Tag Archives: Niger-Delta

Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Vegetation Health across the Nine States of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria Using Landsat and Avhrr/Modis Dataset (Published)

The Niger Delta region of Nigeria since the oil boom era of 1975 has undergone severe eco-environmental alterations associated with negative changes to the natural ecosystem particularly vegetation. This alteration is believed to cause unidentifiable changes in vegetation health, hence, the need for the spatio-temporal assessment of the vegetation health condition of the entire region. Multi-temporal Landsat remote sensing satellite images of 1986, 2002 & 2016 and AVHRR and MODIS dataset were used to generate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) by creating a model in ArcGIS software. The generated NDVI results from Landsat disclosed that the general health condition of vegetation in 2002 was less than 1986 and 2016 poorer than 2002. Also, the inter-annual temporal analysis of the NDVI result showed that Years 2007 and 2008 recorded the healthiest vegetation condition while 1994 recorded lowest and monthly temporal analysis result indicated that lower vegetation condition was recorded in February and August while October recorded the highest. The mean NDVI values for each state of the study area revealed that the vegetation condition of the core oil producing states of Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Rivers, and Delta State were the most stressed as result of heavy alteration of the vegetation due to unwholesome activities of oil exploration/exploiting like gas flaring, oil spillage, pipe line vandalism etc. whereas Ondo, Edo, Abia, Cross River, Abia and Imo state that has not had similar heavy alteration had healthier vegetation condition. This study has proved that the oil and gas exploration and exploitation in the region is really altering the vegetation health condition of the region.

 

Keywords: AVHRR/MODIS and LANDSAT., Niger-Delta, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

Mapping of land cover and estimation of their emissivity values for gas flaring sites in the Niger Delta (Published)

This study examines the changes in land cover (LC) types at 6 gas flaring sites in Rivers State, Niger Delta region of Nigeria; and to estimate their emissivity (Ɛ) values. 15 Landsat scenes (3 Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and 12 Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)) from 17 January 1986 to 08 March 2013 with < 30 % cloud contamination were used. All the sites are located within a single Landsat scene (Path 188, Row 057). Radiometric calibration of the multispectral bands of the data, and atmospheric correction for multispectral bands using dark object subtraction (DOS) method was carried out. The first unsupervised cluster analysis of the atmospherically corrected reflectance (bands 1-4) using the K-mean function of the MATLAB tool was carried out. The results obtained give 3 classes of LC type and cloud as the 4th class. The second cluster analysis was performed with the cloud-masked reflectance (bands 1-4) to give vegetation, soil, built up area and water LC types for all flaring sites. This was confirmed through the fieldwork observation for ground validation of Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ in the Niger Delta that LC types obtained from satellite data are the same with those observed during the fieldwork. The method used to estimate Ɛ value for LC types at these sites is based on the Ɛ of 4 LC types present at each site. The changes in LC differ throughout the period for the 6 sites due to different human activities within each site. The Ɛ values estimated for the 4 LC types for the sites are not stable but changing from 1986 to 2013 due to changes in LC types. The results of LC classification show that K-mean method can distinguish up to 4 LC types very well in the Niger Delta.   

 

Keywords: Estimation, Gas-flaring, Land Cover, Mapping, Niger-Delta, emissivity

Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Produced Water from Ndx 011 in Niger-Delta Oil Field (Published)

Oil and gas production is usually accompanied by water (brine), which is referred to as produced water. As oil and gas production declines, the quantity of water production from same reservoir increases. These produced waters have many components, which mostly have adverse environmental impacts. One of such components are the heavy metals which are numerous. Produced water sample from Niger Delta crude oil was investigated for five (5) heavy metals. The analysis was carried out using an Ultraviolet Visible Spectrophotometer. The analysis was carried out (in line with industry standard) on the produced water sample in order to determine the concentrations of the heavy metals present. The results obtained from this analysis showed that the concentrations of one out of the five heavy metals investigated (Arsenic (As)) was more than the allowable limits set by regulatory bodies. Arsenic (As), Boron (B), Manganese (Mn), Tin (Sn), and Barium (Ba) have concentrations of 0.9599mg/L, 0.0955mg/L, 0.000433mg/L, 0.31730mg/L, and 0.0019mg/L respectively compared with maximum limits set by the regulatory bodies as 0.3mg/L Arsenic, 5mg/L Boron, 0.004mg/L Manganese, 10mg/L Tin and 1.3mg/L Barium.  This showed that the produced water from oil and gas activities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria should be tested and treated for Arsenic and other present heavy metals that may have concentrations higher than standard limits set by regulatory bodies before disposal and/or re-use.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Niger-Delta, Produced water, crude oil

