Tag Archives: Nigeria

Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria.

Keywords: Challenges, Monitoring, Nigeria, Sustainability, adult education projects

Violent Conflicts and Challenges of Peace Building in Contemporary Nigeria (Published)

The period we are in Nigeria is a unique time in history as a nation. The country has in recent times, witnessed an unprecedented magnitude of violence that has shaken the unity of Nigeria. The study therefore examined the challenges   to peace building in Nigeria. . The study had adopted descriptive perspective in its analysis of the secondary data obtained for the study. The data obtained indicated that violent conflict from the ramous region and tribes of Nigeria is rooted in the conflict diversity of the citizens and bad governance structure. The study concluded that gives the present political and economic structure, the prospects of achieving peace are less probable, unless, the government of Nigeria would generate political will  to address huge human capital  development afflict, invest In infrastructure, and re-engineer political consensus on socio-economic and  political development in the country.

Keywords: Challenges, Nigeria, Peace – Building, Violent, conflicts.

Impact of Monetary Policy on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1990-2017) (Published)

The study examined the impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Nigeria; for the period 1990-2017. Secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study used Gross Domestic Product as proxy for economic growth and employed as the dependent variable; whereas, monetary policy rate, liquidity rate and Treasury Bills respectively were used as the explanatory variables to measure monetary policy. Hypotheses formulated were tested using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) techniques. The study revealed a significant impact of Treasury Bills on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Liquidity ratio had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. Monetary policy rate had a significant impact on Gross Domestic Product in Nigeria. The coefficient of determination indicated that about 62% of the variations in private sector of the economy can be explained by changes in monetary policy variables. The study concluded that monetary policy had impacted significantly on private sector growth in Nigeria. The study recommended that policy makers should strong economic policies that will maintain and stabilize the economy. CBN should lay down strict prudential guidelines to stabilize and strengthen the economy. The CBN should review the Monetary Policy Rate downwards so as to reduce the cost of credit and increase the flow of investible funds to the economy.

Keywords: Economic, Growth, Nigeria, Policy, monetary

Determinants of Saving Behaviour of Rural Cocoa Farmers in Ikom Agricultural Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The main concern of this study was to ascertain the determinants of saving behaviour of rural cocoa farmers in Ikom Agricultural Zone of Cross River State. The specific objectives of the study were to; ascertain the methods of saving used by rural cocoa farmers in the area; examine the effectiveness of the saving methods used and, ascertain the variables that determine rural cocoa farmers’ saving behaviour. The study adopted a survey design, the population of the study comprised all registered cocoa farmers in the area. Two extension blocks (Etung and Ikom) were purposively selected for the study, and from the blocks, six communities were selected from each blocks, and three (300) hundred respondents were randomly sampled for the study. The result of analysis revealed that, rural farmers save money using their homes, boxes, holes, clay pots, cooperative and keeping in bams and with relatives etc. it was also observed that investing in project, buying of assets, bams and cooperative etc. were the most effective saving methods used by the farmers. The study found that the saving behaviour of rural cocoa farmers was determined by their age, education, marital status and income among others. The study therefore, recommended among other things, robust rural banking reforms to improve rural farmers savings.

Keywords: Cross River State, Ikom agricultural zone, Nigeria, rural cocoa farmers, saving behaviour

The Restructure of Nigerian Federal System: A Task That Need Be Done (Published)

Of recent one of the most trending political concepts within the Nigerian political and social landscape has been the concept of restructure or its continuum (restructuring). Ironically, despite the prevalence in usage of this word in social and political discourses across the country and beyond, very little is conceptualized or agreed on by all class of people as what is the actual meaning or the scope of restructuring the country needs. To some the term means minor adjustments in the configuration of power relation between the federal and other composing units of governments. The term in the view of others stands for maximum severance of all form of relationships between the federating units. This severance may mean the decentralization of powers and responsibilities of the state in favour of the regional governments as against the federal level, therefore relationship can only be acknowledged in the form of loosed confederation. But what seems to be agreed on by all, is that the Nigerian federal structure has some fundamental defects that need urgent corrections, the extent of which is left in the imagination and belief of the advocates. This paper provides an insight into conceptual clarity of what is meant by restructure and the act of restructuring. The article is of the view that structural imbalance in the polity is grossly responsible for the high level of mistrust, ethnic and religious crises, lack of accelerated development, political schisms and other social vices amongst the ethnic nationalities that makeup the country.  The paper underscores the need for further dissolutions of political and economic autonomy to regions as against the current enormous power currently wielded by the federal government. It also recommends reversal to true fiscal federalism and regional control of the natural resources within their localities as against the current position of federal government ownership and control. Adoption of the six geopolitical zones as regional governments as against the current proliferation of unviable states. Also recommended is the adoption of rotational presidency among the regions. This is to be enshrined in the constitution to address the issue and cry of marginalization in the polity. These recommendations amongst others will serve as panacea to addressing the instability and mistrust question within the polity.

