Motivated by lack of consensus on the empirical validity of the Mundell-Fleming trilemma and its development effects, this paper examines the relationship between the trilemma indexes (monetary autonomy, exchange rate stability and capital mobility) and structural reforms with a focus on manufacturing and service value added in Nigeria. The ADRL was applied in addition to other econometrics tools in analyzing the data sourced from various documentary sources. The ARDL bounds test results revealed that the variables are cointegrated. This necessitated the rejection of the null hypothesis of no long run relationship. The short run result shows that lag two of monetary autonomy and contemporaneous value of exchange rate stability have significant positive relationship with manufacturing value added. Manufacturing value added increases by 7.289 percent following a unit increase in monetary autonomy index. Similarly, a unit increase in exchange rate stability triggers 1.372 percent in manufacturing value added in the short run. The long run result revealed that monetary independence exerts significant positive influence on manufacturing whereas capital mobility is negatively related to manufacturing valued added in the long run. The result further indicates the long term effects of the trilemma indexes are statistically insignificant while that of foreign reserve accumulation is found to exert significant positive impact on service value added in the long run. This is a pointer that the policy makers in Nigeria have leveraged on external reserve build-up to buffer shocks in the service sector. On the basis of the findings, it is concluded that the manufacturing sector is the channel through which the policy trilemma drives the process of structural reforms in the Nigeria. Thus, policy makers in Nigeria should allow for more managed floating exchange rate regime and ensure appreciable independence in the monetary policy operation with a view to fostering the process of structural reforms in Nigeria.
International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Adoption and Revenue Generation: A Descriptive Study of Nigeria and Ghana (Published)
Years after the inception of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), most countries of the world now permit its utilization in their countries including West Africa countries such as Nigeria and Ghana. However, some countries of the world still have not subscribed to the IFRS situation. It is thus necessary to examine the situation of things with the countries that have adopted to know if the adoption has contributed to their growth favourably or adversely. This study adopted expost facto research design to examine how IFRS has influence Revenue base of the selected countries (Nigeria and Ghana). The study concludes that it is in the best interest of developing countries to adopt IFRS. The IFRS ship is already making its way around the world as a single set of high quality global accounting standards and also facilitating revenue flow into the country. Therefore, the earlier other countries come on board, the better for them.
Landscape Planning and Sustainable Ecological Management of Nigerian Universities: Akwa Ibom State University Example (Published)
The study was conducted in Obio Akpa Campus of Akwa Ibom State University located in Oruk Anam Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The University campus is situated on a very beautiful physical terrain: undulating land surfaces inter spaced by a shallow valley. It has a very unique attractive appearance. However, it is this very nature of its environment that makes it highly sensitive and vulnerable to ecological hazards. Recently, the campus has experienced many new physical development projects such as construction of new class rooms, staff offices, laboratories, etc. It was observed that the land cover elements removed during the process of constructing these buildings were not replaced after the buildings completion. Consequently, the wash away effects of the heavy and frequent incidence of rainfall in this ecological zone are taking serious toll on the University environment, even posing danger of sudden collapse to some buildings. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the use of landscape planning as a tool to check further degradation of the University environment and its neighborhood. The Geographic Information System (GIS) methods were adopted to generate the data. The study has identified areas requiring very urgent landscape attention. A space view image of this section of the campus was processed and presented. Also, a model landscape design was prepared and presented. Landscaping of the surroundings of all the buildings and the entire university surroundings, provisions of paved driveways, walkways, parking areas and coordinated rain water drain channels were among the recommendations.
Influence of Mobile Photography on Outdoor Commercial Photographers in Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria (Published)
The influence of mobile photography in recent times is enormous as the number of persons with camera fitted smartphones increase. The World is engrossed in images from mobile photography through social media feeds. Many of these images may fall short of professional quality, due to limited skill of actors, nonetheless, they are increasing being deployed for visual communication. The business of commercial campus portrait photographers is threatened by these nascent mobile photographic developments. This study examined the impact of mobile photography and its corresponding social media usage on the business of commercial portrait photographers in Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA), using a descriptive research approach. 294 staff, 267 students and 13 photographers who were sampled randomly for the study were administered structured questionnaire. Their responses were analyzed using test of proportion and percentages. The results obtained reveal that many members of the university community use their smartphones for capturing images of self and of others. The results further reveal a decline in the demand for print copies of photographs. Consequently, these developments signify reduced patronage of campus commercial photographers, who made the confirmation from reduction in their engagements and earnings. Many of the photographers are already making adjustments in their service offerings, as recommended by this study, if the campus must remain a viable business environment for them.