Oil Spill Incidents and Wetlands Loss in Niger Delta: Implication for Sustainable Development Goals (Published)

The implementation of a comprehensive founded sustainable development strategy, strengthened by careful management of oil  and gas wealth, combined with an continuing exemplary for preservation of the natural environment, is an vital for the Niger Delta region. Oil spills have occurred over the year in the Niger Delta and wetland ecosystems has been degraded by the impact of the spills. Nigeria is showcasing an average of 11 Ramsar-listed coastal and freshwater wetlands, which together cover, 1 076 730 ha. Of these 11 sites, two are located in the Niger Delta region. The Niger delta Region of Nigeria is a wetland of its own covering about 76,000sq km and has the biggest mangrove forest wetlands ecosystem in Africa (11,134 sq km) and the third biggest in the world with its exceptional huge floodplain area in south-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. National Oil Spill, Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) alerted with a recent aid through data acquisition in monitoring of oil spill from January 2013 to September 2014 reveals that there were 1,930 oil spill incidents in the core Niger Delta are primarily offshore incidence in wetlands ecosystem. Therefore oil spills occurred as a result of inadequate servicing and maintenance of the oil and gas facilities such as preventer blowout, wellhead, flow lines or pipelines, sabotage, accidental and equipment failures by the oil companies. The implementation of wise use concept of wetlands ecosystem as an approach, within the context of sustainable development goals as a centerpiece of modern efforts to manage wetlands will help the policy makers to integrate wetlands ecosystem to environmental planning to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Niger-Delta, Oil-spillage, SDGs, Wetlands

National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)

Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them.  Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Insecurity, National Security, Niger-Delta, Nigeria, Security, Sustainable Development

Solar Water Supply for Rural Communities in Rivers State, Niger Delta of Nigeria (Published)

Several communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria are without electricity to pump water. Hospitals, health centers and schools that served a sizable population of the rural dwellers in the Niger Delta region are also affected. The used of solar energy for providing drinking water for rural areas of Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been presented. Data analysis and mathematical computations showed that Rivers State has monthly solar radiations up to 4kWh/m2/day, which is capable of pumping water from boreholes for communities with population more than 500 people. A systematic design process of an integrated solar-based water pumping system is presented. A method of solar water pumping design and sizing under Niger Delta environmental and meteorological conditions is presented. Evaluation of selected water installations in Rivers State indicated that solar water system is technologically viable in the region. Solar water pumping proved to offer sustainable solution to the challenge of drinking water supply in Rivers State and the entire Niger delta region. Policy makers and decision makers, in Rivers State should therefore decide in favor of solar water pumping systems when providing drinking water for the rural communities of the State.

Keywords: Niger-Delta, Rivers State, Rural Communities, Solar Water pumping

Economic Evaluation of Selected Artificial Lift Methods in a Marginal Oil Field in the Niger Delta (Published)

Marginal fields require production optimization and proper management due to uncertainties surrounding the size, reserves and operational strategies and costs. One of the ways of achieving optimal development is by using an efficient artificial lift method early or later in the field life, that will increase recovery and profitability. However, knowing the best artificial lift method to use for a situation could sometimes be challenging. In this study, a techno-economic comparison of Continuous Gas Lift (CGL) and Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP) was carried out for a marginal oil field in the Niger Delta to choose the optimal method. Well and reservoir models were built to generate production forecasts under natural flow, CGL and ESP. Economic models were formulated, incorporating cost for each artificial lift method, oil price and estimated revenue from oil and gas sales to determine the Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Profitability Index (PI). Risk and sensitivity analyses were carried out. When natural flow was not feasible and artificial lift preferred, CGL was characterized by high initial capital while ESP tended to have higher operating cost. Ultimate Recovery (UR) increased by 8.6% with the use of ESP but by 6.7% with CGL. The ESP also gave an NPV of $1.48 Million, IRR of 46.0% and PI of 1.50 while CGL gave an NPV of $2.03 Million, IRR of 31.4 and PI of 1.49. Higher profits were obtained when the artificial lift methods were installed after natural flow had been exhausted. Profitability of the marginal field using artificial lift was affected by oil price, fiscal terms and the cost of the lift methods.

