Tag Archives: Mortality

Nutritional Potential and Cost Implication of Yam Peel (Discorea Rotundata) as Ingredient for Growing Snails (Archachatina Marginata) (Published)

Yam peel is a fall out during processing of yam to pounded yam or yam flour and could be used as alternative means of energy in the nutrient of livestock. The aim was to know the consequence inclusion of dry yam peeling (YP) as substitute for maize in the diet of growing Giant African land snail on feed intake, weight gain, meat qualities and priced benefits. Yam peeled was substitute at 0% (YP1) Control, 25% (YP2), 50% (YP3) and 75% (YP4) as replacement for maize fraction in the nutrient of growing Giant African land snails. Each treatment was repeated thrice with 10 snails per replicate in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken or calculated were feed intake, weight gain, shell length and width, feed conversion ratio and priced per weight gain among others. Significant differences were observed in the mean total feed consumption of the snails fed inclusion levels of yam peel meal in the diets (P<0.05) The main total feed consumed of 544.32 g was taken in YP1, it was relatively similar to YP3 the mean lowest feed consumed of 516.46g was taken in YP4. The result of feed efficiency indicated that snails fed 0% YP as a substitute for maize fraction of the diet has most feed efficiency (P<0.05) and was not significantly different from YP3. The morbidity and mortality percent were very low in all the treatments. The main dressing percentage of 43.57% was taken in YP1 (P<0.05) it was not significantly different from 43.45 % and 43.13 % in YP2 and YP3 accordingly.  Mean total no of egg laid was significantly influenced by different inclusion levels (p<0.05).  From the study, it was revealed that weight gain, feed efficiency and dressing percentage were relatively similar in the snails fed zero percent diet and Fifty percent yam peel.  The mean total number of egg laid and the size were not significantly different in the control and 50% inclusion, also the least cost per weight gain was recorded in YP3 containing 50% YP, hence maize fraction of the diet of snails could be substitute up to 50% of yam peel without any adverse effect.

Keywords: Dressing percentage, Mortality, Yam peel, feed efficiency, reproductive indices, snails

Thermotolerance Traits and Mortality Levels of Three Strains of Broilers in Humid Tropics (Published)

The tolerance of three temperate breeds of broilers to tropical heat condition was evaluated at the poultry unit of Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty (150) day-old broiler chicks comprising of Arbo acre, Cobb and Marshall breeds were raised under the same management condition for 8 weeks.Thermotolerance traits were measured and mortality of the broilers were recorded. Analysis of variance showed that Cobb broiler strain had the least cloacal temperature (40.89±0.03oC) followed by Arbo acre (41.06±0.05oC) while Marshall Broiler strain had the highest cloacal temperature (41.55 ± 0.06oC). Cobb strain also had the lowest respiratory rate (51.16 ± 0.15 breath/min).The respiratory rate of Marshall strain (56.80± 0.45 breath/min) was significantly higher than that of Arbo acre strain (54.63 ± 0.24 breath/min) . Marshall Strain had the highest pulse rate (73.50 ± 0.70 beats/min) while the least pulse rate (66.40 ± 0.47 beats/min) was found in Cobb breed. The least heat stress index was recorded for Cobb breed. The effect of strain was also significant on the mortality levels of the broilers. Marshall Strain had the highest total mortality percentage followed by Arbo acre while the least total mortality percentage was recorded for Cobb breed. The effect of age was significant on all the parameters studied (p<0.05).Young broilers were less tolerant to heat stress than older broilers. Mortality percentage also reduces with advance in age. The effect of sex was also significant on the thermotolerance traits. Females’ broilers were less tolerant to thermal stress. In conclusion, there was genetic variation in the thermotolerance traits of broilers. Cobb strain tolerated heat stress better than Arbo acre and Marshall Strain in the humid tropics.

Keywords: Broiler, Mortality, heat tolerance, strain

Population dynamics and assessment of Golden Trevally, Gnathonodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775), in the Southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates (Published)

The population dynamics of Gnathonodon speciosus from the southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates was investigated based on direct and indirect methods to validate the age. The average growth parameters based on the methods were estimated as L=84.52cm TL, K=0.28 and to=-0.45years.  The fitted Von Bertalnaffy’s growth equation for G.speciosus was Lt=84.52*[1–exp-0.28*(t+0.45)]. The estimated growth performance index Ø was 3.30 while the estimated life spans close to 11.0 years. The instantaneous coefficient rates of total mortality Z estimated by length converted catch curve was 1.01yr-1. Natural mortality M estimated by pauly, Rikhter&Efanov and Hoeing methods were 0.62, 1.02 and 0.41yr-1 respectively with average 0.68yr-1 for further analysis. Peaks in spawning occurred during March, April and May. Yield per recruit Y/R and biomass per recruit B/R were estimated as 171.7&520.3g respectively at current F=0.33year-1 and Tc=1.59 year. Estimates of relative yield per recruit and relative biomass per recruit were E0.1=0.62, E0.5=0.35 and Emax=0.74 indicates the stock of G.speciosus is under-exploited.