Teacher Classroom Practice: A Case Study of Teachers’ Awareness of Students’ Learning Styles in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
Despite on-going global shifts in teaching and learning, driven by technological advancements, Nigerian teachers continue to practice the traditional ‘teach and test at the end of the term’ method This instruction method is used with little consideration for pupils’ learning styles which has been proven to be key to learners’ academic success. This study seeks to investigate some Nigerian teachers’ awareness of their students’ learning styles in the course of instructional delivery. Pre and post observation techniques, semi structured interviews and questionnaires are going to be used to generate data. Data will be coded and analysed to obtain the findings. Thereafter, recommendations will be made based on the result.
Adopting Alternative Methodologies and Practices in Educational Research in Higher Education in Nigeria (Published)
Alternative methodologies and practices have gained prominence in educational research in the 21st century. The application of other research methodologies and practices challenges the one-fit-all approach associated with a single research methodology in educational research. The current practice is one that has developed to re-position the subsisting culture of research to rather assume a multidirectional trajectory in educational research in higher institutions of learning. While this is the case in the educational systems of other contexts, it raises concern about whether alternative methodologies and practices also apply in educational research in higher education in Nigeria. This literature examines what obtains in the Nigerian context, and where there seems to be gaps, strives to inspire a rethink of the existing research methodology and practices in educational research for better research in higher education in Nigeria.
The number of students seeking and getting admission into universities increases every year, and this has led to the failure of the original design of university hostels. Furthermore, student hostels in Nigeria have not received the desired attention from the government and management of institutions; there have been reported cases of students taking ill in hostels as a result of poor sanitary conditions. Thus, these have led to the study of university male hostels with the aim of assessing their facilities, in order to generate guidelines to improve the design, quality and worth of university hostels in Nigeria. To achieve this, primary and secondary research data were collected. The primary research data were from questionnaires administered to 100 students who are residents of the university hostel and direct observations of facilities in the university hostels. The secondary data were reviews of relevant literature from journals, books and other academic materials. Tables and photographs were used to present the research data. Among the findings of the research are: adequate storage facilities are not provided in the hostel bed rooms, and this has made the students to keep their properties indiscriminately; poor maintenance of hostel facilities is a challenge faced by the students. Among the recommended guidelines are: adequate storage facilities should be provided in the hostel bed rooms in the universities at the design stages to stop the students from keeping their properties indiscriminately; the university hostel facilities should be well maintained.
Knowledge Integration and Service Delivery of Health Professionals in Public Hospitals in South-South Nigeria (Published)
The specific objective of the study was to ascertain the extent to which knowledge integration influences service delivery of health professionals in public hospitals in South-South Nigeria. The study employed a correlation design. A sample of 596 respondents were selected from twelve categorized public hospitals is South-South using Taro Yamani’s formula. 34 questions were formulated in the questionnaire in line with the stated objective of the study. A total of 596 copies of questionnaire were administered and 551 copies were collected showing 92 percent responses, 10 responses were rejected and 541 copies constituting 90 percent of the questionnaire were analyzed. The results showed that there is positive significant relationship between knowledge integration and service delivery of health professionals in public hospitals in South-South Nigeria. The study concluded that the integration of knowledge management in service delivery is a vital aspect of learning in healthcare organization, as new discoveries and knowledge become available to professionals in their respective fields which have to acquire, transmit, retain and use the knowledge. The study therefore, recommends that organizations of various sizes should adequately integrate knowledge management enablers’ factors in their organizational culture and leadership to enhance organizational performance and provision of service quality. The integration of new knowledge in all the units within the healthcare institutions/organizations and adequate implementation of health policies and programmes will help to transform the healthcare delivery into a more cost effective error averse and accountable public resources. There should be an increasing individuals’ confidence in integrating useful knowledge with others. Knowledge integration can be enhanced by increasing employees’ self-efficacy through training. Organizations are expected to help shape and facilitate staff perceptions of knowledge ownership which have been found to enhance their knowledge integration because of internal satisfaction.
The existing methods of funding public schools under the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme is not adequate to meet the needs of the schools in Nigeria. This is causing a degradation in academic standards, facilities and equipment and poor outcomes among the learners. Alternative sources of raising public funds to finance basic education have come into focus. Such attention has become important because basic education plays a very vital role in an educational system. These new strategies come as complements to the traditional modes through which schools can access needed fund, objectively to improve schools and achievements among learners.
State Police and Police- Operational Efficiency: Footing For Strengthening National Security In Nigeria: – A Scrutiny of Ojo in Lagos State (Published)
The current insecurity in Nigeria which includes widespread killings, kidnappings, cultism and police brutality justifies the agitation for creation of state police in Nigeria. Hence, this paper assessed the creation of state police and police operational efficiency as footing for strengthening national security in Nigeria. The study applied theoretical and quantitative methods; information was sourced secondarily through content analysis of textbooks, journals and newspaper. The quantitative data was obtained through administration of 250 questionnaires to the residents of Ojo Local Government by applying simple random sampling and convince techniques. Findings showed that 66 %( 165) of the respondents were male while 34% (85) of the respondents were female, 79%(198) of the respondents strongly agreed that state police will resolve insecurity in Nigeria while 15%(37), strongly disagreed that creation of state police will resolve insecurity in Nigeria however 6%(15) of the respondents were neutral. The paper recommends creation of state police with strict judicial control and deployment of smart security technologies. This study will be of immense benefits to government at various levels, NGOs, the Nigeria Police Force and the researchers in the field of security and public administration.
