Over the years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a nosocomial and community pathogen worldwide, causing a plethora of diseases. A distinctive type of MRSA has also emerged in livestock and companion animals. Its isolation in chicken has been reported in some countries and its propensity for zoonotic transmission potentially represents a serious risk-factor for poultry farm workers and the general population. Nasal and cloacae swabs of chickens selected at random from 9 poultry farms and clinical isolates of staphylococci from Ebonyi State, Nigeria, were collected and screened for S. aureus using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the S. aureus to a panel of 14 commonly used and regulated antibiotics in the area were determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc agar diffusion (DAD) method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Out of a total of 325 S. aureus isolated, 76% (247/325) were from poultry, while 24% (78/325) were from the clinics. The prevalence rates of S. aureus in broilers and layers were 49% and 51% respectively. The percentage carriage of MRSA in poultry was 6.1% and 15.3% in the clinics. The percentage of isolates showing multi antibiotic resistance index (MARI) of 0.3 and above was 13.97% displaying 46 antibiotic resistance patterns. All the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were multidrug resistant. This underscores the need for discretion in the application of antibiotics in animal feeds and its empirical use in the hospitals.
Immunization Model of Rats Treated With Two Antigens from Mrsa Bacteria Isolated From Burn Patients (Published)
The present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of alpha hemolysin (Hla) and heat inactivate bacteria suspension (HIBS) antigens prepared from Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria isolated from burn wound in rats after immunization. Both antigens examined after the period of immunization to determine the total IgG concentration, IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in serum. The results indicated that Hla antigen had the ability to modulate and induce the humoral and cellular immune response since that there was a significant elevation in serum total IgG and IFN-γ at (p≤ 0.05) in comparison with the HIBS antigen. Resent data also indicated to a significant decreasing in TNF-α concentration in sera of rats immunized with two studied antigens Hla (44.54) pg/ml and HIBS (16.5) pg/ml.