Keywords: Autonomy, Federalism, Nigeria, Regionalism, Restructure

An Evaluation of Emerging Trends in Written English among University Students in South-East Nigeria: The Teachers’ Perspective (Published)

The study investigated the degree to which students used emerging trends in their handwritten academic work. Through a three-stage random sampling, selected facilitators assessed students’ tasks in order to identify those “informal/emerging trends” used by students. Pretested questionnaire written in English was administered to facilitators at the Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Results showed that facilitators encountered emerging trends and at a high frequency while grading scripts. Findings revealed that the most likely causes of usage were poor learning in English, social media influence and keeping with the trend. Again, the study showed the consequences include grammar/spelling error, formation of incorrect/unacceptable structure, poor performance in examinations/use of English among others. Finally, the study demonstrated that facilitators were inclined to constant correction during teaching, giving more exercises involving essay writing as corrective measures to check the use and recommended that teachers must adopt a hands-on approach on the correctness of grammar.

Keywords: Emerging Trends, Nigeria, University students, formal/academic writing, teachers’ perspective

Medicine and Religion in the Nigerian Society: Conflicts and Controversies (Published)

This topic is borne out of the need to check an ugly trend which is now a cankerworm eating deeply into our health indices and progressively leading to the increasing mortality of our citizens even at a rate that may be far more than the activities of the terrorists. Shortly I shall be looking at the crack (conflicts and controversies) that have been created between Religion and Medical Science which unfortunately is widening by the day for no just cause.

Keywords: Controversies, Medicine, Nigeria, Religion., Society, conflicts.

Demystifying Women’s Apathy Towards Rural Community-Based Cooperative Societies in Nigeria: An Empirical Insight (Published)

The main thrust of this paper was to examine women’s apathy towards rural community-based cooperative societies in Nigeria. The study specifically examined the types of cooperatives in the study area, the reasons for women’s membership of cooperatives, reasons for women’s apathy towards cooperatives and the socioeconomic determinants of women’s involvement in cooperative societies in rural communities. The study was carried out in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all rural women in the study area. The respondents consisted of 145 randomly selected rural women. Data were collected with the aid of a validated structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, mean deviation, ranking and probit regression model. The result of analysis revealed that different cooperative societies exists in the area, women join cooperatives for various reasons such as access to loan/grants, to attract government support, access to farm input, access to educational opportunities, among others. It was also noted that women’s apathy towards cooperatives is associated with their lack of land ownership right, domestic responsibilities, and poverty etc. The age, marital status, level of education and occupation of women were significantly related to their participation in cooperatives. It was recommended among others that government should provide credit facilities to rural women to enhance their financial autonomy and participation in cooperative societies.

Keywords: Cooperative Societies, Nigeria, Rural, Women, apathy

Social Studies Pre- Service Teachers and their Lecturers Perception of Social Studies Apps in teaching Social Studies in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria (Published)

The aim of this descriptive study is to illustrate how University of Port Harcourt Social Studies Pre-Service teachers and their lecturers perceive the use of SOS App to enhance teaching and learning. The study made use of Social Studies Post National Certificate of Education (NCE), Master of Education (MEd) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Students of the University of Port Harcourt Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of the five PhD students of 2015/2017 set, fifteen MEd students of 2015/2016 and two hundred and three Post NCE students of 2014/2015 set, five Social Studies Lecturers, and five lecturers that also teach Social Studies courses. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of one hundred (101) post NCE students from the population, but the total population of PhD, MEd and lecturers were used.  A questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Information gathered from the field were decoded and tallied, and the frequency counts determined. Percentage scores were computed. Tables were constructed in respect of the demands of the respective research questions. The result of the study indicated the following among other thing; both students and teachers except the Post NCE students are aware of SOS Apps and its importance in enhancing Social Studies content, they have similar challenges of low level of knowledge and skill in technology. The researcher therefore recommended that both Social Studies teachers and preservice teachers should be encouraged to use technology in their classrooms through motivation, constant and consistent training.