Effects of International Public Sector Accounting Standards on Financial Accountability in Nigeria Public Sector (Published)
The study examined the effect of International Public Sector Accounting Standards on financial accountability in the Nigerian public sector. Specifically, the study investigated the effect of International public sector accounting standards on the efficient management of public fund in the Nigerian public sectors and assessed the extent to which international public sector accounting standards enhance effective budget implementation in the Nigeria public sector. The population of the study comprises of all the staff in internal audit department, accounting department and finance department of the 18 Local Governments in Ondo State. Questionnaire was used to gather information from the selected respondents in the departments. The questionnaire was ranked using five-point Likert scale. The study employed Multiple Regression Analysis and Pearson’s Correlation Matrix to identify the effect of the effect of International Public Sector Accounting Standards on financial accountability in the Nigerian public sector. The study revealed that International Public Sector Accounting Standards has positive and significant effect on the efficient management of public funds in the Nigerian Public sector. The study recommended that the federal government should release fund to power the adoption IPSAS and made fund available for training of civil servants on International Public Sector Accounting Standards software.
The Electronic Library Services and Its Patronage among Undergraduates in the Faculty of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria (Published)
The role of Electronic Library Services in any academic institution, most especially in human life cannot be overemphasised in this 21st century as they are technological advancement which has increased the role of information as a result of social progress and vigorous development in science and technology. However, the new and emerging technology changed the traditional process of learning, teaching, research and the way education is managed. The pace of change brought by these new technologies has had a significant effect on the way people live, work and play in the world. The study seeks to determine what the use of these electronic library services in Osun State University will mean to the undergraduates in the faculty of Health Sciences in relation to their studies. The population of the study consists of all undergraduates in the faculty of Health Sciences of Osun State University, Osogbo. The faculty has a total number of 1369 undergraduates. A stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting 200 undergraduates in the aforementioned faculty. 144 total number of respondents was used for the study. Both sexes from the various departments were also included in the study. They were well analysed and used to prepare the tables.
In recent times, ardent watchers and analysts of the Nigerian project have suggested that the country has endemic leadership issues with genetic foundations deeply rooted in Her DNA. Although this assertion has been sharply contested, the apparent malady in the current behaviours of persons in key leadership positions in the country seems to have assumed worrisome dimensions .The observed leadership behaviours have taken an impoverishing toll on the efforts at National Development. Thus, this work, in the bid to evolve persons with development –centric leadership behaviours, took an organic approach to attempt to resolve the underlying leadership malaise. This was done using metaphoric symbolisms and biological analogies to have an introspective view of aspects of molecular ecology. This dimension was adopted in order to explain how leadership behaviour mutation could counteract the prevailing leadership trend and provide actionable thoughts for the ultimate attainment of sustainable National Development.
Patterns and Prevalence of Gambling Behaviour among Youths in South-West Nigeria: A Case Study of Youths in Oyo and Ekiti State (Published)
Gambling has become an activity that most Nigerian youths and adolescents engaged in, with accessibility due to available internet. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the patterns and prevalence of gambling behavior among youths in the South-West Nigeria. 320 participants were involved in the study. Four hypotheses were tested and result shows that there is a significant difference in the gambling behaviour of youth in Oyo and Ekiti State, Nigeria based on age (F(2,294) = 2.793, P(.009)<.05).also the research showed that there is a significant relationship between financial strain and gambling behaviour (r(297) = .561p<.05). Also, there is a significant relationship between personality and gambling. (r(297) = .275 p<.05). Furthermore, it was revealed that there is a relationship between depression and gambling behaviour. (r(297) = .321 p<.05). Findings were discussed in line with extant literature and recommendations were made.
Learner voice has emerged in literature in the 21st century as a means to inform educational change in both developed and developing countries, including Nigeria. It is a rights-based movement and the focus in this work is to help democratise school practices to foster engagement of the perspectives of learners, as partners with teachers, in decision-making involving the curriculum, policies and practices in the context. Analysis of the concept herein is underpinned by social constructivist epistemologies. Learner voice practice challenges didactic pedagogies prevalent within the Nigerian educational system. Rather, the notion regards the learner as a co-creator of knowledge of classroom programmes and partner in school reforms within the context.
