Tag Archives: Nigeria

Assessment of the Effects of Plants on Market Environments in Garki of Abuja as an Avenue to Improve Architectural Practices in Nigeria (Published)

The quality of architectural practices in Nigeria with regards to the use of plants for landscape in market buildings is not satisfactory when it is compared with international standards and this is a problem. To reduce this problem, a market in Garki in Abuja was studied with the aim of assessing the effects of plants in its environs, in order to generate guidelines from the research feedbacks to improve architectural practices with regards to the use of plants in the design of Nigerian markets. There are seven regional built-up markets under the control of Federal Capital Territory Markets Management Committee. Out of these markets, a market in Garki was studied via purposive sampling method. The instruments used for the collection of the primary data are questionnaires, focus group discussion and observation schedule. The secondary data were obtained from the review of relevant literature. Among the research findings are: most of the market buildings have no plants for landscape architecture; the use of personal electric power generators for artificial cooling and ventilation due to inadequate circulation of fresh air from plants in and around the market buildings causes fire outbreaks in the market. Among the generated guidelines are: it must be ensured by the Architects that all the market buildings should have plants for landscape architecture at the design stage; however, markets must have general electricity generator houses to minimise the use of personal electric power generators, in order to stop fire outbreaks as a result of their uses for artificial cooling and ventilation.

 

Keywords: Nigeria, Plants, architectural practices, environs, markets

Curtailing Illegal Mining Operation in Nigeria (Published)

Nigeria as a nation is blessed with relevant resources of solid mineral that have the capacity to lure investors and business investments to enhance growth economically in the nation. These resources go from Copper, Columbite, Iron, Tin, Gold, Diamond, and so on.Unfortunately, this resource gifts is being underplayed by continuous unlawful mineral mining by people including nationals of other countries, believed to be financed by illegal investors. The Nigerian government may have lost billions of naira in years, owing to unlawful and unjust activities of operators in her mineral sector. Unlawful and unlicensed mineral mining started getting obvious immediately after Nigeria got independence in 1960. The federal government primarily own mining rights but it releases licenses for exploration work, mineral mining and its sales. Where there is no adequate policy, unlawful mineral mining continues unchecked federal government may lose royalties and revenues accruable to it. This paper presents the loopholes and the ways to curtail the activities of illegal mining of minerals in Nigeria.

Keywords: Government, Minerals, Mining, Monitoring, Nigeria, Reform, foreigners, illegal, license, mining rights, services

Non-Governmental Appraisal of the Frameworks for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in Nigeria (Published)

Non-governmental organization are key actors in human rights promotion and protection in Nigeria. As also key players in international human rights mechanisms and particularly the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process of the Human Rights Council (HRC), non-governmental stakeholders in Nigeria have participated in the three UPR circles of Nigeria and submitted reports appraising the normative and institutional frameworks for the promotion and protection of human rights. As a creation of the HRC in 2006, the UPR is a peer mechanism to review, on a periodic basis, the human rights records of all Member States of the United Nations based on three distinct sources of information submitted to the HRC. One of such sources of information is the reports from non-governmental organization operating in Nigeria classified as ‘other reports’ and compiled by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.  Focusing on the ‘other reports’ submitted to the HRC on the normative and institutional frameworks for the promotion and protection of human rights in Nigeria, this article which is descriptive in nature concludes that despite advances claimed in its national UPR reports by the Government of Nigeria, non-governmental stakeholders are still of the view that there are evidently several weaknesses in the normative and institutional frameworks for the promotion and protection of human rights in Nigeria.

Keywords: Civil Society, Human Rights, Nigeria, non-governmental, normative and institutional framework, universal periodic review

A Review of United Nations Development Programme Reports on Human Capital Development in Nigeria (Published)

The objective of this paper is to review the United Nation Reports on Nigeria Human Security and Development for 2015 and 2016 and to synthesize the selected indices of growth and development for policy formulation. More so, to compare and contrast the current socio-economic situation with the projections revealed by these reports. This survey (i)provides an overview of the socio-economic condition of the Nigerian state, (ii) reviews the literature provided by the 2015 and 2016 reports (iii)summarizes the methods and materials employed by the reports (iv) the report’s findings were critiqued vis-à-vis current economic realities and (v)  recommendations. The review revealed that the hard economic situation in the country was compounded by 2016 recession and Covid-19 pandemic. It was also discovered that political sentiments and absence of political will were causes of underdevelopment in Nigeria. Based on this, the paper recommends that, governments at all levels should be accountable, transparent, purposeful and people-centered to enhance capabilities and opportunities and growth of the country.

