Fiscal Federalism, Resource Control, and Restructuring in Nigeria: The Contending Issues (Published)
The dynamism and complexity of Nigeria’s fiscal federalism have occupied the front burner of academic and political discourse since the return to democratic rule. The discussion on Nigeria’s fiscal practice became necessary because it has created several crises threatening the continued existence and continuity of the Nigerian state. The desertion of true federalism in Nigeria has led to the neglect and marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, where the country generates the bulk of its wealth through oil and gas exploration and exploitation. The Niger Delta region oil-producing states have been very vocal in their agitations for a fair share of the country’s wealth by the restructuring of the parameters for sharing and allocating the wealth of the nation located within their region. The agitations for resource control, it is believed, would make more resources available to the various states to ensure economic and social development. The protests have arisen for the reason that a more substantial portion of the nation’s wealth goes to the federal government at the detriment of the oil-producing states. The Nigerian federal government is yet to make any significant attempt to alter the status quo. No constitutional amendment is has been made to ensure the practice of true fiscal federalism in the country. This paper examined the debate and concept of fiscal federalism. It explores revenue allocation formula in Nigeria and the statutory role of revenue mobilization allocation and fiscal commission, the quest for resource control and Nigeria’s federalism, dimensions of resource control agitations by the Niger Delta region, and causes of the Niger Delta crisis. The paper concludes with some profound recommendations on the way forward.
Forming Cross-Sectorial Alliance For Sustainable Community Development: Lessons from the SPDC/USAID/IITA Cassava Enterprise Development Programme (CEDP) In Nigeria’s Niger Delta (Published)
The question of development especially in Third World countries like Nigeria has generated very strong debate among scholars from different disciplines. Globally, there is the realization that single sectors acting alone cannot solve the multidimensional development challenges in society. The emphasis on Cross Sector Partnerships (CSPs) as a model for addressing development challenges notwithstanding, studies are lacking in terms of the sustainability of such efforts at the community level. The aim of this study is to evaluate cross-sector partnership and sustainable development projects in the Niger Delta region, focusing on the USD11.7 million Cassava Enterprise Development Project (CEDP) partnership between Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC), United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Relying on the actor-network theory, Chi-Square Statistical Test (χ2) and Sustainability Assessment Model indicator (SAMi), the study reveals that even though CSPs more than single sector approach to community development are meant to provide effective knowledge and technology transfer to local people, the CEDP partnership failed to achieve this within a five year life-cycle. This is attributed to insufficient actor-networking between the partnership’s social structure and the project beneficiaries. This singular challenge created the necessary condition for progressive reduction in employment and income thereby constraining sustainability of the project. The study concludes that the CEDP is not sustainable since local people have insufficient capacity to manage the process after the project lifecycle. It is recommended that proper actor networking and expansive knowledge cum technology transfer should be considered in similar projects in the future.