within her territory makes the country drift into a state of nature. It is therefore concluded that citizens have entered a social contract for the sake of their safety and security, the government should henceforth be held responsible for further acts of killings and insecurity in the country.

Keywords: Nigeria, country, incessant kidnapping, killings, state of nature

A Review of Literature on the Concept, Motivations and Factors affecting the Successes of Veteran Entrepreneurs (Published)

The beam light is now shifting to veteran entrepreneurs because of their contribution to business creation. The life experience during military service provide veterans with certain capabilities and skills that are directly related to entrepreneurship. Although veterans’ entrepreneurship is a fast-growing domain in entrepreneurship literature, there is little systematic knowledge about it in developing nations like Nigeria, thus, creating a literature gap. This chapter fills the research void in Nigeria by extensively reviewing of literature on veteran entrepreneurship to enable an understanding of veteran experiences in the enterprise journey and as well as awaken researchers’ interest on the subject. The paper unravels the motivations of veterans in business. The paper also covers the concept of veteran entrepreneurship and factors affecting the successes of veteran entrepreneurs. This study is important as it informs policy makers the factors that influence veteran entrepreneurs to enable policy decisions that can mitigate veterans challenges in business.


Keywords: Motivational Factors, Nigeria, drivers of vetrepreneurs, military entrepreneurship, veteran entrepreneurs, vetrepreneurship

National Human Rights Commission, Citizenship Education and the Prospects of Citizens’ Rights Protection for Peace and Stability in Nigeria (Published)

Human rights are critical to sustainable livelihoods. This is why most states established human rights institutions to prevent the violations of rights by individuals and states. This paper explores the relevance and oversight functions of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in addressing Nigeria’s poor human rights protection complexities. The paper establishes the linkages between citizenship education and necessity for human rights protection with emphasis on the legal framework of the NHRC, the mechanisms for rights protection by the commission and the performance of the NHRC so far. The paper concludes that having people well informed about their duties as citizens of Nigeria, and the effectiveness of human rights monitoring would sustain the capacity of the state to reduce human rights abuses in the post-COVID-19 era, when individuals and governments are struggling to address development and economic challenges.


Keywords: Citizenship Education, Human Rights, NHRC, Nigeria

Financial Globalization and Exchange Rate uncertainty in Nigeria: A Band-Pass Filter Approach (Published)

Exchange rate uncertainty has been one of the many challenges implicated as the biggest developmental and growth obstacle facing Nigeria as a nation. This study estimates financial globalization, output growth and financial uncertainty nexus in Nigeria. The research is carried under the assumption that exchange rate uncertainties are deemed to impact on the volume of export and import trading activities. Thus, we adopted the Pairwise Granger Causality model to estimate the causality relationships among financial globalization, output growth and volatility in exchange rate using a Single Equation Englo-Granger approach. The best lag selection criteria were employed to choosing the best lag for this analysis. We provide a link between the short-run and the long-run effect of the model(s). This study found that they is a positive interaction between financial volatility (exchange rate uncertainty) and output volatility in Nigeria. It shows that as financial volatility such as exchange rate uncertainty is increasing, output volatility will also be increased in the same direction. The government and the monetary authorities should be more focused on the strengthening the exchange rate, since stable exchange rate improves the terms of trade, strengthen the local capacity and increases output growth. However, addressing the heightened risks, including financial and operational risks due to economic recession as well as due to the market reforms themselves have remained the challenges of globalization in Nigeria.

Keywords: Exchange Rate, Nigeria, band-pass filter approach, financial globalization