Heterosis has historically been exploited in plants; however, its underlying genetic mechanisms and molecular basis remain elusive. The use of molecular markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting agriculturally important traits has become a key approach in plant genetics-both for understanding the genetic basis of these traits and to help design novel plant improvement programs. Hybrids are commercially successful in many crops, including sorghum. Development of hybrids through the exploitation of heterosis involves evaluation of hundreds of test crosses in the field, making it input and resource intensive. Therefore, plant breeders are interested in methods that can forecast the potential parental combinations so that only limited test crosses can be evaluated for heterosis. The availability of genomic tools such as DNA markers and gene expression platforms has encouraged research groups globally to work toward the prediction of heterosis. This review is intended to be a summary of recent developments in molecular markers and their applications in plant breeding and is devoted to early researchers with a little or no knowledge of molecular markers. Overall, this review reveals about the role of various recently developed molecular markers in the improvement of crop. Molecular markers act as a breakthrough for the researchers who aim to enhance crop breeding and its role in heterosis.
Citation: Tafere Mulualem Emrey (2022) The Application of Molecular Marker on Crop Heterosis Development: A Review Paper, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.10, No.5, pp.51-60