The Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) and the Setting of the “Jubril Al-Sudani” Agenda: A Qualitative Review of a Failed Securitization Move (Published)
The value of “good name” in politics and political movements is highly invaluable and is most appreciated when confronted by agents of demonization. Cases abound where angels are presented as demons and fugitives packaged as saints; thus, while a sparkling reputation can enhance political demagogues and even parachute political victory, “bad name” is deleterious to the state, the agents of the state and forces against the state and provides justification for the utilization of extra-legal means in solving “perceived grave” problems. This work evaluates the attempt by the leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), Nnamdi Kanu, to demonize President Muhammadu Buhari’s personality and present him to the Nigerian audience as an impostor and a security threat from Sudan. Content was generated from secondary sources which comprised mostly online media publications and published and unpublished literatures. Using the securitization model, we have subjected the demonization to several levels and units of securitization analysis and have concluded that the IPOB’s securitization was not successful in the sense that it dominated the agenda over a period of time and even captured the interest of a reasonable proportion of the Nigerian political audience but faded away without successfully demeaning the president as a threat, albeit, to the majority of the citizenry
National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
Against the background of scholarly debates and controversies on the subject, this micro study critically examines the much generalized and romanticized influence of the great Benin Kingdom on state formation among the west Niger Igbo. It thereby sets out to fill the gap in the historiography of state formation in the area, with the Kingdom of Ubulu-Ukwu as a case study. The study adopts the historical method of description and analysis, hinged on a chronological framework to posit the Nri-Awka area as the source of the initial stimulus for the peopling, kingship and title systems of Ubulu-Ukwu. It argues that relations with Benin were stimulated by Benin’s needs for the vital services for which Ubulu-Ukwu was famous. These included the security of Benin coronations and the mystical protection of the Oba’s throne, state regalia and the magical paraphernalia necessary for his vitality and rejuvenation. Ubulu-Ukwu, being dynamic, through adaptation and emulation, effected adjustments to its monarchical system. Thus the Benin factor in political and cultural developments at Ubulu-Ukwu was not the result of conquest and imposition, despite a mid-18th century war between the two polities. The study concludes that the tendency to view west Niger Igbo history in the context of Benin domineering military influence and political tutelage which British imperialism encouraged is out of tune with historical reality.
An Investigation of the Components of Political Developments on the National Security of the Islamic Republic of Iran from the Perspective of Policy Experts (Published)
National government’s key task and the most important aspect of human civilization that leads to greater prosperity and progress of human civilization in the world is to provide security inside the country and to deal with the potential influx of other governments to a territory and its citizens. The aim of this study was to investigate the components of political development on the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran from the perspective of policy experts. This study used interview to collect information and the population consisted of professors and activists in politics. 15 people were interviewed as the sample. The results indicate that the effects of the components of political development on the national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran have been extracted in some spheres including military security, political security, social security, economic security and environmental security. In addition, strategies for the structural development of management, domestic and foreign accountability, planning to live in global networks, global responsibility, readiness for global assessments and liberalization of foreign trade have been provided as efforts to develop political and national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Music as Non-Visual Medium For Entertainment, Peace Building, and National Security: A Study of Selected Nigerian Artistes (Published)
This paper is a study of the contributions of the medium of music as a tool for entertainment, in peace building and engendering national security which, sometimes, spreads to other climes. It focuses on the musical genre, examining the roles of three popular Nigerian musicians, two living and one dead, towards the peace process. Sonny Okosun, of blessed memory, and his kinsman, Sir Victor Uwaifo, were more of pan-African campaigners who, through the lyrics and messages of their songs which cut across tribes, cultures and climes, spread their tentacles even beyond the shores of Nigeria, preaching the gospel of peace, freedom and unity. Onyeka Onwenu, on her part, has also preached love, reconciliation and peace, with her musical renditions done in English and the different Nigerian dialects. The central thrust of the paper is the analysis of some lyrics of the selected songs of the musicians under study. The Critical Theory and Cultural Studies will suffice as the theoretical basis for the discussion of the role of music as a medium for entertainment, peace building and national security from the perspective of the lyrics of the musicians under review. It recommends governmental, individual and collective efforts at giving a breath of life into the music industry.
