Tag Archives: Murder

Motives Deserving Particular Condemnation as a Factor Causing Deterioration of the Accused’s Legal Situation in Polish Law (Published)

Article 148 of Polish Criminal Code contains aggravated offense in the form of murder for motives deserving particular condemnation (art. 148 § 2 point 3 of the Criminal Code), which is explained in literature as  the case when the offender motives grossly deviate from accepted practices, which – taking into account that the killing, as such, is a serious violation of this pattern – clearly indicates the need of any additional element in the motivation of the perpetrator, and that the decision make murder makes a particularly reprehensible. Such is the will to kill a man at the request for a fee, to kill in order to seize the property of someone else (e.g . committed in its intention to murder the father or husband to take his fortune), planned the murder in order to get rid of those uncomfortable (e.g. rival to the desired position, in financial or personal matters), or to exert revenge on someone. The research indicates, that there are many  kinds of behavior that may be considered by the Polish courts to have been made as a result of motives deserving special condemnation. The research is conducted as a part of study of the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice (University of Warsaw, Institute of Social Prevention and Resocialization Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice) – research on 301 homicide offenders sentenced to life imprisonment.

Keywords: Life Imprisonment, Motive., Murder, Poland

Black Militant Theatre: Purificatory Rituals or Liberatory Violence? (Published)

Amiri  Baraka’s  pre-nationalist  and  nationalist  plays  such  as  Dutchman  and  Experimental  Death  Unit  # 1  largely  incorporates  scenes  of  murder  and  violence.  The cadaverous permeates. Baraka’s stage.  There  is  a  whole  sacrificial  system  that  determines  the  characters’ ultimate  destinies  and  lives.  This  mechanism  operates  not  merely  to  bring  death  to  those  who  betray  the  national  black  liberation  cause,  but  also  to  castigate  those  holders  of  the  slave  mentality and  chastise  the  assimilationists  who  hide  behind  a  white  mask.  This  sacrificial  mechanism  functions  as  a  generator  of  purification  to  cleanse  the  black community  from  the  vestiges  of  black  docility. In  the  Marxist  plays,  violence  and  murder  take  the  form  of  political  assassination.  A  play  such  as  The  Motion  of  History  displays  the  dynamics  of  political  struggle  that  conditions  the  kind  of  murder  or  acts  of  killings.  Whereas  in  the  nationalist  plays  murder  is  effected  for  purificatory  goals,  in  the  Marxist  plays  the  intersection  between  political  struggle  and  the  official  repression  of  the  state  determines  the  shape  of  physical  elimination  for  political  motives.  The  neutralization  of  political  opponents  assumes  that  murder  is  simply  a  means  of  exclusion  from  the  political  arena  and  restoration  of  political  and  social  stability.  Because  agitation  is detrimental  to  social  peace  and  political  order,  systemic  violence  takes  a  bloody  dimension  and  approximates  bloodshed.  This  paper  seeks  to  highlight  the  prevalence  and,  in  Frantz  Fanon’s  phrase,  the  instrumentality  of  violence  as  an  absolute  praxis  in  Baraka’s  dramatic  works.  Violence marshals then a new equation of asserted subjectivity. 

Keywords: Murder, Victimization, Violence, oppression., struggle


The European Court of Human Rights’ ECHR 370 Resolution dated 17.12.2013, relating to the case of Mr. Dogu Perincek versus Switzerland, received much publicity worldwide. The attention of ‘scholars on international law’ has been focused on this case, particularly when in mid- March 2014 Switzerland applied to the Higher Court for revision of the first verdict. The year 1921, like every year between World War I and Adolf Hitler’s rise to power, was for Germany one of gloom, Political life had not yet recovered from the shock caused by the overthrow of a form of government deeply rooted in the history of the people. The newly empowered Reichstag was prey to wild party strife, which made the formation of a stable government difficult. The trial of the murder of Talat Pasha proved to be a most shameful comedy, because the killer Tehlarian was found innocent whilst the victim Talat Pasha was found guilty of killing Armenians previously in Turkey. The German Judges gave in to the Armenian and Victor’s pressures. Liman Von Sanders and the German Protestant pastor Dr. Johannes Lepsius deposed in the court as experts. Liman Von Sanders did mentioned anything about the German Ambassador of the era and also him being the Commander in Chief of the Ottoman Army. He did not testify against Talaat but he also did not tell the truth in full extend but a quarter of it only. Accordingly his testimony was against rather than pro. Although an appeal notice was sent to Bronsart Von Shellendorf, he wasn’t called as a witness to the court. After the final verdict of the court, he published an article in a newspaper as a reaction to the court’s verdict. This paper, based on information excerpted from the non Turkish or non Ottoman formal documents and/or official releases, tries the bring into life what happened actually during the trial and the effect of the heavy and irresistible pressures on the German judges.

Keywords: Armenian, Berlin, Murder, Ottoman, Talaat Pasha, Tehlarian