Tag Archives: Nigeria

Generic Structure Potential (GSP) and Discourse Features in Selected Banking Discourses in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the Generic Structure Potential and Discourse Features in selected banking discourses in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. The data, which comprised the recorded interactions between the customer service officer and the customers in the selected banks were transcribed, categorized and analysed based on the Generic Structure Potential model by Halliday and Hasan and the Metadiscourse Model by Hyland and Tse. The findings indicate that the Generic Structure Potential deployed five obligatory elements which are Greeting Initiation (GI), Customer Complaint (CC), Question and Response (QR), Proffering of solution (PoS) and Close (Cls) and four optional elements which are Request for Customer’s Complaint (RCC), Request for Account Details (RAD), Confirmation of Customer Details (CCD) and Apologies for Delay (AD). The Discourse Features include Opening, Closing, Questioning, Turn and Turn taking while the markers deployed by the CSO and customers include transitional markers, frame markers, hedges, attitude markers, self-mention, engagement markers and boosters. The paper concludes that GSP shows the structure of conversations, while Discourse Features help to aid better understanding between CSO and customers in banking discourse.

Keywords: Discourse Features, Generic Structure Potential (GSP), Ibadan, Nigeria, Oyo State, banking discourses

The Nigeria-Biafra War: Economic Challenges and Quest for Survival in Biafra, 1967-1970 (Published)

Nigeria was artificially structured and named by the British. This nomenclatural coloration brought different ethnic nationalities together. These ethnic nationalities located in different parts of the country with distinct languages, history and cultural backgrounds and values, were made to coexist together under the same political unit. Little effort was made by the British to achieve political unity among these groups. With the first and second military coups in 1966, ethnicity became a major factor in Nigeria’s political lexicon. By 1967, Nigeria experienced a major conflict that almost dismembered the country. The war had serious economic consequences on Biafra as a result of the economic blockade and other stringent policies imposed on them by the Nigerian government. This paper therefore, interrogates issues emanating from the economic blocked and the challenges faced by Biafran citizens during this period. It examines survival strategies adopted by the Biafran government, Biafran citizens and efforts made by international humanitarian organisations to support the people. In the content analysis, this paper made use of both primary and secondary sources. The study identified both positive and negative survival efforts made by the people of Biafra.

Keywords: Biafra, Nigeria, War, economic challenges, survival in Biafra

Understanding the Nexus between Electronic Service Performance and Customer Satisfaction among Online Shoppers in a Typical Emerging Economy (Published)

The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the influence of electronic service performance on customer satisfaction among online retail customers in Anambra State, Nigeria. The development of information and communication technology (ICT) and its wide application to business especially retailing led to the development of alternative methods of distributing goods and service hence, the emergence of many online retail shops that are challenging the traditional methods of retailing. In view of this and in view of the fact that customers are keying into this emergent phenomenon, customer satisfaction with the online retail shops is imperative. Hence this study set out to examine service performance and customer satisfaction among online retail shoppers in Nigeria. The study was based on a survey of 288 online shoppers in Anambra State. The data collected were analysed with multiple regressions and the outcome was useful to online shoppers, online retailers among others.


Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Emerging Economy, Nigeria, Online Shoppers, Service Performance

Global News Agencies: Economic, Political and Socio-Cultural Implications of Their Negative Reportage of Developing Nations like Nigeria (Published)

Global news agencies have played vital roles in the growth and development of mass communication, they provided on -the spot reports of events from around the globe, in-depth investigations and analysis of events that have shaped the world. But the imbalance of their reportage has not gone down well with developing countries who have alleged that their part of the world is been under reported and unfairly treated in terms of content. According to studies, this negative reportage has led to some implications on the economic, political and socio-cultural aspects of their lives. These allegations were x-rayed to verify its authenticity. Having realized the implications and examined it, some recommendations were made and they include: The stereotypes on Nigeria, Africa and other developing countries caused by the negative reports by the global news agencies especially Western media must be deconstructed using scientific and educational tools. The media’s approach towards Africa must be revised and their informative strategies realigned to consider the trends, contexts and positive events occurring in the continent. Sensitization and educational programmes involving the Western public are required at various levels to promote the desire to have better in-depth and qualified information on the African reality. Gate keeping theory of mass communication served as the theoretical framework for this research while the internet served as source of data collection.

