The Effects of Code Switching On English Language Teaching and Learning at Two Schools in Sibbinda Circuit (Published)
Code-switching is mostly used by different language users, this diversion from the language of instruction to the language that accommodates is said to have certain effects on learning and teaching. Though code-switching has been discouraged, little is known whether it has negative or positive effects on English language learning and teaching. This study mainly focused on the effects that code-switching has on English teaching and learning. This study was guided by the following research questions: What impacts does code-switching have on the learning and teaching of English? What perception do learners and teachers have towards code-switching at the selected school? And how does the society influence code-switching at the selected school? A qualitative research design was used for this study. The population consisted of two schools (one primary school, and a secondary school, but it focused on upper primary grades only). The sample consisted of grade 5-7 learners and teachers. Nine learners and four teachers were selected to participate in this article. Data was collected using interviews and observations. Code-switching has positive effects on English language learning and teaching. It helps learners to understand difficult aspects of the lesson taught and therefore are able to follow the instructions given. When the teacher explains what was said in mother tongue, it helps learners to participate especially those with English learning difficulties. It also helps them to express themselves if they do not know how to say certain things in English. Furthermore, code-switching helps teachers manage their classrooms.
: English is a second language in Nigeria because it is non-indigenous, it was introduced by British Colonialists and Missionaries into the country. The roles and functions English language has assumed since its introduction into the country are outlined. Since Nigeria functions in virtually all spheres of life in English language, a variety known, internationally acceptable and intelligible exists as the Standard Nigerian English. What is really of concern is the increasing deviations noticeable in the speech and writings of Nigerians from the grammar of English. The error laden English spoken by many people in the country may well be replacing the Standard Nigerian English if the situation is not checked. The root causes of the problem are pointed out recommendations are made towards curbing the negative trend.
The use of mother tongue as a language of instruction debate has been ongoing in Kenya as well as in other African countries with no consensus from researchers and policy makers. This paper focuses on the use of mother tongue in lower primary in schools in rural areas in Kenya and the reasons for deviations from guidelines that recommend the use of language of the catchment area in classes 1-3. This paper maintains that the use of mother tongue in the early years of schooling provides basic literacy skills necessary for learning in other subjects. Despite the benefits of use of mother tongue as the language of instruction in lower primary in schools in the rural areas, many primary schools in Kenya hardly use it for instruction. Not only does this paper recommend the use of mother tongue in lower primary in schools in rural areas in Kenya but also proposes that teachers perform the crucial role of enabling parents and other stakeholders in the education sector understand how mother tongue benefits the learner in the teaching learning process.
Language in Education: Barriers and Bridges (Published)
This article explores the implementation of Ghana’s local language in education policy; how it has been received and practiced in public basic schools, and the major challenges and implications. Through the study, the author highlights critical issues within local education practices that suggest a mismatch between education language policy and classroom practice. It is suggested that one of the primary reasons for the poor performance in schools lies in the oral orientation to classroom practices at the foundation stage at the expense of literate ways of thinking and reasoning and that an emphasis on literacy in the mother tongue at the foundation stage may help to shift the focus on student academic development where it belongs.
This article reports a study on interjections carried out in Awing and Yemba, two Bantu Grassfield Languages in Cameroon. The study shows that language learning and language use especially as concerns interjections stem out from the learners first language. Given the reality on the ground whereby mother tongue teaching has been neglected for quite a while, until recently that linguists have introduced mother tongue study both in the secondary school and the university. Interjections of Awing and Yemba languages were collected from natives of these mother tongues. The data were compared and transcribed. Its presentation was done on a table form, some contrasts and comparisms were done and results gotten were analyzed between these two mother tongues. Mother tongue interjections share a lot in common with one another in Cameroon. Their phonology, morphemes and features are similar to one another which are equally similar to the official languages in use. This shows that the study of these mother tongue interjections will enhance not only understanding of interjections but will equally promote and sustain some cultural and linguistic aspects of our national languages which are dying out.
The purpose of this study is to detect to what extent Sudanese EFL learners commit errors attributable to the differences between their L1 and L2. Furthermore discovering the types of errors in use of articles (omission of articles, redundant, or wrong use of articles) is among the objectives of the study. In the direction of checking the status of various categories of errors of articles made by Sudanese EFL learners as a result of the transitional limitations between Arabic and English, an error analysis was performed. Therefore, the researcher developed a writing task in order to find out the inter-lingual article errors committed by the participants as a result of transfer between L1 and L2. A total number of 25 male students studying English at the tertiary level took part in the study and carried out the writing task. The analysis of the results indicated significant differences between different types of errors made by the participants. Sudanese EFL learners had the most problems in terms of the errors related to the redundant use of articles. They were at the second position in the errors of wrong use of articles and finally they had the less frequent errors with respect to the omission of articles in L2 while writing into English.
CULTURAL FACTORS HINDERING MASTERY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS: A CASE OF KILIFI COUNTY, KENYA (Published)
This study examined the various cultural factors hindering the mastery of English language in Kilifi County. A sample of 236 respondents representing Students, pupils, head teachers, teachers, parents, religious leaders, Pwani University Language specialists, Ministry of Education officers was drawn from Tezo Location. The proposed study was a descriptive survey, and both qualitative and quantitative data was collected by means of self administered questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions, and scheduled interviews. Qualitative data was analysed by thematic analysis while quantitative data was analysed by simple descriptive statistics and ranking by participatory methods. The study identified the cultural practices that hinder good mastery of English as frequent usage of Kiswahili and Mother Tongue when speaking at home, the declaration that English is a foreign language and the belief by the local community that speaking in English at home is a sign of pride and disrespect. Based on the findings, recommendations were made on how to promote good English mastery in Kenyan Schools.