Keywords: Human Security, Human development, Nigeria, Policy Formulation, United Nations

Foreign Trade and External Reserves in Nigeria (Published)

This study empirically examined the effect of foreign trade and external reserves in Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to; examine the impact of oil import, non-oil import, oil export, non-oil export and exchange rate on external reserves in Nigeria. Time series data from 1980 to 2019 was collected from CBN statistical bulletin. The study employed the techniques of ADF unit root test, co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model. The results of the estimated model showed that all the time series were stationary at order one. Also, the model depicted by the co-integration result showed that there is a long run equilibrium relationship among the variables. Similarly, the vector error correction result showed that the coefficient of ECM has the hypothesized negative sign and statistically significant at 5% level. Furthermore, the Vector Error Correction result revealed that oil and non-oil exports impacted positively on external reserves although the impact of non-oil export was insignificant while oil imports, non-oil imports and exchange rate had significant negative impact on external reserves in Nigeria. Specifically, oil export, oil imports, non-oil imports and exchange rate were significant at 5 percent. This implies that they impacted significantly on external reserves in Nigeria during the period covered by the study. In addition, the granger causality test revealed that oil export had a uni-directional causal relationship with external reserve while there was a bi-directional relationship between exchange rate and external reserve. Based on these findings, the study recommended amongst others the diversification of the export base of the nation as a possible measure of improving external reserves in Nigeria. Also, the study suggests that importations be discouraged especially for commoditites that can be produced locally. Finally, the study recommends that the CBN as the custodian of Nigeria’s foreign reserves, stabilize the value of local currency taking into cognizance the external shocks that stem from exchange rate volatilities.

Keywords: Foreign Trade, Nigeria, VECM, external reserves

Psychological Impact of Downsizing on Survivor-Managers in a developing Economy (Published)

Despite the importance of psychological wellbeing of survivors to the attainment of the envisaged goal of the downsizing practice, research on this group of workers is still limited particularly in Nigeria. The study aims at exploring the psychological impact of downsizing on survivor managers in Nigeria using a qualitative research approach. More specifically, unstructured and semi-structured interviews were carried out at different stages with a total of 20 interviewees. Data were analysed and coded using a data-driven thematic analysis. The finding revealed that anxiety, a feeling of uncertainty, insecurity of job, reduction in individual motivation and poor communication influenced the survivors negatively. These negative psychological and emotional impact exhibited by the survivor employees are linked to lack of jobs, high rate of unemployment, and lack of social security and culture. The outcome of the study would provide implications for human resources managers in Nigeria who often deal with downsizing and engaged in psychological contract breach.

Keywords: Developing Economy, Nigeria, Survivor-managers, downsizing, psychological impact

Cultural Factors Influencing Psychological Contract (PC) Experiences among Survivor Managers (Published)

Most researches on psychological contract are conducted in the banking sector while limited local enquiries focused on the experiences of the survivor-managers in developing economy particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore, examines the cultural factors influencing PC experiences and responses among survivor-managers in Nigeria. The study adopted a qualitative approach and more specifically interviews. Data were analysed using empirically driven thematic analysis. The findings revealed that; unemployment, values of dependency, corruption, family obligations, beliefs, spirituality among others shape attitudes and responses of the survivor-managers’ with respect to downsizing exercise. Therefore, human resource managers who are part of the downsizing exercise should embrace open and transparent process as well as being sensitive to the wellbeing of the victims and survivors to reduce the negative psychological contract experiences and responses among Survivor-managers. In addition, the research created awareness on the need to diversify research in terms of methods adopted.