Keywords: Developing Nations, Economic, Nigeria, Political, global news agencies, negative reportage, socio-cultural implications

Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainability Development Goals: The Achievement So Far In Nigeria Educational System. (Published)

This study focuses on examining the extent of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) achievement in Nigeria so far. It is a well-known fact that (MDGs) came as a result of relief to most developing countries and has been seen as a way of rampaging the issue of poverty. A lot of people in high positions have benefitted in this as they siphon/embezzle the funds meant to alleviate poverty slated for the less privileged by MDGs. Nigerian government is not able to dedicate funds reasonable enough to carter for the Education of its citizenry and effort to inculcate male and female gender in education has not been given a fair attention due to endemic corruption that has eaten deep into the fabric of the Nigerian development. The study aims at outlining the challenges facing Nigerian government in realization of MDGs in its education, gender equality and women empowerment and the way forward towards achieving this very desirable venture after the elapse of the duration of 2015 ultimatum for quality education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Millennium Development Goals (MDGS), Nigeria

The COVID 19 Global Pandemic: A Panacea for Diversifying to Hospitality and Tourism in Nigeria (Published)

The COVID 19 global pandemic has provided Nations another opportunity to look inwards on the development and expansion of its economic activities and growth! The hospitality and tourism industry has proven to be one of the most valid sectors for diversification of economic activities in Nigeria, considering the continuous dropping of crude price in the international market, and the fast growing demand on the bio-fuel products in the world today! The researchers are of the opinion that developing the hospitality and tourism in Nigeria is one of the most viable options to continuously increase the Nations GDP! The realistic test and interviews were conducted and presented in simple percentage table, and graphs were also deployed to show the reliability of the test! It was concluded that hospitality and tourism still remain the most viable economic activity and sector that will always stand the challenges of time, if properly developed! And was recommended that the government and agencies in charge of tourism and hospitality should fully divert its attention to the development of the hospitality and tourism sector in Nigeria

Keywords: Diversification, Hospitality, Nigeria, Tourism, global pandemic

Environmental Quality of Enugu, Nigeria As Impacted by the Primary Air Pollutants in the Area (Published)

Air pollution activities have increased over the years in urban areas of most developing countries like Nigeria. The same has been experienced in Enugu metropolis. This study therefore examined how environmental quality of Enugu metropolis has been impacted by the polluted air in the environment. The metropolis was classified into different neigbourhoods and then stratified into low, medium and high density areas. Samples were randomly collected from these neighborhoods. In determining the residential environmental quality of the area factor analysis (principal component analysis was used to reduce the various environmental quality variables into single factor known as “Y” variable. This served as dependent variable. Primary air pollutants; particular matter, Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide constituted the independent variables as x1, x2, x3 and x4 respectively. Using multiple regression model a relationship between the dependent and independent variable was established. The coefficient of determination in the result showed that adjusted r2=.917, indicating that 91.7% variation in the   residential environmental quality could be predicted from air pollution. Health challenges of reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood, chronic bronchitis and worsening respiratory illnesses were identified as some of the effects. Also identified, are acidification of soils, staining of fabrics among others on the environment. Making petroleum products like kerosene available and affordable to all by the federal government of Nigeria, among others have been recommended.


Keywords: Enugu, Environment, Impact, Nigeria, Quality

Board Diversity as Moderator on Firm Characteristics and Financial Performance of Listed Conglomerate Companies in Nigeria (Published)

Financial performance of companies has attracted a lot of attention globally from financial experts and management of firms as a result of 2008 global financial crisis and the failure of major companies.  Prior studies on the effect of firm characteristics on financial performance have reported mixed and contradictory results suggesting the existence of certain factors that have not been factored in modeling the relationship. It is against this backdrop that this study examined the effects of firm characteristics on financial performance of listed conglomerate firms in Nigeria in the presence of board diversity. The population of the study consists of six (6) listed conglomerate firms in Nigeria as at 31st December 2017. The six (6) firms were selected to form the sample of the study for the period of eleven years (2007-2017). The census sampling technique was adopted for the study. Secondary data was extracted from the annual report and accounts of the sampled companies A multiple regression analysis was used to test the null hypotheses of the study. The Hausman test indicated random effect model as the appropriate model for the study. The results of study show that leverage has negative and significant effect on return on asset, while firm size and operating expense revealed an insignificant positive effect on return on asset. The sales growth shows a negative and insignificant effect on the return on asset. For model two, it also documented that foreign director positively and significantly moderates the relationship between leverage and sales growth to financial performance of the listed conglomerate firms in Nigeria. It is recommended among others that the management of conglomerate firms in Nigeria should make it mandatory to have an average of 32% of their board members as foreign directors. Also reduce their debt structure to avoid high cost of operation

Keywords: Financial Performance, Nigeria, board diversity, conglomerate companies, firm characteristics

