Tag Archives: Moringa oleifera

Comparative Effects of Drying on the Drying Characteristics, Product Quality and Proximate Composition of Some Selected Vegetables (Published)

This study investigated the effects of drying on the drying characteristics, product quality and proximate composition of some selected vegetables. The vegetable investigated were Ocimum gratissimum (Scent leaf), Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf), Moringa oleifera and Heinsia crinite (Atama leaf). These vegetables were collected fresh, sorted, oven dried at 50oC for 12 h and evaluated for drying kinetics, rehydration properties, proximate composition, and total chlorophyll content. The result of drying kinetics indicated that the rate of moisture loss was at its highest in the first and second hour of drying; however the moisture loss was slowed down in the subsequent drying period. The removal of moisture at the end of drying was found to be at a faster rate in the following order: bitter leaf>scent leaf>Moring oleifera leaf>atama leaf. Results of the rehydration properties showed that significantly (p<0.05) higher rehydration ratio and rehydration capacity was obtained in atama leaves (10.56 and 0.223, respectively) while Moringa oleifera recorded the lowest (10.56 and 0.097, respectively). The results revealed that the drying significantly (p<0.05) affected the proximate composition of the dried vegetables with bitter leaf having the highest ash and protein content (11.31% and 29.28%, respectively), atama had the highest fat and carbohydrate content (17.36% and 50.33%, respectively) while Moringa oleifera was highest in crude fibre (19.98%). Total chlorophyll content was higher in the dried vegetables (1.75-3.22mg/100g) than in the fresh vegetable (0.80-1.39mg/100g). In its fresh and dried forms, bitter leaf had the highest chlorophyll content (1.39 and 3.22mg/100g) while chlorophyll retention was highest in scent leaf (67.21%) after drying. This study therefore indicates that drying affects the nutritional composition and product quality of the vegetables differently and that these vegetables in its dried forms are recommended as they supply adequate nutrients.

Keywords: Bitter Leaf, Drying, Moringa oleifera, Scent leaf, atama leaf

Growth Performance of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Juveniles Fed Diet Containing Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal (Published)

A 90 day feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera on the growth of Clarias gariepinus. A total of 80 juveniles of C. gariepinus were stocked in four concrete tanks measuring 9x4x2m3 with each tank containing 20 experimental fish arranged in duplicates. There was also another set of tank known as control where fish therein where fed diets containing fish meal. Plant based diet was formulated with Moringa oleifera leaves extract, unripe plantain powder, soybean meal and palm kernel cake. The experimental fish were fed twice daily at 5% body weight. Proximate composition of experimental diet included crude protein (35.68%), moisture (5.24%), crude lipid (15.64%), ash (4.92%), nitrogen free extract (24.83) and fibre (13.69%). Results of growth performance revealed the following: weight gain (7.51±1.22g), food conversion ratio (5.09±1.14gg-1), specific growth rate (0.28±0.02%), and condition factor (0.91±0.02). The present study shows that the growth of C. gariepinus fed diets containing M. oleifera have compared favourably (P>0.05) with those fed diets containing fish meal. The use of plant-based ingredients such as M. oleifera in fish diets can reduce the cost of feed production leading to increase fish production.

Keywords: African catfish, Growth Performance, Leaf Meal., Moringa oleifera

Growth Performance of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Juveniles Fed Diet Containing Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal (Published)

A 90 day feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera on the growth of Clarias gariepinus. A total of 80 juveniles of C. gariepinus were stocked in four concrete tanks measuring 9x4x2m3 with each tank containing 20 experimental fish arranged in duplicates. There was also another set of tank known as control where fish therein where fed diets containing fish meal. Plant based diet was formulated with Moringa oleifera leaves extract, unripe plantain powder, soybean meal and palm kernel cake. The experimental fish were fed twice daily at 5% body weight. Proximate composition of experimental diet included crude protein (35.68%), moisture (5.24%), crude lipid (15.64%), ash (4.92%), nitrogen free extract (24.83) and fibre (13.69%). Results of growth performance revealed the following: weight gain (7.51±1.22g), food conversion ratio (5.09±1.14gg-1), specific growth rate (0.28±0.02%), and condition factor (0.91±0.02). The present study shows that the growth of C. gariepinus fed diets containing M. oleifera have compared favourably (P>0.05) with those fed diets containing fish meal. The use of plant-based ingredients such as M. oleifera in fish diets can reduce the cost of feed production leading to increase fish production.

Keywords: African catfish, Growth Performance, Leaf Meal., Moringa oleifera

Enhancing the Productivity of Moringa Oleifera Lam. For Sustainable Development in Agroforestry (Published)

The study evaluated the effectiveness of NPK (15:15:15), poultry manure, cow dung and green manure of Tithonia diversifolia and Chromolaena odorata leaves on the growth of Moringa oleifera. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 11 treatments replicated 5 times. Data were collected for the growth parameters (height, number of leaves and stem diameter) of the M. oleifera seedlings. It was observed that Moringa seedlings grown on soil treated with 20g of T. diversifolia had significantly (P<0.05) higher plant growth parameters than those on soil with the other treatments including the control. Those treated with NPK had similar higher growth parameters comparable to those plants treated with 10g of T. diversifolia and both 10 and 20g of C. odorata. There were also significant differences in the quantities of the manure and NPK applied on the M. oleifera seedlings. This study shows the effectiveness of T. diversifolia and C. odorata as organic manure for improving and enhancing the growth of M. oleifera. Utilization of such weed species component as green manure, compost material or in improved fallow system will help the poor resource farmer to create more sustainable and productive crop yield.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Fertilizer, Green manure, Moringa oleifera, NPK