Tag Archives: Negotiation.

Negotiating The Mahabharata as a Trauma Narrative (Published)

The great Indian epic, The Mahabharata inspires us to navigate through the height of joy on winning a battle or a kingdom and the depth of sorrow over loss of life, property and so on. The characters witness the prognosis of their distressing and disturbing lives having immense psychological ramifications.  In this research, The Mahabharata will be discussed in the light of various trauma features expounded by Vickroy (2002), Skultans (2007), Arizti (2011) and Baelo-Allue (2012) to examine if the epic, being “a treatise on Artha, on Dharma, and on Kama” (Ganguli, 2006, p. 31), can fit into the scheme of trauma narrative. An in-depth analysis of the epic finds that its narrative accommodates most of the theme-based and technique-based trauma narrative features.  Besides, the epic embodies trauma as one of its primary themes. Further, the narrative techniques, such as, hamartia, peripetia, tone, repetitive designation, amplification, flashforward and the use of long expressions, embedded in the narrative of the epic, but are not considered in trauma theories, are found representing the psychological trauma of the characters of the epic effectively, thus contribute to broaden the scope of trauma theories by adding new features.

Citation: Dharmapada Jena (2022) Negotiating The Mahabharata as a Trauma Narrative, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.10, No.3, pp.33-49


Keywords: Narrative turn of trauma, Negotiation., The Mahabharata, Trauma, Trauma narrative

Competency Mapping And Organizational Productivity: A study of Lafarge Cement Company, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This research was designed to ascertain the Effect of Competency Mapping and Organizational productivity in Lafarge Cement Company, Calabar. Survey Research Design was adopted for the study and a sample size of 174 was drawn. For the purpose of the study to be achieved, three hypotheses were formulated. The major instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire administered to the respondents using simple random sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. From the analysis, the result revealed that competency mapping has significant relationship with organizational productivity. Based on the findings, it is concluded that leadership competency has a significant effect on organizational performance. As a result of this, Management of Lafarge Cement Company should pay attention to various competencies under study as it improves the productivity of organization and also Management of Lafarge Cement Company should train employees to attain certain competencies as it improves the productivity of organization Lafarge Cement Company.

Citation: Bassey Okon Ebong (2022)  Competency Mapping And Organizational Productivity: A study of Lafarge Cement Company, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, International Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.10, No.4, pp.1-16


Keywords: Leadership, Negotiation., Productivity, communication, competency mapping

Do Social Stereotypes Interfere In Business Negotiations (Published)

Does an oversimplified idea about a person interfere in the business negotiation process? In this article, we addressed that puzzling question through a t-test of N=300 Brazilian business negotiations, aiming to provide scholars with a new perspective on business negotiations. We conducted an experiment dividing ten negotiation training sessions into two groups: m1 and m2, with 150 negotiations each group, totaling 600 participants. An independent-samples T-Test was applied to the collected data. Key findings pointed out a statistical significance on the alternate hypothesis, meaning that stereotypes interfere in the business negotiation process. Finally, the implications of these findings for managerial practice are discussed.

Keywords: Business, Negotiation., stereotypes

Negotiating Racism and Sexism through Spaciotemporal Lens in Toni Morrison’s Paradise (Published)

Racism and sexism occupy a central space in the psyche of the African American in a nation where the culture of the dominant class determines the American way of life. In order to assess the place of African Americans in the larger nation space, their negotiating of racism and sexism must be placed in spacio-temporal matrix. For this purpose Lefebvre’s notion of “double illusion”, Homi K Bhabha’s concept of “hybridity”, and Edward Soja’s idea of “Thirdspace” have been applied to analyze Toni Morrison’s novel Paradise. The paper is an attempt to understand how Toni Morrison represents the community life of African Americans within the larger space of the American nation in the backdrop of their negotiation of racism and sexism in both national and community levels.