Perceived Effect of Use of Information and Communication Technology Tools for Instructional Delivery in Tertiary Institution in Nigeria. (Published)

One of UNESCO’s overriding aim is to ensure that all tertiary institutions both colleges of education/polytechnics, and universities have access to the best of educational facilities necessary to prepare young people to play full roles in modern society and to contribute to a knowledge nation. They maintain a capacity to advise national government on the use of technology in schools and in particular on the use of institutional delivery tools. It defines ICTS, classified four basic institutional uses of such as retrieval of new knowledge and integration of evolving technologies for the management of teaching and learning. Moue so, e-learning, blended learning, open and distance learning, learner centered environment, Title conference, telecollobration as well as to improve quality of education were highlighted challenges confronting institutional delivery were examined. Recommendations were made which include the parliamentarian should pass a bill on stabilizing the price of educational tools in the markets to make it affordable for students to acquire at a reduced rate. Also conferences, workshops and symposium should be organized to train people and enlighten them on the need for instructional delivery in schools.

Keywords: ICT, Nigeria, Tertiary Institution, Tools, instructional delivery

Understanding the Nexus between Electronic Service Performance and Customer Satisfaction among Online Shoppers in a Typical Emerging Economy (Published)

The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the influence of electronic service performance on customer satisfaction among online retail customers in Anambra State, Nigeria. The development of information and communication technology (ICT) and its wide application to business especially retailing led to the development of alternative methods of distributing goods and service hence, the emergence of many online retail shops that are challenging the traditional methods of retailing. In view of this and in view of the fact that customers are keying into this emergent phenomenon, customer satisfaction with the online retail shops is imperative. Hence this study set out to examine service performance and customer satisfaction among online retail shoppers in Nigeria. The study was based on a survey of 288 online shoppers in Anambra State. The data collected were analysed with multiple regressions and the outcome was useful to online shoppers, online retailers among others.

Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Emerging Economy, Nigeria, Online Shoppers, Service Performance

The Level of Awareness, Knowledge and Infringement on Copyright at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (Published)

The encouragement of intellectual creation is one of the basic prerequisites for social, economic and cultural development of any nation. Copyright was instituted to inspire authors towards more creativity by enabling them to harness the full benefit of their works; however there are issues associated with the compliance on copyright rules. There is a dare need to stem the overwhelming tide of copyright infringement activities going on across the globe. This study examines the level of awareness, knowledge and infringement on copyright at the University of Ibadan. Questionnaire instrument was used for data collection. The population used in the study comprises 150 academic and senior staff of University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study found that there is low level of awareness and knowledge on copyright matters, as many of the respondents were unfamiliar with matters relating to copyright. The study identified a high level of infringement on copyright in University of Ibadan. The study further advocated for intensive sensitization on copyright matters and enforcement of copyright law within University of Ibadan community in order to strengthen copyright protection.

Keywords: Knowledge, Nigeria, awareness, copyright, university of Ibadan

Economic gains of whistle-blowing policy in Nigeria: prospects and challenges (Published)

It is no doubt that corruption is a global plague ravaging world’s economy. Corruption is depleting the scarce economic resources of developed and developing nations though, at varying intensities.  Corruption has also been described as the black hole which must be thoroughly covered. In a bid to fighting corruption in the world, the whistle blowing mechanism was adopted by several countries including the USA, UK, South Africa and Nigeria. To complement the efforts of ICPC and EFCC, the whistle-blowing machinery was adopted in Nigeria by the Muhammadu Buhari/Osinbajo administration in 2016. This paper examined the economic gains, prospects and challenges of the whistle blowing policy in Nigeria. The Role and Framing Theories were adopted in the study to explain the question of morality and persuasiveness through specific communication strategies to the citizens. The methodology used in the study was qualitative deductions from secondary data. The study discovered that the policy has attracted 5,000 tips which led to recovery of several billions of naira. Also discovered, was that there was no law protecting whistle-blowers from victimizations and recriminations. The paper therefore recommends that, the long overdue whistle-blower protection bill of 2011 should be passed into law as an emergency law amongst others

Keywords: Challenges, Corruption, Nigeria, Prospects, Whistle-Blowing, economic gain

Nonlinear and Asymmetric Exchange Rate Pass-Through to Consumer Prices In Nigeria: Evidence from a Smooth Transition Auto-regressive Model (Published)