Keywords: Lecturers, Nigeria, Perception, Social Studies Apps, Social Studies Pre- Service Teachers, University of Port Harcourt

Promoting peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria: the Social Studies perspective (Published)

Conflict, insurgency, terrorism and crime had become the prominent super war agents, waging dynamic war against Nigerian territorial integrity and economic boom. This study sought to examine how peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria from the social studies perspective. To achieve this, two research questions were raised to guide the study. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Data used for the study were generated through a questionnaire titled “Promoting Peace and Social Stability through Cultural Values Questionnaire” which was administered to 70 Social Studies Educators purposively selected from the study area. Their responses to the questionnaire were coded to identify recurrent themes and patterns and were tested using the simple percentages, means and statistical frequency. The result of the analysis showed that in respect to the first research question, a mean percentage ‘Yes’ responses 74.69% and ‘No’ responses of 25.31%  Where as in respect to research question two  a mean percentage ‘yes’ response of 78% against the mean percentage ‘no’ response of 22% was obtained. The implication of this is that cultural values significantly influence the promotion of peace and social stability in Nigeria. , it was therefore concluded that the peace and stability of the Nigerian society can be promoted if cultural values are revived, promoted, taught and applied in the country and  recommended that administrative leadership of Nigeria should be broaden to include traditional leaders and priests in the governance of the Nation.

Keywords: Cultural Values, Culture, Nigeria, Peace, Social Studies Perspective., social stability

Information Retrieval tools and utilization of library resources by undergraduate students in Federal Universities in South-South Zone, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated the influence of information retrieval tools on the utilization of library resources by undergraduate students in Federal Universities in South-South Zone, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised 952 registered library users from 3 selected universities in the zone during 2017/2018 academic session. Survey research design method was employed using a structured questionnaire to collect data. Data collected was analysis using mean and standard deviation. The hypothesis was tested using simple linear regression and multiple regression analysis respectively. The regression model produced a regression coefficient of R=.489 which revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between knowledge of information retrieval tools and utilization of library resource. The study equally revealed that knowledge of information retrieval tools is relatively low in the institutions studied. It was recommended that more attention should be paid to the teaching of the use of information retrieval tools in all library user education studies of the instructions. 

Keywords: Library Resources, Nigeria, Undergraduates, Utilization, retrieval tools, south-south zone

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Extension Workers’ Satisfaction With Job Condition in Kebbi State Agricultural And Rural Development Authority (Karda), Kebbi State – Nigeria (Published)

This study assessed the agricultural extension condition in Kebbi State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (KARDA). Both the primary and secondary data were used for this study. The target population for this study is the extension workers and the farmers in Kebbi State Agricultural and rural development authority (KARDA). Multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 120 extension workers from 24 agricultural extension blocks (5 extension workers per block). The results of the study shows that majority (95.5%) of the extension workers were male and only 5.0% were female, were within the age group of 48 – 57 years, while only 1.7% were within the age group of 18 – 27 years, had Ordinary National Diploma (OND, had their household size ranging from 1 to 11 people, while 30.8% had household size ranging from 12 – 22 persons and had 21 to 30 years working experience, while 19.2% had 1 -10 years of working experience.  Regarding the most frequently used methods in communicating new ideas, majority of the extension workers (96.7%) frequently used farm, home and office visits. The study also reveals that majority of the respondent (45.8%) organized visits for the farmers every two weeks as a strategy for educating and communicating of information towards enhancing agricultural productivity and skills. It was found that of the six (6) variables included in the model, only socio-economic characteristics such as education (X4), household size (X5) and experience (X6) had a significant relationship with their job satisfaction. The most pressing constraints, as perceived by the respondents, is that their remuneration was inadequate. The study recommends that the Kebbi State Government should improve the level of job satisfaction of the extension agents in Kebbi State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (KARDA) through provision of funds, equipment, mobility and housing accommodation and should enhance the skills and make the extension staff equips with the latest technologies training programme should be organized for extension agents.

