The paper investigates the representations of the West in three Egyptian texts written in Arabic. These are Rifa’a al-Tahtawi’s A Paris Profile, Tawfiq al-Hakim’s A Sparrow from the East, and Louis Awad’s Memoirs of a Scholarship Student within the framework of the Postcolonial theories of Franz Fanon, Edward Said, and Homi Bhabha. Instead of a confrontation between the West and the East along the lines of Fanon and Said, the three texts reveal the possibility of a dialogue, enriching the attempt at introducing Modernity along European lines in Egypt which was made by Muhammad Ali in the early years of the nineteenth century. The dialogue, however, rests upon paradigms other than Bhabha’s notion of Third Space. Hence, the three texts challenge the dichotomy devised by Fanon, the stereotypes identified by Said and the fluidity and vagueness of identity propagated by Bhabha.
Gadamer’s Threefold of Understanding And its Relevance to Cultural Synergistic Approach to Globalization (Published)
The inevitable metamorphosing of the world into a global village with several cultures contesting for relevance through dominance at different levels of cultural encounter, calls for an understanding of globalization capable of enhancing cultural synergy as a panacea to the perceived cultural imperialism that is often viewed by several schools of thoughts as the major drawback of globalization. The idea of cultural synergy calls for equality of cultures and as such can be a viable antidote to cultural imperialism. In this essay, we shall attempt a presentation of Gadamer’s threefold of understanding as a precursor to cultural synergistic approach to globalization. Gadamer’s threefold notion of understanding comprises of the hermeneutical circle that does not separate the whole from the parts or the parts from the whole; the prejudice that entails the components of judgment before an encounter and fusion of horizon that regards the past and the present inseparable in giving the interpretation. The systematic pattern of Gadamer’s threefold of understanding has the potential of solving the problem of cultural imperialism associated with globalization to an extent. The possibility is embedded in ‘understanding’ as a fundamental precondition for cultural synergy. With the aid of an analytical method, we shall present to what extent the threefold of understanding signals cultural synergistic approach to globalization as the ideal approach with viable solutions to the danger of cultural imperialism inherent in globalization, also we shall apply the hermeneutic method in line with Gadamer’s hermeneutical view. The aim of using Gadamer’s threefold of understanding is to show the practicality of the hermeneutic theory in creating new knowledge of how to overcome the loopholes of the globalized world in cultural terms. This essay recommends the threefold of understanding for cultural groups ready to establish a solid cultural synergistic approach to globalization as an antidote to the cultural imperialist aspects of globalization.
People are the true wealth of any nation. Adequately prepared and well educated, they can push a country towards development and prosperity. With this in mind, the Saudi Arabian government has always believed that developing the nation’s citizens is not only an investment but a sacred duty too. Yet, it has faced social resistance in implementing change for fear of losing national identity to globalization, which is felt through the current debates in the media and official arenas. But the country is working hard to reach a platform of modernized ideas and beliefs that the majority can agree on. Then Saudi Arabia will be able to rise to the level of the developed countries without losing its culture nor identity. In this Study, the author utilized a descriptive method in order to provide a brief description of the country’s demographic characteristics, trends in education before and after 1953, and indicated the Saudi philosophy of education upon which everything else in the educational system is built through presenting the structure of the educational system including policies. Issues related to general education, special education and post-school education are presented. Major developments in the Saudi educational system after 1953 in general, and 1990 in specific will be discussed. Finally, government efforts to overcome current educational issues will be delineated to demonstrate how the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia will be able to move forward towards modernization without jeopardizing its religion, language, culture, or identity.
THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF AFRICA’S POLITICS AND THE CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT (Published)
The paper discusses conceptual and theoretical approaches to Africa politics such as the Modernization School; Marxian School; and the Statist School of thought vis-à-vis development and underdevelopment paradigm. The paper uncovers critical argument in various schools of thought, the variables that have caused relative development and severe-underdevelopment in Africa society at present and in the past respectively. Using Nigeria as a point of departure and melting-point, it will critically and objectively identify the problems and challenges of development in Africa and offer suggestions that will move Africa further along the path of development. The paper is aim to write-off the general belief that contemporary Africa countries are poor or underdeveloped due to neo-colonialism or imperialism that has been advance by Marxian scholars and Africa-nationalist in different underdeveloped literature. It has been a contending issue whether formal colonised Africa states can develop? Consequently, the paper concluded with statist school of thought attributing underdevelopment (poverty, unemployment, communal clashes, the rise of ethnic militia and militancy and so no) due to the problem of corruption and failure of governmental policies implementation in Africa created by Africa’s leaders. However, the paper is limited to issues of development and underdevelopment within colonised Africa states and in achieving the above objectives, the paper rely on secondary data. Moreover, Nigeria was adopted as a reference of analyses due to her population placement in the continent of Africa and one of the key players in international politics.
Theoretical Approaches to the Understanding of African Politics and the Challenges of Development (Published)
The paper discusses conceptual and theoretical approaches to African politics such as the Modernization School; Marxian School; and the Statist School of thought vis-à-vis development and underdevelopment paradigm. The paper uncovers critical argument in various schools of thought, the variables that have caused relative development and severe-underdevelopment in African society at present and in the past respectively. Using Nigeria as a point of departure and melting-point, it will critically and objectively identify the problems and challenges of development in Africa and offer suggestions that will move Africa further along the path of development. However, the paper concluded with statist school of thought attributing underdevelopment (poverty, unemployment, communal clashes, the rise of ethnic militia and militancy and so no) due to the problem of corruption and failure of governmental policies implementation in African, in a phrase bad leadership.