Mycotoxins contamination of grains; Human exposure assessment and Mycotoxicosis in Nigeria (Published)
Aim: This study was designed to determine the mycotoxin content in stable grains, assess their exposure in human handlers and determine the toxicity of such mycotoxin in animal.Methods: Mycotoxins detection, exposure assessment of some biochemical parameters and toxicity tests were done by standard techniques/methods.Results: Mycotoxins; Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2, Deoxynivalenol. Ochratoxin A, Trichothecene and Zearalenone were detected in Kaduna State while with the exception of Deoxynivalenone and Trichothecene the rest were detected in Nasarawa State. There was significant difference (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) in Ochratoxin and Aflatoxin G1 in the States. The mycotoxins in the individual grains were significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Equally, there was significant difference (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) in the biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, TP, ALB, TB, CB, UR, CR, TCHOL, Hb, PVC & TWBC) in exposed Handlers compared to their controls. The toxicity tests in animals via biochemical parameters revealed high significant difference ( p < 0.001 or p < 0.01) with reference to the control except in the eosinophil level where there was no significant difference ( p > 0.05 ). Histological preparations of the animals showed myofibrillar regeneration and necrosis in the heart and the liver had multifocal vacuolation with swelling of the hepatocytes and foci of hepatocellular necrosis compared to the control.Conclusion: There is an interaction between mycotoxins and mycotoxicosis as possible ethiologic agents in human diseases. Hence, mycotoxins portend a great danger to the health of humans.
Wheat and Barley is the most production and consumption grains in the world. The necrotrophic Fusarium spp is pathogen caused many diseases on plants, the major two disease caused by Fusarium on wheat is Fusarium Crown rot (FCR) and head blight (FHB), also known as scab. These both disease caused severe damage on yield quality and quantity, and reduce yield up to 61%, as will produce mycotoxins in the grain, which lead to contamination the products that manufactured from these crops. The major FCR and FHB mycotoxins as DON, NIV, ZEN can caused many disease symptoms to consumers who consumes contaminate food, whether is human or animal, such as cancers, immunosuppression, fertilization problem, abortion and etc.