Keywords: Culture, Developing Economy, Nigeria, Survivor-managers, psychological contract

Incessant Kidnapping and Killings in Nigeria: Has The Country Returned To The State Of Nature? (Published)

The rate of insecurity in Nigeria does not only call for concern but raises a loud alarm that no one is safe. The unending occurrence of killing, banditry and kidnapping affect all regions of the country and fear grips the mind of citizens, both the rich and the poor. The government at various levels have tried making security policies, giving security a primary attention in the national budget, purchasing sophisticated ammunitions, reshuffling the rank and file in the army, creating regional security outfits and other proactive steps, yet insecurity in the country prevails by the day and government appears to be handicapped in taking charge of internal sovereignty of the country. The government has however, often times, being excused of liability, especially when the cause of death is not directly connected with any of the government’s agencies despite the primary purpose of government is the security and welfare of the citizens. It is in the light of this that the research aims at examining the sole responsibility of government in protecting citizens in the country, and the government’s corresponding liability in this regard. Relying on both primary and secondary of information, the article revealed the failure of the government to protect lives and properties within her territory makes the country drift into a state of nature. It is therefore concluded that citizens have entered a social contract for the sake of their safety and security, the government should henceforth be held responsible for further acts of killings and insecurity in the country.

Keywords: Nigeria, country, incessant kidnapping, killings, state of nature

A Review of Literature on the Concept, Motivations and Factors affecting the Successes of Veteran Entrepreneurs (Published)

The beam light is now shifting to veteran entrepreneurs because of their contribution to business creation. The life experience during military service provide veterans with certain capabilities and skills that are directly related to entrepreneurship. Although veterans’ entrepreneurship is a fast-growing domain in entrepreneurship literature, there is little systematic knowledge about it in developing nations like Nigeria, thus, creating a literature gap. This chapter fills the research void in Nigeria by extensively reviewing of literature on veteran entrepreneurship to enable an understanding of veteran experiences in the enterprise journey and as well as awaken researchers’ interest on the subject. The paper unravels the motivations of veterans in business. The paper also covers the concept of veteran entrepreneurship and factors affecting the successes of veteran entrepreneurs. This study is important as it informs policy makers the factors that influence veteran entrepreneurs to enable policy decisions that can mitigate veterans challenges in business.

 

Keywords: Motivational Factors, Nigeria, drivers of vetrepreneurs, military entrepreneurship, veteran entrepreneurs, vetrepreneurship

National Human Rights Commission, Citizenship Education and the Prospects of Citizens’ Rights Protection for Peace and Stability in Nigeria (Published)

Human rights are critical to sustainable livelihoods. This is why most states established human rights institutions to prevent the violations of rights by individuals and states. This paper explores the relevance and oversight functions of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in addressing Nigeria’s poor human rights protection complexities. The paper establishes the linkages between citizenship education and necessity for human rights protection with emphasis on the legal framework of the NHRC, the mechanisms for rights protection by the commission and the performance of the NHRC so far. The paper concludes that having people well informed about their duties as citizens of Nigeria, and the effectiveness of human rights monitoring would sustain the capacity of the state to reduce human rights abuses in the post-COVID-19 era, when individuals and governments are struggling to address development and economic challenges.

 

Keywords: Citizenship Education, Human Rights, NHRC, Nigeria

Financial Globalization and Exchange Rate uncertainty in Nigeria: A Band-Pass Filter Approach (Published)

Exchange rate uncertainty has been one of the many challenges implicated as the biggest developmental and growth obstacle facing Nigeria as a nation. This study estimates financial globalization, output growth and financial uncertainty nexus in Nigeria. The research is carried under the assumption that exchange rate uncertainties are deemed to impact on the volume of export and import trading activities. Thus, we adopted the Pairwise Granger Causality model to estimate the causality relationships among financial globalization, output growth and volatility in exchange rate using a Single Equation Englo-Granger approach. The best lag selection criteria were employed to choosing the best lag for this analysis. We provide a link between the short-run and the long-run effect of the model(s). This study found that they is a positive interaction between financial volatility (exchange rate uncertainty) and output volatility in Nigeria. It shows that as financial volatility such as exchange rate uncertainty is increasing, output volatility will also be increased in the same direction. The government and the monetary authorities should be more focused on the strengthening the exchange rate, since stable exchange rate improves the terms of trade, strengthen the local capacity and increases output growth. However, addressing the heightened risks, including financial and operational risks due to economic recession as well as due to the market reforms themselves have remained the challenges of globalization in Nigeria.