Reexamining India’s Counter Terrorism Strategy (Published)
Terrorism in India is looked at as one of the aspects of maintenance of Law and Order which is a subject matter of federal units under the Indian constitution. Hence the Police Departments of the States which are responsible for maintaining law and order deal with terrorism, which is not enough. Central Government of India and Central Security Forces should be playing an important role in Planning and execution of confrontation with terrorism. But technicalities of the constitution do not make it possible. That is why; Central Government has set up a National Counter Terrorism Centre. It has not yet been put into practice, because of the resistance by federal units. If India wants to manage terrorism in real sense, then it is imperative to consider terrorism as a federal Crime and National Emergency like incidents. In order to prohibit such criminal acts, India needs to initiate a comprehensive internal security like US and Israel.
Politicisation of the Counter-Insurgence Operations in Nigeria: Implication for the Political Economy (Published)
Political partisanship is a very intriguing game. However, the tendency among some megalomaniacs to politicise sensitive national issues has undermined Nigeria’s national interest as well as exacerbated its fragile security. Many political actors mainly from the two major political parties— PDP and APC— were more inclined to using incendiary utterances in order to score cheap political followership in the build up to the 2015 General Election. The study relied on documentary evidence through which data were generated for the validation of its hypothesis. It found that the inclination among these politicians and ethnic jingoists to politicise the counter-insurgence operations has not only sustained the insurgency but also undermined Nigeria’s political economy. Basically, it recommended the adoption of a non-partisan counter-insurgence approach as a remedy for Boko Haram insurgence.
Promoting Good Neighbourliness and the National Security Implications: The Loss of Bakassi Peninsular To Cameroun (Published)
The policy of good neigbourliness which Nigeria has adopted in its diplomatic relations with neigbours since independence in 1960 was founded on the premise that its neighbours have nothing to fear from its size and military might. This “big brother” policy grossly undermines national security interest and development. Innumerable cases of harassment and assault of Nigerians ‘sharing borders with its near eastern neighbor, the Republic of Cameroon culminated into the ceding away of the Bakassi peninsular, a part of the Efik Kingdom in Cross River State of Nigeria to the Cameron in a landmark judgment by the ICJ in the Hague. This foreign policy blunder has far reaching implications on the Nigerian state. This paper examines the policy implications of this rather idealistic foreign policy posturing in a geo-strategic world. The paper opines that maintaining good neighbourliness is good but caution that Nigeria should never again sacrifice its national security interest in pursuit of idealistic foreign policy objectives.
Examining the Boko Haram Insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the Quest for A Permanent Resolution Of The Crisis (Published)
The state of insecurity engendered by Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, especially in the North-Eastern part of the country is quiet worrisome, disheartening and alarming. Terrorist attacks of the Boko Haram sect have resulted in the killing of countless number of innocent people and wanton destruction of properties that worth billions of naira through bombings. More worrisome however, is the fact that all the efforts of the Nigerian government to curtail the activities of the sect have not yielded any meaningful positive result. Thus, the Boko Haram scourge remains intractable to the government who appears helpless in curtailing/curbing their activities. The dynamics and sophistication of the Boko Haram operations have raised fundamental questions about national security, governance issue and Nigeria’s corporate existence. The major thrust of this paper is to investigate the Boko Haram insurgency in Northern Nigeria and to underscore the urgent need for a permanent resolution of the crisis. The paper argues that most of the circumstances that led to this insurgency are not unconnected with frustration caused by high rate of poverty, unemployment, weak governance, religious fanaticism among others. It also addresses the effects of the insurgency which among others include serious threat to national interest, peace and security, internal population displacement, violation of fundamental human rights, debilitating effects on the entrenchment of democratic principles in Nigeria among others. The paper recommends among others, the necessity to address poverty reduction, religious secularism and political re-orientation. The need for adequate collaboration and partnership between the government, non governmental organizations, civil society organization as well as the individuals is also advocated. Finally, the need for the re-evaluation of the country’s domestic and foreign policies as a means of combating the menace of this domestic terrorism is also stressed.
Terrorism and the Challenge of National Development: Rethinking the Nigerian Dilemma (Review Completed - Accepted)
Terrorism in whatever dimension poses threat and insecurities to human existence in regards to which defenseless nations live in perpetual fears and anxiety. Knowing full well that Security is presently a major challenge in Nigeria and Nigerians are killed on daily basis and in their numbers. Though the government claims to be on top of the situation, the problem persists. The effects of these acts of terrorism are the threats they posed to national security, peace, unity and development of the country. This paper examines Terrorism and the Challenge of National Development, rethinking the Nigerian Dilemma. It provides a basic discourse on the concept of terrorism and national development while focusing on basic issues such on the development perspective. It also analyzes the implications of terrorism which range from economic crises to political instability. This paper observes that there is a negative relationship between terrorism and development in accordance with literature and hence recommends that the government should take the business of addressing issues of terrorism as priority one on the agenda.