Keywords: Artificial lift, Fiscal terms, Marginal fields, Niger-Delta, Profitability criteria

Compensation Issues in the Niger-Delta – A Case Study Of Boboroku, Jesse, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)

It is common to find oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region acquiring expansive farmlands to facilitate their operations in the area while the natives of affected communities are generally left in precarious conditions arising from acquisition of their farm lands. The paper examines issues of compulsory acquisition, evaluating the quantum of compensation paid to natives of communities whose farmlands are acquired and issues that must be dealt with to provide adequate compensation to claimants. Using an oil well acquisition base in Boboroku, Jesse in Ethiope-West Local Government Area of Delta State as a case study, various compensation claims were examined vis-à-vis open market claims in compulsory acquisition. It was found that many claimants received N1000.00 or less as full compensation claims for their crops while families lucky to own lands received more reasonable payments. It was established that there was no statutory provision for disturbance losses from revocation of land interest. Also, the productivity of economic crops and trees was not considered nor was computation of claims based on market-values. The paper established that claims should be compensated on the basis of productivity value and lifespan of interests being acquired and not on arbitrary rates supplied by the acquiring authorities.

Keywords: Boboroku, Compensation, Compulsory acquisition, Delta State, Niger-Delta, Nigeria

Fatal Attraction: Social Isolation Intensifying Kidnapping in the Niger Delta Region (Published)

Kidnapping in the Niger Delta has become a social phenomenon which is now increasingly common in its operations. The lucrative and mesological nature of the crime has made it a copycat form of criminality, with a proliferation of an anticipatory socialization process. However, economic inequality depicts that Individuals are easily cajoled to copy the criminal act, because it is a cheap avenue to survive without having to commit murder. This paper sheds light on kidnapping by untangling the gripping issues with atrocious accounts in the Niger Delta region, as factors fostering the strife and ascendancy of kidnapping in the region. This paper used academic literature as a tool for historical revionism to expose the deprived state of the Niger Delta region, which underscores with the intention of kidnapping being eradicable in nature. However, some points were shared as recommendations for clamping down the skyrocketing operations of kidnapping in the Niger Delta region.    

Keywords: Militancy, Niger-Delta, crude oil, kidnapping

Solar Water Supply for Rural Communities in Rivers State, Niger Delta of Nigeria (Published)

Several communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria are without electricity to pump water. Hospitals, health centers and schools that served a sizable population of the rural dwellers in the Niger Delta region are also affected. The used of solar energy for providing drinking water for rural areas of Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been presented. Data analysis and mathematical computations showed that Rivers State has monthly solar radiations up to 4kWh/m2/day, which is capable of pumping water from boreholes for communities with population more than 500 people. A systematic design process of an integrated solar-based water pumping system is presented. A method of solar water pumping design and sizing under Niger Delta environmental and meteorological conditions is presented. Evaluation of selected water installations in Rivers State indicated that solar water system is technologically viable in the region. Solar water pumping proved to offer sustainable solution to the challenge of drinking water supply in Rivers State and the entire Niger delta region. Policy makers and decision makers, in Rivers State should therefore decide in favor of solar water pumping systems when providing drinking water for the rural communities of the State.

Keywords: Niger-Delta, Rivers State, Rural Communities, Solar Water pumping

CSR for Conflict Resolution in Niger Delta Oil and Gas Industry (Published)

An ethnographic research method that allows for a blend of aspects of qualitative and quantitative investigations was adopted in this study to establish whether both the oil prospecting companies and their host communities have the same view that mutual coexistence between the two parties is very feasible and relatively cheaper via excellent CSR practices by the oil companies. CSR, an acronym that stands for Corporate Social Responsibility, is the persistent commitment by a business organization to ethically behave to contribute maximally to the economic and environmental advancement of the quality of life of its workforce and the society, particularly the host communities. It was hypothesized that excellent CSR practice by the oil companies might be a potent solution to the violent crisis that has unfortunately characterized the relationship between oil prospecting companies and their host, the oil producing communities in the Niger Delta. The effectiveness of seven indicators of CSR as perceived by the oil corporations and the oil-producing areas in the resolution of the brutal conflicts in the Niger Delta were empirically investigated. A large sample of 2,487 was drawn by proportional stratified random sampling technique from the host communities and oil companies for the study. Results showed an overwhelming discrepancy between oil companies’ staff and oil producing areas indigenes for each of the seven CSR indicators. While host communities absolutely or strongly favored adoption of CSR as a viable strategy for ending the crisis and ensuring ultimate peace in the Niger Delta; the staff of oil prospecting companies held a diametrically opposite view. It is therefore recommended very strongly that oil producing companies in the Niger Delta should accord primary attention to excellent CSR practices to guarantee mutual peaceful coexistence and optimum oil production in the Niger Delta Region.

