Appraising the Extent of Digital Divide between Music Teachers and Students in Anambra State Secondary Schools, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated the extent of existence of digital divide between music teachers and students in selected secondary schools in Anambra State. Two objectives and two research questions guided the study using descriptive survey design. Threeeducation zones consisting of nine public secondary schools, 18 music teachers and 270 music students formed the sample for the study. Structured questionnaires and oral interview were developed for teachers and students, and were used for collecting data from the field. The data gathered were presented quantitatively and qualitatively. The reliability indexes were calculated to be 0.71 and 0.70 for teachers and students respectively. Mean and standard deviation were the statistical tools used in the analyses of the work. The findings revealed high extent of digital divide based on the responses of both music teachers and students on the place of ICT in operative curriculum.There was low extent of digital disparity in ICT knowledge on the teachers part and high extent of digital disparity in ICT knowledge on the students part. The recommendations were that; the present music curriculum should be restructured to integrate ICT in order to meet the needs of 21st century music education and music teachers should be trained to have the wherewithal in ICT applications for bridging the digital disparities. The study has fully established the need for paradigm shift from traditional method of teaching to technologically-based teaching by music teachers in Anambra State secondary schools.
Keywords: Digital Divide, Music Education, digital native and digital immigrants., information and communication technology (ICT).
Pedagogical Issues Facing Teachers of Music in the Implementation of Music Curriculum Content: A Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya (Published)
The process of curriculum implementation involves helping the learner, who is central in curriculum implementation, acquire knowledge or experience. Implementation takes place as the learner acquires the planned experiences, knowledge, skills, ideas and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the learner to function effectively in a society (Delport and Dhlomo, 2010). However, the KNEC reports (2005-2012) reveal that a number of music candidates perform dismally and it may be inferred that they cannot function effectively in the music career. In producing proficient musicians that can be absorbed in the labor market, teachers are identified as agents in curriculum implementation process. With a focus on the teachers of music, this paper identifies pedagogical issues they face through implementation of the curriculum content. Form three music teachers and students in Nairobi County was the target population. A descriptive survey was conducted on both groups. Purposive sampling was used to select 23 schools that offer music and 23 music teachers that teach music in Nairobi County. Music students were selected using simple random sampling. A total of 180 out of 360 form three music students and 23 teachers participated in the study. Data was collected using questionnaires, classroom observation schedule and focus group discussions. Data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics and computation of the empirical data done using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). Theoretical instructional methods, inadequate pre-service training in specific content areas and negative attitude towards music among others were some of the pedagogical issues faced by music teachers in the implementation of the music curriculum.
Keywords: Curriculum implementation, Music Education, Music Teachers, Pedagogy
Bequests and Veracities of African Indigenous Knowledge System As a Means of Improving Music Education (Published)
Each generation, since the beginning of human existence, has sought to pass on cultural and social values, traditions, ethics, religion and skills to the next generation. The passing on of culture – enculturation and the learning of social values and behaviours -socialization replicate and reverberate human history together with the history of knowledge, beliefs, skills and cultures of humanity. In Africa tradition, music is an integral part of life linked with the worldview of the society in which it is produced. It has social, ritual, and ceremonial functions as well as some purely recreational purposes. Furthermore, quite a few African musical activities are ritualized and intended to link the visible world with the invisible. Traditional art forms, including music, are rooted in mythology, legend, and folklore which are associated with gods, ancestors and heroes. The values left behind by the forefather should not be meddled with and should be properly guided and monitored such that its relevance and values would be thoroughly employed as a means of improving the teaching of music education in African educational setting. Library search were used to source for information. This paper concludes that there is need for a paradigm shift to indigenous based curriculum for identity and uniqueness.
Keywords: Bequests, Indigenous knowledge, Music Education, Music in the Curriculum, Procedures to Teaching and Learning of Music Education., Traditional Music Education, Veracities