Keywords: Exchange Rate, Nigeria, band-pass filter approach, financial globalization

Implementability of English Across the Curriculum Strategy in Nigeria: Issues And Prospects (Published)

English Language in Nigeria occupies an important position. Educationally, it is a subject and the medium of instruction at all levels, an official and National Language. As a multi-Lingual nation with over 270 Languages it is also a second language, a lingua-franca and language of almost all human endervours. Yet, fluency in the language has continued to be illusive to majority of even educated Nigerians. This is despite all efforts and use of all known. English methods to promote the language. This paper tries to examine the posibility of implementiing yet another strategy, the English Across the Curriculum (EAC), in the Education System. With a view to attaining reasonable fluency. Attempt is made at giving historical background of the strategy, what it is, and its aims. Its spread across the world is also examined and why many countries implemented it in their education system and the challenges faced, the role of each stake-holder in implementing the EAC has also been pointed out. An indepth discussion is also put in place on the possibility of adopting the system in the target country. Proceeding this, are realisable recommedations for implementing the system. The paper concludes that a country like Nigeria, adopting English as a second Language, a strategy like EAC could be an alternative for attaining fluency and a motivation to students and content area teachers to be positionally disposed to English as a learning tool.

Keywords: English, Nigeria, curriculum strategy, implementability, issues and prospects

Influence of Infrastructural Support Services Management and Secondary Schools Goal Attainment in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. (Published)

The study aimed at examining the influence of infrastructural support services management and secondary schools goal attainment in Calabar education zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the aim of this study, two research questions were raised and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Correlational research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consists 81 principals in public secondary school in Calabar educational zone of Cross River State. The sampling technique adopted for this study was census method. This was adopted for the study because the population is relatively small and manageable by the researcher. The instrument used for the data collection was questionnaire titled: Infrastructural Support Services Management and Secondary Schools Goal Attainment Questionnaire (ISSMSSGQ) was developed by the researchers and was validated by three experts in Institute of Education, administration in higher education, Department of Educational Management, and measurement and evaluation in the Department of Educational Foundations in Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Calabar. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson Moment Product Correlation Coefficient (r) of statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 25. The result revealed that there is a significant relationship between management of physical facilities, management of ICT facilities and attainment of secondary school goals in Cross River State of Nigeria. It was recommended among others that Principals should ensure proper management of school physical facilities to facilitate effective achievement of secondary school goals attainment.

Keywords: Infrastructural, Management, Nigeria, Support Services, secondary schools goal attainment

Strategies for the Maintenance Management of Hostel Buildings in Nigeria (Published)

A directive was given in 2004 by the Federal Ministry of Education that federally-owned tertiary institutions should hands off hostel management. Consequent on the directive, Nigerian tertiary institutions now have both institutional and non-institutional hostels serving tertiary institutions. This no doubt has a lot of implications on the nature of management and maintenance of hostels in Nigeria.This paper assessed maintenance management strategies adopted in the maintenance of hostel buildings in Nigeria and formulated  guidelines for the maintenance of the hostels using the field data collected from the Federal Polytechnic Oko for the case-study. In order to achieve the  objective of the study, opinions of hostellers, school management, maintenance heads and private developers were sampled through structured questionnaires. The data collected were quantitatively analysed and the result of the analysis indicated the following as the problems of maintenance; non-availability of funds, indiscipline and lack of functional operational frame work and regulatory body, climatic conditions, lack of good maintenance culture, lack of skilled maintenance personnel, use of foreign building materials and unethical behaviours as some of the key factors responsible for poor maintenance work and management of hostels in tertiary institutions.  Effective strategies that should include a stipulated guide overseen by a body of professionals to enforce maintenance in hostels to avoid complacency, the adoption of a maintenance manual to be strictly monitored and the use of a computerised management system that will ensure proper maintenance records were recommended. 