This paper examines the nonlinearities and asymmetries in the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT) to consumer prices in Nigeria using quarterly time-series data from 1986 to 2013 and the nonlinear smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) method. The standard literature assumes linearity and symmetry in the ERPT to consumer prices in developing counties, despite the importance and presence of potential asymmetries and nonlinearities which are generated by the presence of various factors such as menu costs, capacity constraints, market share objectives and production switching. This study develops a partial equilibrium microeconomic mark-up model to investigate asymmetric and nonlinear behaviour in the ERPT. The study confirms the presence of nonlinear ERPTs due to different inflation levels. The results also show asymmetric ERPTs in the appreciation and depreciation of exchange rates. The magnitude of the ERPT also depends on the size of the exchange rate change. The ERPT is higher during depreciation than during the appreciation episodes of the Naira. Nonlinearity is more prevalent during the high inflationary period of the 1990s than in other periods. The policy implication of the results is that the government, despite temptations to do so, should avoid the devaluation of the Naira during high inflation periods to reduce the impact on consumer prices and the associated costs.

Keywords: Asymmetry, Nigeria, exchange rate pass-through, nonlinearity

Impact of integration of Information and Communication Technologies in Library Instruction Methodology on students in Federal Universities in Nigeria (Published)

The study is on the impact the integration of ICT in library instruction methodology has on students in federal universities in Nigeria.  The study adopted a random sampling method with a sampled population of 496 derived from 2018/2019 session 100 level students.  Two major instruments were developed for data collection and validated by two senior lecturers from the Department of Library and Information Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria with a reliability level of 0.82 and 0.84 respectively using Cronbach alpha (α) procedure.  The outcome of the study shows that there is a diversion from the traditional method (theoretical) of instruction with the integration of ICT which enhances students’ mastery of the use of library and other related technologies.

Keywords: Federal Universities, Integration, Library, Nigeria, Students, information and communication technologies, instruction methodology

Brand Equity and Purchase Behaviour Among Automobile Owners in Nigeria (Published)

This study centers on the influence of brand equity on the purchase of automobile. Over the last two decades, the majority of automobile users patronized used automobile but with the federal government new automotive policy, there seems a gradual decline in the purchase of these used automobile. Despite this, no empirical study has been done to look at the effect of brand equity on repurchase of automobile. The general objective of this study is to investigate the influence brand equity has on repurchase of automobile in Awka metropolis. The study employed survey research design and the population of study comprises owners of used automobile. Topman’s formula was used to arrive at the sample size of 246 automobile owners. The sampling technique was quota sampling and the research instrument was questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the instrument. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regressions were used to test the significance of the hypotheses. It was found out that brand loyalty is the strongest predictor of repurchase then, perceived quality. It was concluded that brand equity management and customer satisfaction strategies are needed for repeat purchase of used automobile. On the strength of the conclusion, we recommend that automobile dealers should as a matter of urgency engage the services of a professional brand equity manager and customer relationship manager. 

Keywords: Brand Equity, Nigeria, automobile market, purchase behaviour

Fiscal Federalism, Resource Control, and Restructuring in Nigeria: The Contending Issues (Published)

The dynamism and complexity of Nigeria’s fiscal federalism have occupied the front burner of academic and political discourse since the return to democratic rule. The discussion on Nigeria’s fiscal practice became necessary because it has created several crises threatening the continued existence and continuity of the Nigerian state. The desertion of true federalism in Nigeria has led to the neglect and marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, where the country generates the bulk of its wealth through oil and gas exploration and exploitation. The Niger Delta region oil-producing states have been very vocal in their agitations for a fair share of the country’s wealth by the restructuring of the parameters for sharing and allocating the wealth of the nation located within their region. The agitations for resource control, it is believed, would make more resources available to the various states to ensure economic and social development. The protests have arisen for the reason that a more substantial portion of the nation’s wealth goes to the federal government at the detriment of the oil-producing states. The Nigerian federal government is yet to make any significant attempt to alter the status quo. No constitutional amendment is has been made to ensure the practice of true fiscal federalism in the country. This paper examined the debate and concept of fiscal federalism. It explores revenue allocation formula in Nigeria and the statutory role of revenue mobilization allocation and fiscal commission, the quest for resource control and Nigeria’s federalism, dimensions of resource control agitations by the Niger Delta region, and causes of the Niger Delta crisis. The paper concludes with some profound recommendations on the way forward.

