Fish smoking is an activity that is commonly employed by fish farmers and entrepreneurs to preserve fish products. However, the method employed by fish farmers mostly is unhygienic and laborious. NCAM had produced charcoal fired fish smoking kilns to address this bottleneck. However, the heat loss became a source of worry, coupled with the increasing cost and non-availability of charcoal to fuel the fish kiln. This paper looked at the heat preservation in the smoking chamber and went ahead to lag the upper part of the chamber with the primary aim of conserving the heat thus reducing the quantity of charcoal utilized. Comparative performance evaluation was carried out between the fully lagged and the partially lagged charcoal fired smoking kilns. Results indicated that the fully lagged had a better overall efficiency than the partially lagged. The fully lagged generated an average temperature of 63oC over 31 hours while the partially lagged generated an average temperature of 59oC over 43 hours for the two kilns to effectively smoke catfish from 65% to 4% fish moisture content.
Mathematical Modelling Of Derived Energy Content from Moisture Content of Palm Kernel Tree (Published)
It is important to model out the optimization of energy process of palm kernel tree so as to evaluate the optimal values of the energy content parameters which will determines the performance and the useful lifespan of the palm kernel tree. This present study aims to develop models to investigate the effect of moisture content on the energy content of palm kernel tree that are 10 years and 20 years old using regression technique. In order to check the adequacy of the regression model, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. The experimental results are based on adequate laboratory methodology to increase the reliability of the experiments. It was clear from the ANOVA that the regression model is capable to predict the energy content with high accuracy.
Soil Microarthropod- Indicators of Effects of Living Mulches in Sole and Mixed Cropping Systems at University Park Farm, Port Harcourt, Nigeria (Published)
This study was undertaken (May – August, 2013) to ascertain the impact of living mulch cover crops on soil microarthropods in sole and mixed cropping systems. Maize (Zea mays), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) and Egusi-melon (Citrullus cococynthis) were cultivated in sole while Maize- watermelon, Maize – Egusi-melon and Maize – pumpkin were cultivated in mixed plots, in a Completely Radomized Design. Soil samples were collected at 21 days interval with an 8.5cm bucket- type soil auger for extraction in modified Berlese-Tullgren funnel. The result showed 12species and 84 individuals (control), 15 and 317 (sole), 18 and 455 (mixed) cropping plots. Living mulch cover crops increases soil microarthropods in the mixed cropping system as there was significant difference (F=0.22, df =1 P>0.05 ) between the sole and mixed cropping. The average soil moisture within 42days was 30.9 %( mixed), 20.9 %( sole) and 24.4(control). Three species; Parallonothrus nigerensis, Gamisinia and Parasitid were absent in the control and sole but occurred at mixed cropping plots, indicaing that intercropping water- melon or egusi- melon with maize increases the moisture, health of the soil, species richness and abundance of soil microarthropods.
Some Physical and Frictional Properties of Dikanut (Irvingia Wombolu) As a Function of Moisture Content. (Published)
Some physical and frictional properties of Dikanut (Irvingia wombolu) were evaluated as a function of moisture content varying from 7.02% to 15.04% (dry basis). Regression models were equally developed to these effects. All properties studied were found to have a polynomial response to moisture content increase within the moisture content range studied (7.02% to 15.04% dry basis). The kernel dimensions increased from 44.00 to 47.73mm, 33.50 to 34.89mm, 20.60 to 21.79mm and 32.20 to 33.73mm for major, intermediate, minor and equivalent diameters respectively as moisture content increased. The kernel volume and surface area increased from 120.01mm3 to 158.56mm3 and 102.04mm2 to 131.64mm2. Bulk density and true density increased from 3.64g/cm3 to 4.33g/cm3, and 10.31g/cm3 to 12.26g/cm3 respectively with increase in the moisture content range tested. Aspect ratio and sphericity and porosity increased from 0.74 to 0.79; 0.70 to 0.72; 0.41 to 0.60 respectively within the moisture content range studied. Angle of repose increased from 20.10 ̊ to 37.20 ̊ while static coefficient of friction increased from 0.60 to 0.92 (plywood), 0.50 to 0.82 (mild steel), 0.37 to 0.70 (aluminum), 0.30 to 0.64 (plastic) as moisture content increased from 7.02 to 15.04% (dry basis) with plywood giving the highest range of values. The relevant data obtained for this variety would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.