Analysis of Active Fire Protection Measures in Garki Model Market of the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria (Published)
Fire outbreak in market places is a recurring issue in Nigeria, and it is a leading causes of lives and properties loss in Nigerian markets. In order to curtail this problem, an evaluation of active fire protection measures in Garki model market of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria was conducted with the aim of generating guidelines that can reduce the spread of fire outbreaks in Nigerian markets. There are 1,430 sales points in Garki model market. Systematic sampling method was adopted for this study and it was applied at every 5th interval of sales points, in order to get the sample size; as a result of this, 287 sales points were selected. The primary research data were questionnaires administered to the sales people, and the direct observations of the current conditions of the market; likewise, 20 different focus group discussions were organised for the selected sales people. Also, interview questions were administered to the managing company of the market. Among the results are: fire protection devices in the market are not adequate; all the fire hose reels in the market are not in good condition; most of the sales people in the market do not know how to operate firefighting equipment because they do not respond to calls for training on how to use them. Among the recommended guidelines are: the adequacy and functionality of fire protection devices should be ensured by the government of Nigeria and the management authorities of markets in Nigeria; training for the sales people should be enforced by the management authorities of markets in Nigeria, in order to ensure that the sales people know how to operate firefighting equipment.
The dynamics of planktons in the coastal waters of Ondo State, Nigeria were investigated from April, 2014 to March, 2016. Samples were collected monthly using plankton net of 55 μm-mesh size, preserved in 4% formalin, examined with Olympus microscope and identified using standard guides. Zooplankton was more abundant in the environment in this study with NOI of 55.54% and 53.25% in the wet and dry seasons respectively. A total of twenty-three species of phytoplanktons belonging to two taxonomic groups were recorded. Diatom (65.22%) represented by five phyla consisting of Ochrophyta (7species), Heterokontophyta (6species) and Bacillariophyta (2species) while Dinoflagellates (34.78%) were represented by phylum Dinoflagellata (4species) and Myzozoa (4species). The zooplankton assemblage was composed of twenty-seven species including phylum Arthropoda (10), Rotifera (6), Chordata (3), Chaetognatha (2), Echinodermata (2), Ciliophora (1), Cnidarian (1), Granolereticulosa (1), and Mollusca (1). In wet-season, Fish-eggs (4.69%) (most abundant) Brachionus quadridentatus (3.79%); Coscinodiscus sp (3.67%); Biddulphia mobiliensis (3.31%) and Odonata nymph (3.01%) with Foraminifera (0.60%, the least) while the composition of the dry-season had a descending trend of Asterionellopsis sp (3.25%)>Cerataulina sp and Pseudo-nitzschia sp (3.02%)>Chaetognatha adult (2.86%)>Brachionus falcatus; Ceratium hirundinella sp and Coscinodiscus sp (2.70%)>Gyrodinium spp (2.62%) to Protoceratium reticulatum (0.48%). The Number of Individuals ranged from 26.25±6.86 (Dry-season) to 38.85±16.33 (Wet-Season) while Number of the most abundant species (Nmax) and average number of species (S) (which exhibited seasonal variation at P<0.05) ranged from 2.92±0.87 (Dry-Season) to 3.92±1.18 (Wet-Season) and from 18.10±3.14 (Dry-season) to 20.38±5.72 (Wet-Season) respectively. The Margalef’s Diversity Index and Shannon-Wiener Index which showed no seasonal variation ranged from 5.25±0.70 to 5.35±1.28 and 2.80±0.18 to 2.86±0.29 respectively, while Simpsons-Reciprocal Index ranged from 32.25±12.74 (Wet-Season) to 40.10±15.84 (Dry-season) and exhibited seasonal variation at P<0.05. The abundance and diversity of planktons in this study is an indicator of eutrophic ecosystem that is possibly unstressed.
The activities of multinational oil companies in Nigeria have remained a source of controversy over the years. The study examined the impact of multinational oil companies in the economic growth of Nigeria (1960-2010). Hence, the specific objective is to ascertain the extent of economic growth impacted by the multinational oil companies in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. Data were obtained through secondary sources. The findings revealed that the extent of economic growth impacted by the multinational oil companies in Nigeria was significant based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis result where the calculated F-statistics of 212.1293 is greater than the tabulated F-statistics of (5.35147). The study found that extent of oil contribution to economic growth in Nigeria was significant.
Challenges of transportation in Obàléndé area of Lagos Nigeria can only be felt and experienced by its ever increasing commuters and the numerous vehicles plying the road facility. Though the status quo of transportation in that area cannot be outrightly written off, the prospect of keeping in view possible transport infrastructures into the transport system and executing it at the adequate locations in the said area is a feat that is worth researching into. This research looks into the actual transportation challenges faced by Nigerians in Obàléndé area of Lagos, with every possible conceivable solutions that is practical. The data gathered for this research will be via literature review and structured interview. The interviews will be conducted using purposive sampling methods and the data analysis will be done using coding and content analysis. From the information obtained it is recommended