Keywords: Fiscal federalism, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria, Restructuring, resource control, revenue allocation formula

Psycho-Social Variables of Examination Malpractice Tendencies among Senior Secondary School Students in Calabar Education Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined psycho-social variables of examination malpractice tendencies among secondary students in Calabar education zone of Cross River State. Relevant literature was reviewed to enhance the work and for better understanding. A sample of 520 students was used for the study. Two research questions were posed and 2 hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto design was adopted. Psycho-social variables of Examination Malpractice Tendencies Questionnaire (PVEMTQ) was used to gather data for the study. With stratified random sampling technique, 520 students were selected from 23 secondary schools, using proportionate selection technique. Data gathered were analyzed with one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). All the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance from the analysis it was revealed that students attitude to school, student test anxiety do not significantly influence students examination malpractice tendencies. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that, principal should explore other means of assessment of the students for development of better attitude to school, by giving them open test, assignment. Principal should organize educational programmes on examination stress management, to assist students in coping with test anxiety. Principal should build self-confidence on examinees prior to the period of examination, to help reduced malpractice tendencies.


Keywords: : examination malpractice, Calabar education zone, Cross River State, Nigeria, Senior Secondary School Students, psycho-social variables

Entrepreneurial Marketing Dimensions and Market Performance of Small and Medium-scaled Enterprises in Niger Delta, Nigeria (Published)

Although small and medium enterprises provide diverse employment opportunities and economic growth in the Nigerian economy, entrepreneurial marketing has received little attention in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in spite of challenges faced by them. The study examined the entrepreneurial marketing dimensions and market performance of small and medium scale enterprises in Delta State. A sample of 245 respondents comprises of owners or managers of SME’s in Warri/Effurun Metropolis were selected for study. Convenience sampling techniques was used to select the sample after the area has been subdivided into zone with quota sampling methods. A survey research design was used to collect data from respondents through the use of questionnaire. Hypothesized relationships between the variables of study were tested using multiple regressions. Findings reveal that all the entrepreneurial marketing dimensions of pro-activeness, opportunity-focused, innovation-oriented, customer intensity, resource leveraging and value creation have significant positive relationship with market performance while risk making have a negative relationship. It is therefore recommended that owners and managers of SME’s should be pro-active, aggressive and innovative in design of strategies towards enhancing market performance in their organization.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Marketing, Market Performance, Niger-Delta, Nigeria, small and medium-scaled enterprises

The Liberian Conflict And The ECOMOG Operation: A Review of Nigeria’s Key Contributions (Published)

Right from inception, Nigerian foreign policy posture has been Afro-centric. This has made her to be more committed to peaceful coexistence in Africa in general and West Africa sub-region in Particular. Nonetheless, Nigeria has been participating actively in peace operations globally. This study examines Nigeria’s key contributions to the resolution of the Liberian conflict under the ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring Group (ECOMOG). While the theory of Manifest Destiny is adopted to explain Nigeria’s leadership role in the resolution, the work derives it data from the secondary source, which consists majorly of textbooks, journals, articles, reports, internet documents, among others. There is an array of information available on the performance of ECOWAS and ECOMOG hence historical research design is used in the study. The study also discusses the challenges of the mission. The findings show that Nigeria’s proactive leadership role in ECOMOG intervention in Liberia was a benchmark for future operations in Africa continent, and that while the holding of elections in 1997 and the subsequent withdrawal of ECOMOG clearly indicate that the operation was a success. The study calls on Nigeria to maintain her Afrocentric foreign policy posture but with more focus on industrialization and economic development of the region.

Keywords: Conflict, ECOMOG, Ecowas, Liberia, Nigeria

A Framework for Assessing Women’s Economic Empowerment (Published)

Global progress towards gender parity across critical areas of life is still at the disadvantage of women. Women are in a disadvantage position in such areas as the ownership and control over assets, access to affordable credit, social reproduction, to socio-political representation, cultural practices and participation in formal sector of the economy. The consequence of such disparities limits the extent women can exercise choice and make decisions economically, socially, and politically. Therefore, how to flatten the curve and reverse these disparities remains the subject of the subsisting women’s empowerment conundrum about whether others can externally determine empowerment, or if women have to be the agents of their empowerment. What then defines the empowerment framework and understandings of the form that empowerment should take remains debatable. This paper critically reviewed how the empowerment of women has been discussed and conceptualised within development studies, with particular focus on women’s economic empowerment. The paper further looked at issues around women’s empowerment measurement and indicators; identified some frameworks for measuring women’s empowerment. Lastly, the author proposed a conceptual framework within which women’s empowerment might be assessed. To this end, women’s economic empowerment was defined as the extent women exercise control over decisions relating to accessing and use of resources and the resulting household reality.

Keywords: Agency, Empowerment, Nigeria, Women’s Empowerment, economic empowerment framework, indicators