Keywords: Karda, Kebbi State agricultural and rural development authority, Nigeria, Socio-Economic Factors, extension workers, job condition

Trilemma of Macroeconomic Policy and Structural Reforms in Nigeria (Published)

Motivated by lack of consensus on the empirical validity of the Mundell-Fleming trilemma and its development effects, this paper examines the relationship between the trilemma indexes (monetary autonomy, exchange rate stability and capital mobility) and structural reforms with a focus on manufacturing and service value added in Nigeria. The ADRL was applied in addition to other econometrics tools in analyzing the data sourced from various documentary sources. The ARDL bounds test results revealed that the variables are cointegrated. This necessitated the rejection of the null hypothesis of no long run relationship. The short run result shows that lag two of monetary autonomy and contemporaneous value of exchange rate stability have significant positive relationship with manufacturing value added. Manufacturing value added increases by 7.289 percent following a unit increase in monetary autonomy index. Similarly, a unit increase in exchange rate stability triggers 1.372 percent in manufacturing value added in the short run. The long run result revealed that monetary independence exerts significant positive influence on manufacturing whereas capital mobility is negatively related to manufacturing valued added in the long run. The result further indicates the long term effects of the trilemma indexes are statistically insignificant while that of foreign reserve accumulation is found to exert significant positive impact on service value added in the long run. This is a pointer that the policy makers in Nigeria have leveraged on external reserve build-up to buffer shocks in the service sector. On the basis of the findings, it is concluded that the manufacturing sector is the channel through which the policy trilemma drives the process of structural reforms in the Nigeria. Thus, policy makers in Nigeria should allow for more managed floating exchange rate regime and ensure appreciable independence in the monetary policy operation with a view to fostering the process of structural reforms in Nigeria.

Keywords: ARDL, Manufacturing Value Added, Nigeria, Trilemma indexes, service value added

International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Adoption and Revenue Generation: A Descriptive Study of Nigeria and Ghana (Published)

Years after the inception of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), most countries of the world now permit its utilization in their countries including West Africa countries such as Nigeria and Ghana. However, some countries of the world still have not subscribed to the IFRS situation. It is thus necessary to examine the situation of things with the countries that have adopted to know if the adoption has contributed to their growth favourably or adversely. This study adopted expost facto research design to examine how IFRS has influence Revenue base of the selected countries (Nigeria and Ghana). The study concludes that it is in the best interest of developing countries to adopt IFRS. The IFRS ship is already making its way around the world as a single set of high quality global accounting standards and also facilitating revenue flow into the country. Therefore, the earlier other countries come on board, the better for them.

Keywords: Adoption, Ghana, International Financial Reporting standard, Nigeria, Revenue Generation, descriptive study

Aspects of the Geology and Hydrogeology around Awe Town, Nigeria (Published)

Keywords: Awe town, Nigeria, geology, hydrogeology

Landscape Planning and Sustainable Ecological Management of Nigerian Universities: Akwa Ibom State University Example (Published)

The study was conducted in Obio Akpa Campus of Akwa Ibom State University located in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.  The University campus is situated on a very beautiful physical terrain: undulating land surfaces inter spaced by a shallow valley.  It has a very unique attractive appearance.  However, it is this very nature of its environment that makes it highly sensitive and vulnerable to ecological hazards.  Recently, the campus has experienced many new physical development projects such as construction of new class rooms, staff offices, laboratories, etc.  It was observed that the land cover elements removed during the process of constructing these buildings were not replaced after the buildings completion. Consequently, the wash away effects of the heavy and frequent incidence of rainfall in this ecological zone are taking serious toll on the University environment, even posing danger of sudden collapse to some buildings.  The aim of the study was to demonstrate the use of landscape planning as a tool to check further degradation of the University environment and its neighborhood.  The Geographic Information System (GIS) methods were adopted to generate the data. The study has identified areas requiring very urgent landscape attention. A space view image of this section of the campus was processed and presented. Also, a model landscape design was prepared and presented.  Landscaping of the surroundings of all the buildings and the entire university surroundings, provisions of paved driveways, walkways, parking areas and coordinated rain water drain channels were among the recommendations.