Keywords: CSR, Conflict Resolution, Niger-Delta, Oil Indicators of CSR, Oil and gas industry, Oil prospecting companies

Political Economy of Small Arms Proliferation in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria (Published)

The paper examines the proliferation of small arms in the Niger Delta and is of the opinion that the proliferation of small arms in the Niger Delta is a consequence of the existential realities of the people of Niger Delta. This opinion is made more concrete with the adoption of political economy approach with takes a holistic analysis of the subject matter. It took into consideration the inherent contradictions of a capitalist mode of production which finds expression in economic determinism as the underlying factor in determining the material existence of the people of Niger Delta as occasioned by the actors of the state.

Keywords: Actors of the State, Niger-Delta, Political Economy, Proliferate, Small Arms

Analysis of Heavy Metal Contamination by Artisanal Refining Plants in the Niger Delta Region, Southern Nigeria (Published)

Artisanal refining Plants are common features of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The effects of heavy metal contamination on soil by non-conventional refining plants were investigated and analyzed using standard methods. Two soil samples were collected at 18 m intervals between Plants A and B and at 24 m intervals between Plant B and C. Then control sample was collected 2 km away from unimpacted soil. The result of the analysis showed that polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) recorded maximum concentration of 6899.4942 ppm at station C at the depth of 0-15 cm. Furthermore, the concentration of heavy metals investigated are below critical levels as proposed by FEPA (1991) and NCC(1991).

Keywords: Artisanal Plants, Heavy Metal, Hydrocarbon Contaminated, Niger-Delta, Nigeria

Palynostratigraphy Analysis of the Agbada Formation (Nep-1 Well) Offshore, Eastern Niger-Delta Basin, Nigeria (Published)

Palynological analyses were carried out using 36 composite ditch cutting samples from NEP -1 well, off-shore eastern Niger Delta Nigeria. The interval studied is 1750 meters thick, belonging to the Agbada Formation; lithologically, the section varies from shaly-sand to sandy-shale to shale. Three zonal assemblage schemes have been erected; zone boundaries were placed where significant changes occurred in the abundance of the species, the proposed palynological zones are: Echiperiporites cf. estelae, Psilatricolpites okeizeis and Foeveotricolpites sp. zones; these are correlatable with the pantropical zones. Samples from the section are assigned a late Miocene to early Pliocene age based on the palynological evidences at this site.

Keywords: Agbada, Niger-Delta, Palynomorph, Palynostratigraphy, Stratigraphy

PALYNOSTRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE AGBADA FORMATION (NEP-1 WELL) OFFSHORE, EASTERN NIGER-DELTA BASIN, NIGERIA (Published)

Palynological analyses were carried out using 36 composite ditch cutting samples from NEP -1 well, off-shore eastern Niger Delta Nigeria. The interval studied is 1750 meters thick, belonging to the Agbada Formation; lithologically, the section varies from shaly-sand to sandy-shale to shale. Three zonal assemblage schemes have been erected; zone boundaries were placed where significant changes occurred in the abundance of the species, the proposed palynological zones are: Echiperiporites cf. estelae, Psilatricolpites okeizeis and Foeveotricolpites sp. zones; these are correlatable with the pantropical zones. Samples from the section are assigned a late Miocene to early Pliocene age based on the palynological evidences at this site.

Keywords: Agbada, Niger-Delta, Palynomorph, Palynostratigraphy, Stratigraphy

RESOURCE-USE AND ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY OF PADDY RICE PRODUCTION IN NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA (Published)

The study examined resource-use and allocative efficiency of paddy rice production in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria with the view of determining the profitability, resource productivity and allocative efficiency of inputs used in rice production in the study area. The data for the study was collected from 300 rice farmers in three out of nine states in the region based on their intensity in rice production in the study area using multistage and simple random sampling technique.Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, profitability model and allocative efficiency model. Rice production was found to be profitable as farmers realized N319,046.84/ha as Gross Margin in the study area. Result of the allocative efficiency of inputs confirmed thatrice producers in the area did not attain optimal allocative efficiency, seed input (0.94) had the highest allocative efficiency while land input (0.05) showed the least allocative efficient input. It was recommended that concerted efforts from individual rice farmers and government to establish farmers’ participatory extension service to ensure timely supply and proper use of rice farm inputs in order to improve farmers’ resource use efficiency.