Keywords: Maintenance Management, Nigeria, Strategies., Tertiary Institutions, computerised maintenance management system, hostel buildings

Personal Factors and Satellite Television Choice Behaviour in a Typical Emerging Economy (Published)

This study focuses on the nexus between personal factors and satellite television choice behavior in a typical emerging market like Nigeria. Empirical investigation that examines the nexus between personal factors and satellite television choice in a typical emerging market like the south-west Nigeria is highly under-reported hence, this study aimed at filling this gap in literature. In order to achieve this, descriptive survey was adopted while the study population comprised active subscribers of some selected satellite television providers in South-west Nigeria. Stratified sampling was employed as the sampling technique while questionnaire was the research instrument. Multiple regression was used to test the hypothesized relationship between the variables of study. It was revealed that economic status, personality and lifestyle have positive and significant effect on the choice of satellite television. However, family life cycle stage did not have a significant effect on the choice of satellite television. It was concluded that this study provided empirical evidences that support the necessity of personal factors in the course of chosen satellite television in a typical emerging market. It was recommended among others that the satellite television marketers should strongly consider the personal factors of the actual and potential subscribers in the process of designing their market offerings.

 

Keywords: Emerging Market, Lifestyle, Nigeria, Personality, choice behavior, economic status, family life cycle stage, personal factors, satellite television

A Holistic Appraisal of Electoral Fraud and Other Electoral Irregularities in Nigeria: Way Forward (Published)

Over the years, allegations of electoral fraud have been levelled against the various elections held in Nigeria, including presidential elections. The recurrent incidences of flawned elections has no doubt eroded the credibility of election results and also debased the trust in the Electoral Commission. This paper examines the factors responsible for flawned elections in Nigeria among others. This is doctrinal research which relies on both primary and secondary sources of data. This paper reveals that the politicians have come to see election as a do or die affairs, hence the frequent use of thuggery, intimidation and violence during elections. This paper concludes by proferring some solutions.  

Keywords: Election, Fraud, Ideology, Nigeria, incumbency

Bar Associations as Watchdogs to National, African, Commonwealth and International Law/Arbitration: Analysis of the Legal Strength in Nigerian, African, Commonwealth and International Bar Associations’ Constitutions (Published)

The Bar as it relates to law depicts the profession of Barrister or a Lawyer in a higher court. To be called to the Bar means allowed to work as a qualified barrister. Association on the other hand is an official group of people who have joined together for a particular purpose. In Nigeria, the association of Lawyers is called Nigerian Bar Association (otherwise, called the NBA). In Africa, the association shall be known as the African Bar Association (otherwise, called AFBA), in the Commonwealth it is Lawyer’s Association otherwise called CLA. At the international level, the name of the corporation is the International Bar Association (otherwise, called the IBA). The Bar Association whether in Nigeria, Africa, Commonwealth or the world plays among other roles to promote the administration of justice under the rule of Law among Nigerians, Africans, Commonwealth and the people of the world. This Rule of Law is the Supremacy of regular as opposed to arbitrary power; the absence of any arbitrary power on the part of the government. Promotion of rule of Law is that a Lawyer is called to the Bar to discharge. Associations of these Lawyers otherwise called Bar Association have the promotion of rule of Law as one of their objects. This paper therefore is aimed to analyze how this association of Lawyers in Nigeria, Africa, Commonwealth and the world can compel their respective governments to operate within the ambit of the rule of Law, else, they may be compelled to take legal action in Court of Law for the promotion and protection of the principles of the rule of Law, to advance the science of jurisprudence and to promote in the execution of these objects the principles and aims of the United Nations in their legal aspects and to cooperate with and promote coordination among international judicial organizations having similar purpose. Recommendations were made to the effect that Nigerian and African Bar Associations should reform, emulate and develop their constitutions as the international Bar Association had done so that their objects will continue to compel their governments for more adherence to their legal and advisory portions in the affairs of their country or region so as to ensure Legal political and economic development within their jurisdictions.