Keywords: Akwa Ibom State University, Landscape planning, Nigeria, ecological management

Influence of Mobile Photography on Outdoor Commercial Photographers in Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria (Published)

The influence of mobile photography in recent times is enormous as the number of persons with camera fitted smartphones increase. The World is engrossed in images from mobile photography through social media feeds. Many of these images may fall short of professional quality, due to limited skill of actors, nonetheless, they are increasing being deployed for visual communication. The business of commercial campus portrait photographers is threatened by these nascent mobile photographic developments. This study examined the impact of mobile photography and its corresponding social media usage on the business of commercial portrait photographers in Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA), using a descriptive research approach. 294 staff, 267 students and 13 photographers who were sampled randomly for the study were administered structured questionnaire. Their responses were analyzed using test of proportion and percentages. The results obtained reveal that many members of the university community use their smartphones for capturing images of self and of others. The results further reveal a decline in the demand for print copies of photographs. Consequently, these developments signify reduced patronage of campus commercial photographers, who made the confirmation from reduction in their engagements and earnings. Many of the photographers are already making adjustments in their service offerings, as recommended by this study, if the campus must remain a viable business environment for them.

Keywords: Akure, Federal University, Nigeria, Technology, mobile photography, outdoor commercial photographers

Teacher Classroom Practice: A Case Study of Teachers’ Awareness of Students’ Learning Styles in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

Despite on-going global shifts in teaching and learning, driven by technological advancements, Nigerian teachers continue to practice  the traditional ‘teach and test at the end of the term’ method This instruction method is used with little consideration for pupils’ learning styles which has been proven to be key to learners’ academic success. This study seeks to investigate some Nigerian teachers’ awareness of their students’ learning styles in the course of instructional delivery. Pre and post observation techniques, semi structured interviews and questionnaires are going to be used to generate data.  Data will be coded and analysed to obtain the findings. Thereafter, recommendations will be made based on the result.


Keywords: Classroom Practice, Nigeria, Teacher, instructional delivery, learning styles

Adopting Alternative Methodologies and Practices in Educational Research in Higher Education in Nigeria (Published)

Alternative methodologies and practices have gained prominence in educational research in the 21st century. The application of other research methodologies and practices challenges the one-fit-all approach associated with a single research methodology in educational research. The current practice is one that has developed to re-position the subsisting culture of research to rather assume a multidirectional trajectory in educational research in higher institutions of learning. While this is the case in the educational systems of other contexts, it raises concern about whether alternative methodologies and practices also apply in educational research in higher education in Nigeria. This literature examines what obtains in the Nigerian context, and where there seems to be gaps, strives to inspire a rethink of the existing research methodology and practices in educational research for better research in higher education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Higher Education, Nigeria, Practices, educational research, methodologies

Assessment of Facilities in the Male Hostels of University Environments in Nigeria (Published)

The number of students seeking and getting admission into universities increases every year, and this has led to the failure of the original design of university hostels. Furthermore, student hostels in Nigeria have not received the desired attention from the government and management of institutions; there have been reported cases of students taking ill in hostels as a result of poor sanitary conditions. Thus, these have led to the study of university male hostels with the aim of assessing their facilities, in order to generate guidelines to improve the design, quality and worth of university hostels in Nigeria. To achieve this, primary and secondary research data were collected. The primary research data were from questionnaires administered to 100 students who are residents of the university hostel and direct observations of facilities in the university hostels. The secondary data were reviews of relevant literature from journals, books and other academic materials. Tables and photographs were used to present the research data. Among the findings of the research are: adequate storage facilities are not provided in the hostel bed rooms, and this has made the students to keep their properties indiscriminately; poor maintenance of hostel facilities is a challenge faced by the students. Among the recommended guidelines are: adequate storage facilities should be provided in the hostel bed rooms in the universities at the design stages to stop the students from keeping their properties indiscriminately; the university hostel facilities should be well maintained.

Keywords: Nigeria, Students, Universities, facilities, hostels