The contributions of Social Media as sources of information to the Newspapers in Tanzania (Published)
The attention of this study was to examine the contributions made by social media as “sources of information” to the newspapers in Tanzania. Specifically, the study examined the extent through which social media had contributed news stories for the selected newspapers in the country. The study also sought to determine the social media which had often contributed news stories to the selected newspapers. Lastly, the study, pursued to determine the contents and nature of the stories retrieved from the social media by the selected newspapers. This was a content analysis study which utilized documentary review of the three selected newspapers. Three newspapers of Mwananchi, Daily News, and the Citizen were purposefully selected for the study. A recording manual was designed and used during the documentary review and the unit of analysis included: hard news stories, soft news stories, column, editorial comment, features and sports stories. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data since the study carried qualitative data. The findings suggest that social media have played a significant contribution in providing news stories for the newspapers in Tanzania. It further suggest that, in all social media used, Twitter is the number one social media which provides more news stories to the newspapers in Tanzania. Lastly, the findings suggest that most of the news stories retrieved from social media were political stories, entertainment, and sports.
Conflicts as Causes to Change News Foci Frequency Analysis for Asharq Al-Awsat and Al-Khaleej Newspapers Before and After the Arab Spring (Published)
The Arab Media, both pan-Arab and national, have helped people in the Arab world to achieve a greater amount of freedom and liberty in the last two decades. This was observed in 2011, when the Arab region witnessed a series of revolutions and protests that not only affected the Middle East and North Africa, but also the whole world. This study uses a new 19.5-million word corpus of newspaper articles published between 2009 and 2013 to examine the main discussed themes in Asharq Al-Awsat (a pan-Arab newspaper) and Al-Khaleej (a UAE national newspaper). Using the corpus linguistic technique of frequency, this study shows that the focus of the two newspapers in 2011, the year when most of the protests began and ended, was similar in spite of the differences in their agendas and policies. This study concludes that the occurrence of an event that affects most of the Arab countries has an impact on the type and style of Arab national newspaper coverage.
This paper takes a look at how modal and lexical verbs are used to perform speech functions in the editorials of two Ghanaian newspapers. It establishes what speech acts are performed by the editors using the modal elements the paper sets out to look at. The primary focus of this discussion is to establish which speech acts are performed with the modal elements under consideration for this study. The study has as its background theories such as Austin’s Speech Acts, and Context-Dependency and Lexical Specialisation of Kratzer (1981). The study examined three of the central modal auxiliaries and lexical verbs in thirty editorials of the two Ghanaian newspapers under review, The Daily Graphic and The Ghanaian Times from February to March 2016. This exploration was done with the aim of identifying the distribution of modal auxiliaries and lexical verbs and their speech acts in the data. An interesting finding is that the use of will, should, must dominate the other modals in expressing speech acts. The modal auxiliaries mostly help in passing on information. In some few instances, however, some strong deontic modal auxiliaries such as must and should were identified to be expressing a command.The most frequent being must expressing obligation. With regards the modal lexical verbs, the editors are indiscriminate in their choice. It is observed that every lexical verb is worthy enough to perform speech acts.
As Nigerian newspapers have been observed as catalysts to literacy development in the country, this paper investigates the use of gendered English among high-ranking print journalists in selected reputable newspapers in Nigeria. This is considered essential to be able to assess the level of gender awareness and sensitivity of the Nigerian journalists, as agents of mass communication and information dissemination who have the opportunity to reach large audience/readers and influence them through their writing. In other words, the study seeks to assess the Nigerian journalists’ compliance with the global trend of the 21st century English language in plying their trade as journalists. Data for the study were collected from four widely read English medium Nigerian daily newspapers, namely, The Herald, The Nigerian Observer, The Guardian, and Punch. The study finds out that Nigerian newspapers still portray high degree of the use of gender-bias expressions in their editorials, news, and features, which are usually handled by experienced editors, senior writers/reporters and columnists. Some of these gendered expressions are identified, described and their implication for English language usage in the Nigeria print media discussed. The study makes some suggestions that are capable of bringing about positive and desired linguistic change in the Nigerian print media in adopting gender-fair writing; which will eventually go a long way in improving English literacy in the country in general.