Tag Archives: Net Returns

Analysis of Rice Profitability and Marketing Chain: The Case Study of Taluka Pano Akil District Sukkur Sindh Pakistan (Published)

The purpose of this study was to investigate rice profitability and marketing in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. This study was based on primary data, which was collected from rice farming in study area. Analysis was done by using statistical technique like means, comparison of means and frequency distribution etc. Results shows rice farmer’s on average per acre spent a total cost of production of Rs.41910.00, this included Rs.15200.00, Rs.2350.00, Rs.2900.00, Rs.7460.00, Rs.7400.00 and Rs.6600.00 on fixed cost, Land preparation, Seed and sowing, Farm inputs, Harvesting and threshing marketing costs respectively on capital inputs. Rice farmers on average per acre gross return of Rs.80200.00, Rs.70200.00 on rice grain, Rs.10000.00 on straw in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. The rice farmers on an average per acre earned during study, Rs.38290.00 on net income, Rs.80200.00 on gross income and Rs.41910.00 on total expenditure in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh. Rice farmers on an average per acre gross income Rs.108400.00 and total expenditure is Rs.68310.00 in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur  Sindh area therefore they availed input output ratio of 1: 1.58 from ricegrowing in the study area.  The selected rice farmers on a net income per acre earned Rs.38290.00and total expenditure Rs.41910.00 in taluka Pano Akil district Sukkur Sindh area th Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population. In Asia, more than 80% of the people live on rice, and their primary food security is entirely dependent on the volume of rice produced in this part of the world. However, rice production increases are now lagging behind population growth. Overall, the total global rice is declining gradually even with the extensive use of the modern varieties such as high yielding and hybrid varieties.

Keywords: Cost-Benefit Ratio, Marketing Costs, Net Returns, Profitability, Rice

Economic Implications of Tomato Production in Naushahro Feroze District of Sindh Pakistan (Published)

In the present study, attempt was made to explore the economic implication of tomato in Nausharo Feroze Sindh. For this purpose 60 growers were selected from different villages of District Naushero Feroze of Sindh province during the year 2013 using survey method of study. The data on various costs, physical and revenue productivity were collected from 60 randomly selected tomato farmers. Result revealed that the education level of selected growers was in order of 25.00% primary (5years), 36.66% of middle (8years), 16.66% matriculate (10years) 3.33% educated from college and university, 1.70% graduate the 18.33% of tomato respondents were illiterate. Results further indicate that farmers incurred an average per hectare fixed costs. Rs 33187.00 include Rs 700.00 for land tax, Rs 32487.00 for rent of land. The results revealed that tomato farmers incurred an average per hectare cost of Rs 19780.75 as labor cost. An average per acre marketing cost of 30457.65 on tomato capital input used, and an average per acre marketing cost was Rs. 4191.73 On an average per acre spent a total cost of production of Rs. 87617.13. An average per acre Physical productivity was 186.00 in mounds. An average per acre Revenue productivity was Rs.158750.00 and the Net income was 71133.00 an availed input output ratio 1:1.81 it means that with the investment of Rs.1.00 in tomato enterprises they yielded Rs.1.81. The cost benefit ratio of the cultivation of tomato at 1:0.81 it means that the tomato growers fetched Rs.0.81 on each rupee investment of tomato. The poor production implies that the soil quality, inadequate canal water, insect pest and poor extension services could be the causes this low production. The empirical result indicates that significant increase in input of tomato in the study area could be traced mainly to use of latest technology.

Keywords: Cost, Labor, Net Returns, Tomato, and cost-benefit ratio., fruit yield

NET RETURNS TO CASSAVA-BASED CROP MIXTURES IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

The study was carried out in Imo State, Nigeria. The primary objective of the study was among others to estimate the net returns to cassava based crop mixtures in the area. The multi-stage stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of ninety six respondents from the area. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and farm budget technique. The result of the analysis show that the net returns to cassava/yam/maize/melon crop mixture was N124,776.58, while the returns per naira invested by the farmer was 46k. The cassava varieties cultivated are TMS 419, TMS 30572, TMS 30555, TMS 4(2) 1425, TMS 98/002, NR 8083, NR 8082, NR 84292, NR 8212, IMO Best, and 98/0581. It was recommended that extension agents should encourage farmers to grow cassava/yam/maize/melon crop mixture since it gave both the highest net return and return per naira invested.

Keywords: Cassava-based, Crop mixtures, Net Returns

DETERMINANTS OF NET RETURNS TO AGROFORESTRY IN THE HUMID RAIN FOREST BELT OF NIGERIA (Published)

The study analyzed the determinants of net returns to agroforestry in the humid rainforest belt of Nigeria. The multi-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. The sample size comprised 120 agroforestry practitioners who were selected from the list provided by the staff of the Imo state Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). The results of the ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis showed that farm size, years of farming experience, tree crop density, educational attainment, extension contact, type of soil fertility replacement materials used, and farmers age are the major determinants of net returns to agroforestry practice in the state. It was suggested that co-operative farming and communal system of land use could significantly enhance participation in agroforestry in Imo State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Determinants, Humid Rainforest, Net Returns, Nigeria

DETERMINANTS OF NET RETURNS TO AGRO FORESTRY IN THE HUMID RAIN FOREST BELT OF NIGERIA. (Published)

The study analyzed the determinants of net returns to agro forestry in the humid rainforest belt of Nigeria. The multi-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. The sample size comprised 120 agro forestry practitioners who were selected from the list provided by the staff of the Imo state Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). The results of the ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis showed that farm size, years of farming experience, tree crop density, educational attainment, extension contact, type of soil fertility replacement materials used, and farmers age are the major determinants of net returns to agro forestry practice in the state. It was suggested that co-operative farming and communal system of land use could significantly enhance participation in agro forestry in Imo State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Agro Forestry, Determinants, Humid Rainforest, Net Returns, Nigeria