Morphological Variation of Cichlids from Kainji Lake, Nigeria (Published)
This study was designed to evaluate morphological variations of cichlids from the Kainji lake, Niger State in Nigeria. 200 samples of cichlids comprising four species (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zilli, Pelmatolapia mariae and Sarotherodon galilaeus) were collected from the lake and a total of thirty morphometric measurements and meristic counts were recorded. Data was corrected to eliminate size effect on sample and subjected to discriminant function analysis to determine rate of divergence among species. Results obtained revealed significant variation in some morphometric parameters measured and all six meristic counts recorded. Growth pattern revealed negative allometric growth for O. niloticus (2.29), T. mariea (0.72) and S. galilaeus (2.47) while T. zilli, had a positive allometric growth. Discriminant analysis showed some levels of overlap across species for both morphometric measurement and meristic count. Interspecific distance was closest between T. zilli and O. niloticus (14.70) while the farthest distance was recorded between T. zilli and S. galilaeus (52.40). The observable overlap among species despite morphometric and genetic differences may have been as a result of similar species adaptations in response to the prevailing environmental conditions.
Keywords: Lake, Man Made Lake, Meristic Count, Morphometric Parameters, Tilapia
Phytoindication: Reaction of Plants to the Oil Light Fractions (Published)
The study of plant response to the lighter fractions of petroleum products. Place and Duration of Study: M.Auezov South Kazakfstan State University, Institute of Ecology and Biotechnology, between May 2012 and September 2014. We investigated 7 types of oil products (4 grades petrol, toluene, benzene, xylene) and 20 frequently encountered plant species in the south of Kazakhstan (from Poaceae -6, Fabaceae -8, Brassicaceae -4, Asteraceae -2) were used. We studied the morphometric changes and the percentage of germination of seeds of plants. It has been found that the light fractions of oil products have acute toxic effects on all plants. Grade AM-96 petrol (A – car, M- measuring the octane number) and xylene have been proven to be the most toxic among the studied oil products, including petrol of various standards, xylene, toluene, and benzene. The reactions of the studied species of plants to certain types of oil are differentiated, and among the studied species of plants, the representatives of the mustard family proved to be the most sensitive to the effects of light fractions of oil products, while representatives of the grass family were sensitive to the effects of toluene, benzene and xylene. The most resistant species are cultivated maize, kidney bean, cultivated chickpea, long-staple cotton, Helianthus annuus, Cynodon dactylon and alfalfa.
Keywords: Grades Petrol, Morphometric Parameters, Seed Vigour, Test Plants