Keywords: Niger-Delta, Nigeria, Paddy Rice, Resource – Use: Allocative Efficiency

READING YOUTH-: VIOLENCE AND IDEOLOGICAL PROPAGANDA IN SELECTED SOUTHERN NIGERIAN PLAYS (Published)

The media’s capacity to manipulate information and create stereotypes can negatively affect young audiences who emulate its aggressive behavioral models. The rate of violence and aggression among Niger Delta youths, who form the core of the militant resistance in the area, can be attributed to the influence of socio-cultural factors of corruption, cultural ideologies and narrative myths created by the media. This essay examines the manner certain plays written by Southern Nigerian playwrights serve as media extensions by acting as if they are creative depictions of the marginalized Delta youth’s social reality while in actuality these works mediate personal objectives that further engender youth violence. The work analyzes the generative ability of the narrative as an action creating new identities and stereotypes. Youth violence, while being anti-social in nature, appears justified in the reference plays which have psychotic young heroes that glamorize violent agitation as an existentialist strategy. The essay surmises that propagandist literature can become operational when the author deliberately gives prominence to certain details while relegating other necessary facts that shape perception and identity

Keywords: Militancy, Niger-Delta, Priming, Propaganda, Violence, Youth

Resource-Use and Allocative Efficiency of Paddy Rice Production in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. (Review Completed - Accepted)

The study examined resource-use and allocative efficiency of paddy rice production in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria with the view to determining the profitability, resource productivity and allocative efficiency of inputs used in rice production in the study area. The data for the study was collected from 300 rice farmers in three out of nine states in the region based on their intensity in rice production in the study area using multistage and simple random sampling technique.Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, profitability model and allocative efficiency model. Rice production was found to be profitable as farmers realized N319,046.84/ha as Gross Margin in the study area. Result of the allocative efficiency of inputs confirmed thatrice producers in the area did not attain optimal allocative efficiency, seed input (0.94) has the highest allocative efficiency while land input (0.05) was the least allocative efficient input. Emergent from the findings, it was recommended that concerted efforts from individual rice farmers and government to establish farmers’ participatory extension service to ensure timely supply and proper use of rice farm inputs in order to improve farmers’ resource use efficiency.

Keywords: Allocative Efficiency, Niger-Delta, Nigeria, Paddy Rice, Resource Use

TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY IN PADDY RICE PRODUCTION IN NIGER DELTA REGION 0F NIGERIA (Published)

This study estimated technical efficiency of rice farmers in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to sample 300 rice farmers. A stochastic frontier production function was used to estimate technical efficiency. The study further assessed the factors that affect technical efficiency of the rice farmers. All the coefficients were found to have positively influenced paddy rice productivity. The level of efficiency of rice farmers was found to be 0.63. The study further found that gender and household size were significant determinants of technical efficiency. The study therefore recommended policies that will ensure that costs of productive inputs are affordable to farmers and improving households’ income through better prices for their output. Provision of labor saving equipment is also important in reducing inefficiencies in paddy production through reduction in labor cost.

Keywords: Niger-Delta, Nigeria, Rice, Stochastic Frontier Production Function., Technical Efficiency

TEACHING STRATEGIES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LEARNING IN THE NIGER DELTA (Published)

The study investigated teaching strategies in business education for sustaining information and communication technology learning in the Niger Delta. Two research questions were posed to guide the study and one hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A total of 245 lecturers were studied in the institutions that offers business education within the Niger Delta. There was no sample and sampling techniques for the study and so the study observed a purposive design, since the entire population was used for the study. Data for the study was collected through an instrument (questionnaire) named Teaching Strategies in Business Education for Sustaining Information and Communication Technology Learning in the Niger Delta Questionnaire (TSBESICTLNDQ). The TSBESICTLNDQ was a modified four point Likert scale, designed as very effective to not effective. Test-retest method was used to test the reliability of the items with face and content validity. The validity was done by twenty five (25) lecturers other than those used for the study and a reliability co-efficient of 0.78 was obtained. Mean rating and standard deviation was used to analyse the research questions and t-test for large group mean was used to test the hypothesis. Findings revealed that teaching strategies adopted by lecturers in Business Education Department are effective strategies for sustaining ICT learning. Not all lecturers teaching ICT adopts the strategies in business education for effective learning that is the reason why most lecturers do not build upon the strategies they already know to sustain information and communication technology learning in classroom as a result of their inability to adapt to the strategies that can assist them to be effective in classroom setting. Based on the findings, discussions and conclusions drawn, recommendations made amongst others were that university administrators in various institutions should organize workshops and seminars on teaching strategies in business education for sustaining ICT learning in their institutions. Heads of department who adopts the teaching strategies in business education for sustaining information and communication technology learning should sensitize others on the effectiveness of the strategies in teaching and learning

Keywords: Business Education, Information and Communication Technology, Learning, Niger-Delta, Strategies., Sustaining, Teaching