CHARACTER EDUCATION MODEL IN MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES LEARNING AT MUHAMMADIYAH JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (Published)
This study aims to describe the practicality and effectiveness of character education models integrated in the learning of Mathematics and Natural Sciences is based on broad-scale trials were conducted at Muhammadiyah Junior High School of Malang City. Type of research is class action research-based lesson study with full reference to the Susilo (2009). This study was conducted in two cycles, refers to the Spiral Model of Kemmis & Taggart (1988) and Lesson Study which refers to Lewis (2002). The results of an analysis of the feasibility study observation sheet and teacher responses indicate that the model developed is included in the category of practical on the cycle I and is very practical in the cycle II. This model is practical for several reasons, namely 1) the development of models adopt a pattern that has been set by the government, was developed based on the conditions and be flexible, 2) the model allows teachers to implement and adapt to the conditions of the school or class being taught, 3) model has been developed passed the stage of planning, implementation, and evaluation involving teachers through the process of discussion and trial and supported by the feel of lesson study. The effectiveness of the model is included in the category of less or low in Cycle I and quite good in Cycle II. The values of the characters are already being integrated in the learning of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Although the values of the characters that appear only include medium category, but gently push the teacher models for students’ attention to aspects of the character
CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL AND POLITICAL ORIENTATION OF THE FOLLOWERS OF MUHAMMADIYAH AND NAHDLATUL ULAMA (NU) IN THE POST REFORM ERA IN EAST JAVA INDONESIA (Published)
Indonesia’s population of approximately 248.216.193 million spread over almost the entire Indonesian archipelago. There are many different religions and beliefs living in Indonesia, but only five religions recognized by the government, Islam, Christian, Catholic, Hindu, and Buddhist. Among the followers of these religions, Muslims are the most numerous, especially people who inhabit the island of Java. Islam in Indonesia organized by several Islamist organizations. The largest Islamic organizations are Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama (NU). To find the development of two organizations community mentioned above, this study aims to (1) describe the cultural and social changes, the Muhammadiyah and NU, and (2) describe the social significance of these changes (cultural and social) for the social life of Muhammadiyah and NU and, (3) Describe the political orientation of Muhammadiyah and NU in Indonesian. With the data collection methods of observation, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires, this study concludes that in terms of socio-cultural of the two community, both Muhammadiyah and NU is located at the same position, ie there is no difference in the use of all forms of development and progress of existing as the impact factor of the development of religious thought, economic, social, cultural, and education is growing in Indonesia. The level of Islam, both Muslim organization has no principle difference. The most prominent difference is evident in the relationship between followers and leaders. The relation between followers and leaders at Muhammadiyah are to be equality, while at NU in general is more stratification (hierarchy). This is kind of relationship models for each follower will affect their behavior patterns in several ways, including the orientation or political aspirations. Regarding the political aspirations orientation (political party) there is a difference between Muhammadiyah and NU. The difference was due to the different nature of the base due to the influence of the history of the organization and community levels as well as models of the relationship between followers and leaders in their organizations respective. Regarding the choice of the party, Muhammadiyah members more rational while at NU generally more emotional and to the organization and kiai (religious scholar).