Tag Archives: Multilingualism

Code-Switching With Arabic: A Case of the Hindi/Urdu Mother Tongue Speakers of the Expatriate Community Working In Saudi Arabia (Published)

In a multilingual setting, speakers of more than one language use alternately the linguistic items of languages available to them while interacting with each other. A situation of language amalgam provides a conducive atmosphere for language alternation. Cod-switching is a dominant and striking feature of a language contact situation. Code alternation, a cover term for the phenomena of code-switching and code-mixing occurs in a language contact situation whereby more than one language play a significant role in the speech of an individual or their group. The present paper takes into account as how the expatiate employees from the Indian subcontinent working in Saudi Arabia sharing Hindi/Urdu as their tongue switch over to Arabic and incorporate linguistic items from Arabic into their native language. The paper begins with a brief introduction about the phenomenon of code-switching and code-mixing. It also presents some definitions of the terms code-switching and code-mixing and throws light on social motivation and functions of code-switching. The paper reviews a considerable portion of literature on linguistic alternation in terms of ‘code-switching and code-mixing’. An overview of the research methodology adopted in carrying out the study along with the results of the investigation are also documented. In the present paper an effort has made to prepare, present and analyze an exhaustive list of Arabic linguistic items and expressions used in the process of exchange and alternation by Hindi/Urdu mother tongue speakers working in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Code Switching, Code-Alternation, Code-Mixing, Embedded Language, Language Contact, Matrix Language, Multilingualism

Language Use and Language Maintenance in Ọ́lọ̀wà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated language use and language maintenance in Ọ́lòwà, Dèkínà Local Government Area, Kògí State, Nigeria with a view to identifying the factors responsible for the use or non-use of the languages in contact, namely Ígálà, Bàssà-Ngé, and Bàssà-Kómǒ, and how the factors manifest across different socio-cultural groups in the community. Fishman’s theory on the relationship between micro- and macro-sociolinguistics, which centres around who speaks what language to whom and when, was used. One hundred respondents from each of the three language groups totaling three hundred respondents representing the different age groups, sexes, and socio-cultural classes were selected through random sampling. The data were analyzed using simple percentage to determine the extent of language use and language maintenance. The findings show that each respondent is proficient in his or her native language and in the dominant language, Ígálà. Factors responsible for this include ethnic identity consciousness, inter-ethnic relations such as marriage, economic, communal and other socio-cultural activities. Another factor is religion. This work adds to our existing knowledge of how the three languages used in the community have co-existed without any of them being endangered

Keywords: Language, Language use, Multilingualism, Proficiency, language maintenance

Reviving Indigenous Languages through Teaching and Learning: The Case of Igala Language (Published)

The paper highlights the world’s language situation especially in Africa, where majority languages have better chances of survival than the minority ones in the face of dominant languages of the ex-colonial masters like English, French and Spanish. It analyses the state of indigenous languages in Nigeria in particular with the position of Igala language in the country and in the educational sector. The paper examines language planning ideology and the language policy in Nigeria. It discovers that there is lack of interest by government and school administrators to implement the national policy on education concerning language. Consequently, it feels that teaching and learning in indigenous languages and in Igala in particular need to be revived to save hundreds of Nigerian languages from going extinct as well as to turn around the poor state of education through early mother tongue instruction. It recommends that government at all levels should ensure the implementation of the mother tongue instruction in early education by providing funds, equipment, teaching aids and supervision.

Keywords: Extinction of Languages, Igala Language, Kogi State, Language Ideology, Language policy, Linguistic Rights, Majority Language, Minority Language, Mother tongue instruction, Multilingualism, Nigeria, Policy Implementation, Revalorization

REVIVING INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES THROUGH TEACHING AND LEARNING- THE CASE OF IGALA LANGUAGE (Published)

The paper highlights the world’s language situation especially in Africa, where majority languages have better chances of survival than the minority ones in the face of dominant languages of the ex-colonial masters like English, French and Spanish. It analyses the state of indigenous languages in Nigeria in particular with the position of Igala language in the country and in the educational sector. The paper examines language planning ideology and the language policy in Nigeria. It discovers that there is lack of interest by government and school administrators to implement the national policy on education concerning language. Consequently, it feels that teaching and learning in indigenous languages and in Igala in particular need to be revived to save hundreds of Nigerian languages from going extinct as well as to turn around the poor state of education through early mother tongue instruction. It recommends that government at all levels should ensure the implementation of the mother tongue instruction in early education by providing funds, equipment, teaching aids and supervision.

Keywords: Extinction of Languages, Igala Language, Kogi State, Language Ideology, Language policy, Linguistic Rights, Majority Language, Minority Language, Mother tongue instruction, Multilingualism, Nigeria, Policy Implementation, Revalorization