Keywords: African, Bar Association, Commonwealth and International Bar Association and Constitutions, Legal strength, Nigeria, Watchdog

Cycad Aulacaspis Scale (CAS) Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi as a major pest of Sago Palm Cycas spp. in Nigeria (Published)

Cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi) is native to the Southeast Asia specifically Thailand. Due to the trade in cycad plants for ornamental use in the world, it has been introduced widely in Asia, North America, the Caribbean, Europe, Pacific Islands, Ivory Coast and South Africa. Infestation by this scale can kill cycads in only a few months. Its introduction to these countries endangered the ornamental cycad-growing industry. In 2014, an introduced scale insect (Cycad aulacaspis scale) was discovered damaging cycads in a Bank premise, Port Harcourt. Survey was conducted on eight states (Cross River State, Rivers State, Abuja, Edo state, Akwa-Ibom state, Bayelsa state, Delta state and Lagos state) in Nigeria and report of severe damage was recorded. Management methods (cultural, chemical and biological) employed to manage the infestation proves ineffective as the scale insect was significantly seen three weeks after. The scale insect outnumbered their natural enemy tiny black lady beetle (Rhyzobius lophanthae) in these sampled locations and totally covers the entire plant within two months in a whitewashed scale-like appearance leading to chlorotic-yellow-brown leaves and eventual death of the plant. Therefore, this paper is aimed at reporting and creating awareness of the presence and outbreak of this insect pest (Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi) in Nigeria. Also, instant remedial measures should be taken to reduce the spread of this scale insect (Cycad aulacaspis scale) to other parts of Africa as to reduce the distribution of the scale insect on cycad species in this region.

Keywords: Cycad Aulacaspis scale, Damage, Infestation, Nigeria, Sago palm

Contributions of Faith-Based Organizations towards Peace Building for Sustainable Community Development in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

The paper is focused on the contributions of faith-based organizations in peace building process for sustainable development in Rivers state, Nigeria. The explanatory approach was adopted through secondary research materials to clarify understanding of concepts that formed major sub-headings in the discourse. The various views of researchers on the subject matter were adequately addressed. The key concepts in the study were also x-rayed. Activity areas of Faith- based organizations in peace building are highlighted. The study suggested among others, that the State and development agenciesshould synergize with faith-based organizations in areas of funding seminars on peaceful co-existence among the people. Also, Faith-based organizations should keep track of making peace among the people. This will enable them to offer early warning signals about conflicts to the government.

 

Keywords: Faith-Based, Nigeria, Organizations, Rivers State, peace building sustainable community development

Unions, Government and the University Enterprise in Nigeria (Published)

Permit me to broach this topic with an analogy. A roof is leaking. It needs repairs. Though it sits resplendently on top of a building, it leaks badly inside when the rain falls. In order to get to the top to fix the leakages, one would think naturally, that the mender would fetch a ladder and climb the structure. But this mender is different. He gets a sledge hammer instead and takes down the building to enable him fix the roof! This analogy exemplifies the toxic nature of the subject and the urgency of approach required to conjure a symphony between the unions in our universities today and the gentry (government and university management). The over-charged, over-unionized polity of Nigerian public universities has become a cause for concern, especially as it has begun to affect the quality of teaching, research and community services. Placed side-by-side with the lackadaisical approach of government to the educational sector, it has become evident that new byways needed to be tried out to preempt the imminent and total collapse of this sector. In this work, we shall examine the causes, effects and management of industrial disputes in our universities, and the historical, economic and political nuances involved in the incessant disputes. In other words, we shall carve our positions on the causes of strike, the effects of strikes and the possible alternatives to strikes in Nigerian public universities. The objective of the study is not to apportion blames but to expose the factors which had greatly contributed to the weakening of our HEIs and had forged a corrosive effect on our universities such that the culture of scholarship is being gradually sidetracked and mediocrity being glamourized. Our universities have no place in international rankings, and our graduates who are turned out in multitudes, could no longer said to be competitive in the global market. Stop-gap measures to address challenges could no longer serve the purpose of propping and rejuvenating the Nigerian educational sector especially, in public universities where every rupture has signified a culmination of gradual rust from the primary and secondary sectors of our education. Most of these universities are becoming factories where black-market options with little or no employable skills are mass-produced on a regular basis. Examination malpractices, incessant strikes, cult activities and poor work ethics are fast becoming ‘the new normal,’ which calls for urgent efforts to address quality concerns. This zeal to recover, rediscover and recalibrate the public universities in Nigeria is a project in irredentism that should be executed with all seriousness required so as to rescue the system from near-extinction and launch it back to global reckoning.

Keywords: Government, Nigeria, unions, university enterprise