Keywords: Gnathonodon speciosus, Growth, Mortality, spawning season, yield per recruit

Population Dynamics and Assessment of Golden Trevally, Gnathonodon Speciosus (Forsskål, 1775), in the Southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates (Published)

The population dynamics of Gnathonodon speciosus from the southern Arabian Gulf off the United Arab Emirates was investigated based on direct and indirect methods to validate the age. The average growth parameters based on the methods were estimated as L=84.52cm TL, K=0.28 and to=-0.45years.  The fitted Von Bertalnaffy’s growth equation for G.speciosus was Lt=84.52*[1–exp-0.28*(t+0.45)]. The estimated growth performance index Ø was 3.30 while the estimated life spans close to 11.0 years. The instantaneous coefficient rates of total mortality Z estimated by length converted catch curve was 1.01yr-1. Natural mortality M estimated by pauly, Rikhter&Efanov and Hoeing methods were 0.62, 1.02 and 0.41yr-1 respectively with average 0.68yr-1 for further analysis. Peaks in spawning occurred during March, April and May. Yield per recruit Y/R and biomass per recruit B/R were estimated as 171.7&520.3g respectively at current F=0.33year-1 and Tc=1.59 year. Estimates of relative yield per recruit and relative biomass per recruit were E0.1=0.62, E0.5=0.35 and Emax=0.74 indicates the stock of G.speciosus is under-exploited.

Keywords: Gnathonodon speciosus, Growth, Mortality, yield per recruit and spawning season

Factors Influencing Preference for Faith-Based Maternity Health Services Among Pregnant Women in Ogbomoso North LGA, Oyo State (Published)

Poor maternal and child health characterized by high incidence and prevalence of maternal and child mortality and morbidity continues to pose grave challenge to health and development indicators in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria occupies a notable position in the region accounting for poor maternal and child health indicators. Utilization of maternal and child health services plays a strong buffering role against maternal mortality. Unfortunately, accessing these services in formal settings among Nigerians especially in rural and per-urban areas is low. Faith based maternity homes provide alternative to maternal health services provided in the formal setting notwithstanding that the procedures involved in majority of such centres are spirituality oriented. Investigating factors influencing the preference of these settings over the formal setting is therefore an important issue for research. This study investigated factors influencing preference for faith based maternity centres among a representative sample of women attending these centres in Ogbomoso North LGA of Oyo State. The descriptive survey research design was employed in the study and data generated from 125 respondents sampled from two faith based maternity centres in the local government area. Generated data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages and inferential statistics of simple regression at 0.05 alpha level. Findings of the study showed that financial cost (R = 0.686, F(1, 123) = 109.560, p=0.000<0.05.), attitude of health care workers, incessant strike actions and distance of formal health centres significantly influence preference for fait based maternity homes. Recommendations were made on addressing these factors in order to contribute significantly in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.

Keywords: Cost, Faith-Based, Maternal, Mortality, services

SHEEP AND GOAT PRODUCTION PRACTICES IN AGRO FORESTRY SYSTEMS OF GEDIO ZONE, SNNPR, ETHIOPA (Published)

The study was conducted to describe sheep and goat production practices in three Agro-ecological Woredas of Gedio zone southern, Ethiopia. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 120 sheep and goat owners based on single-visit-interviews. 32.6% of them participate in crop production, 56.5% of them involved in both animal and crop production and 5% of them involved in crop production, animal production and off farm activity. Sheep flock in the study sites were significantly different; and 5.63 in wenago and 6.97 Walema sites and 3.4 kochera. Major feed resources were grazing (33.5%). The highest mortality rate occurred in suckling flock (16.24% lambs; 16.3 kids %), young flock (9.64 %lambs; 13.24% kids) and breeding females (ewes 12.06% and does 14.1%) in all study sites. Sheep and goat production in the studied areas was constrained by different problems; prioritized the major constraints as; availability and cost of feeds, limitation of land for the expansion of production and poor extension services. Integration of sheep and goat with other agricultural practices is the dominant systems in the area.

Keywords: Feeding, Marketing, Mortality, Sheep, fattening, goat, grazing

Comparison of Survival Models and Estimation of Their Parameters With Respect To Mortality in a Given Population: A Case Study of Homa-Bay County in Nyanza Province (Review Completed - Accepted)

In this research , we consider three different survival models under the assumption of Gompertz model as the baseline distribution. We compare the fitting results of the Exponential distribution , the Gompertz distribution and the Gompertz – Makeham model in a given population. As the human lifespan decreases, more and more people are becoming interested in mortality rates at higher ages. The aim of this study is to estimate the robust and reliable estimates of level and trend in mortality in Kenya . The purpose of this study is to find out if the population of Kendu Bay area in Nyanza Province fits the Gompertz model and also to compare different survival models parametrically in a population. And also to determine the relationship between death rate and age in the area. Model comparison is made using the maximum likelihood function technique and a well fitted model is suggested for the population data. The expected output is that the preferred model is the one which satisfies the characteristics of the given population.

 

 

Keywords: Expected life time, Force of mortality, Gompertz distribution, Gompertz-Makeham Models, Growth parameter, Life table, Mortality, Stochastic process, Survival analysis

The Prognosis of Acute Stroke in a Tertiary Health Centre in South-East Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

Background and purpose: Stroke is a common neurologic disorder and it is the third leading cause of mortality worldwide after ischaemic heart disease and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of acute stroke in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA) South-East Nigeria.

Methods: It was a retrospective, descriptive and hospital based study conducted in a tertiary health centre in Abakaliki south-east Nigeria. The stroke register of the neurology unit was reviewed and relevant data were extracted and analyzed.

Results: Stroke accounted for 12% of medical death with 24hour, 7day and 30day mortality rate of 5%, 10% and 15% respectively. Factors associated with mortality include advanced age, female sex, extremes of blood pressure, loss of consciousness and haemorrhagic stroke.

Conclusions: Stroke accounted for significant proportion of medical deaths and its mortality was highest within the first 24hrs post ictus though lower than most hospital based studies. There should be regular health education with emphasis on primary prevention. Also, stroke patients should be referred early to a stroke unit for adequate management

 

Keywords: Abakaliki, Mortality, Nigeria, South-East, Stroke