Keywords: Community, Negotiation., Racism, Sexism, nation, spacio-temporal

Emotional Intelligence and Industrial Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in Imo State Public Sector: An Empirical Approach (Published)

The focus of this paper is on Emotional Intelligence and Industrial Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in the Imo State Public Sector. The study used survey approach and covered a population of 305 senior staff of eight selected public sector organizations in Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researchers used purposive sampling technique to select 221 members of staff, however, only 198 copies of the survey tool was accurately filled and returned which yielded 89.59% return rate. The data used was generated from both primary and secondary sources but a five point likert scale survey tool titled Emotional Intelligence and Industrial Conflict Resolution Mechanisms Questionnaire (EI&ICRMQ) was the major instrument for data collection. The statistical tool used for data analysis is the one-way ANOVA test using the 23.0 version of SPSS. The study found that variations in the results obtained showed that emotional intelligence effect on negotiation is more significant as it posted the least output (0.000). This is closely followed by mediation that posted an output of (0.006). The result however showed that in arbitration, emotional intelligence plays little or no role as it posted an output (0.075) that is higher than the level of significance (0.05). The study concluded that emotional intelligence is key to conflict resolution especially when the conflicting parties opt for negotiation as a mechanism. Sequel to the findings and conclusion above, the study recommended that to enhance management-labour relations, conflicting parties should ensure that only representatives with high emotional intelligence quotient are sent when adopting negotiation as a conflict resolution mechanism. Training representatives of conflicting parties to imbibe and exhibit emotional intelligence can enhance the success rate of mediation as a conflict resolution mechanism and that conflicting parties adopting arbitration as a conflict resolution mechanism should focus on gathering needful data for evidence and avoid being emotionally sentimental

Keywords: Arbitration, Conflict, Emotional Intelligence, Mediation, Negotiation.

Amnesty as a Tool in the Negotiation to end Insurgency in the Niger Delta (Published)


The period between 2003 and 2009 witnessed an intensification of military insurgency and a dangerous degeneration of the conflict in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.  The attacks on the oil production facilities by insurgent groups, sabotage by criminal syndicates and a flourishing kidnapping industry had transformed the Niger Delta from a region of political and social instability into a virtual war zone. Oil production had declined by over a million barrels, to about 1.6 million barrels per day. Major oil companies started relocating or shutting down their facilities from the region as the violence, which eventually spread to the other parts of the country could not be repressed by the heavily armed Joint Task Force (JTF) of the Nigerian Military. The implication of the crisis for the political and economic survival of Nigeria is believed to have propelled the Yar’adua administration in mid-2009 to offer ‘amnesty’ to the militants as part of a negotiated process of ending the insurgency in the region, while the issues in the conflict were being addressed by the government. This novel and unprecedented strategy was and still remains controversial but many agree that the problem of insurgency in the region was reasonably contained for several years following the offer of amnesty. This paper is an attempt to analyze the relevance of this policy as a negotiation strategy and a conflict management tool that can be used for future interventions in similar conflicts within the country and across the continent.

Keywords: Amnesty, Insurgency, Negotiation., conflict management


Most business managers have seen change becoming a regular aspect of organizational life and they must constantly monitor and respond to these changes appropriately. The overriding goal is to optimize the output of the people involved in this process and reduce the risk of failure in achieving the desired change. Change management is usually seen from an organizational context and refers to the process of developing a planned approach to change in an organization. Business environment has become much more turbulent, uncertain and demanding change is inevitable in an organisation. Business operates in a dynamic environment and organisation that fails to recognise the inevitability of change is doomed to fail. This paper is designed to examine the nexus of change management on organisational performance and survival in Nigerian universities using University of Ilorin as a case study. Both primary and secondary sources of data constitute the main source of data gathering. Random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample size. Regression analysis was used to analyse the data obtained and the testing of one hypothesis formulated. The results obtained reveal a strong negative relationship between changes introduced through Computer Based Test in the University.This research recommends that before embarking on any change, the university should attempt to maintain useful customs and informal relationship, build trust, encourage participation, provide information in advance, make only necessary changes, guarantee against loss, provide counselling, allow for negotiation between the University Management and the staff and students.

Keywords: Change Management, Computer Based Test, Counselling, Negotiation., Participation, Transformation