Tag Archives: Model

A Bi-Criteria Optimization Model and Methodology for Rail Construction Using Real Data from Ghana (Published)

Rail construction to link major towns or cities is capital intensive, affecting directly or indirectly the tax-payer and owners of property and businesses situated along the path of the rail network. It is in this regard especially that actions that can mitigate or reduce the impact to victims and extraneous cost to the project become important. Two ways are to identify and use the shortest path linking the source and the destination and to factor into the project the cost of demolition and or displacement of property, persons, and businesses. In a previous work of the authors, a bi-criteria optimization model and methodology was developed for the problem in which both the distance and the costs of compensations referred to as Social Cost by the authors were minimized concurrently.  Unlike the previous works however, the current paper is premised on testing the model and methodology on real data obtained in connection with a potential case of rail construction to link a town and a major City in Ghana.  Furthermore, unlike in the previous works, a model is developed for the social cost criterion and the resulting bi-criteria optimization model run in Matlab using the real data.  The results produced four non-dominated paths with the same distance and social cost values for decision-making. Therefore, there can be costs benefits in approaching rail construction in Ghana on the basis of the model.

Keywords: Model, bi-criteria optimization, rail construction, shortest distance, social cost

Evaluation of the Weather-Influenza Pattern with a Regression Model Approximation to Causality (Published)

Once at a time, this author starts a research in the relations between Australia’s number of case in influenza and weather. The outcome has been hypothesised with a structural equation model (SEM). In this paper, the author tries to evaluate the model. It is true that one can apply the evaluation to both of the formative measurement model and structural model through certain suitable procedures. At the same time, this author approximates the model by linear regression method. The result is one can apply the regression to the Hayes’ Process model and find out the wanted model with mediation and moderation effects. In addition, one can also use the Granger Causality Test to examine all of the hypothesised causal relationships between those independent variables such as temperature, wettest_1, concentration of carbon dioxide, strongest wind and coolest and the number case of influenza infected etc. The final outcome is that Hayes’ model 91 is the best mediated one with carbon dioxide as the moderated factor. This author will also explain in details why we have the above prescribed Hayes’ model 91 as the proposed regression model approximation to causality from the SPSS data analysis.

Keywords: Causality, Model, Pattern, Regression, approximation, weather-influenza

Evolution of Agricultural Extension Models in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Critical Review (Published)

This is a paper review of the work presented at the Royal Agricultural University, Cirencester, United Kingdom. Using library research and reflection, document, journal papers and content analysis were used to generate data.  The Sub Saharan African region covered in the paper is that of seven countries.  The paper describes the role of agricultural extension models in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well traces the various extension models currently being developed or implement in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely; the top down approaches; from international institutions/ national governments and participatory approaches/bottom-up that engage farmers in decision making.  Currently, there are six basic extension approaches/models in diverse stages of development and implementation in developing countries.  These models have been structured in a more analytical way around key themes; top down; participatory; demand-led; group versus individual targeting; private sector and free/paid extension services.  The reality is that pluralism of models has been employed in various forms in most countries in Sub-Sahara Africa. The paper critically examined seven models, including National Public Extension Model, Training and Visit (T&V) Extension Model, Private Sector Model, Fee-For-Service Extension Models, Farmer Field School Model, Non-Governmental Organization Extension Model, Commodity Extension and Research Model.

Keywords: Extension services, Model, evolution, participatory, sub-Saharan Africa, top down

Nature School Learning Model (Case Study at the School of Universe, Lebak Wangi Village, Parung District, Bogor Regency) (Published)

This study aimed to: (1) examine the nature school learning model at the School of Universe, Lebak Wangi Village, Parung District, Bogor Regency, (2) analyze the factors supporting the success of the learning model at the School of Universe, Lebak Wangi Village, Parung District, Bogor Regency. This study used a qualitative approach with a case study method. Data collection techniques carried out in this study were: interviews, observation and documentation. Data analysis in this study used interactive models of Miles and Huberman, with steps: data reduction, data model, conclusion and verification. The findings of the study showed that: (1) the learning model in the School of Universe using the spider webb learning model was done by determining the theme. Fields of study in thematic approaches included Science, Mathematics, Indonesian, Social, Green Lab, Cooking, Business, and Morals, (2) the factors supporting the success of the learning model at SD School of Universe were: qualified teachers, the methods used included: exemplary methods, natural learning methods, outbound methods, business methods, adequate facilities and infrastructure, including teacher reading resources to add insight and produce the latest innovations in the field of education, as well as parental supports. The findings of this study were recommended to be applied in conventional schools by collaborating the curriculum with school of universe typical learning model.

Keywords: Bogor Regency, Learning, Model, Parung District, School, Wangi Village, universe

Characterization and Modelling Of Air Pollutants Transport from Panteka Market, Jimeta-Yola, Nigeria (Published)

The primary motivation of the current research was to apply Land GEM model to predict gaseous pollutant mobility by means of pollutant concentrations, annual waste mass received, and dumpsite open year from the research area. Land GEM model is believed to have wide application on emission rates from landfills/dumpsites using both site specific and default model parameters. Emission concentration levels were achieved through field and laboratory experimental work from vegetable waste dumpsites using scientific calibrated instruments. Data obtained were applied on Land GEM computer based software; version 3.02 in order to predict air-pollutant transport from the market environment and her surroundings. The model was tested to ascertain its validity where the measured and simulated values indicated good match with an error of 3.8% .The closure year of the case study dumpsite A was predicted to be in 2074 having reached hazardous level in 2024 while control dumpsite B predicted a closure year of 2023 and hazardous level in 2019 with modeling efficiency of 64%. Understanding the types of gases emitted from decomposing vegetable waste dumpsites (CH4, CO2, NMOC, H2S) and their transport pattern could go a long way to ensuring control measures of these pollutions there by having a sustainable zero wastes market to boost economic activities under pleasant environment; hence healthy environment is a prerequisite of healthy life, and fighting pollution is definitely the best way of healthy life.

Keywords: Air pollutants, Dumpsites, Land GEM, Model, Transport

Curriculum Development and Student Training: A Shared Responsibility between Clothing and Textile Institutions and Their Industry (Published)

The focus of the study was to look into the phenomenon of collaboration between clothing and textiles institutions and the industry regarding curriculum development and student training from the perspectives of respondents. Again the study was to find out if efforts to establish collaboration between clothing and textile institutions and the industry are based on theories/models or standardized practices. Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Data for the study was collected using interview with semi-structured interview guide and observation. The sample size for this qualitative study was twenty-two (22) made up of two categories of respondent. It was made up of respondents from both the academia and industry. The outcome of the study showed these: It was realized that, as far as student training is concerned, respondents considered industrial attachment as the main and beneficial means of collaboration between the clothing and textiles institutions and the industry. Current efforts to establish collaboration between the two bodies around student training are not guided by standard practices or models. Implications of the outcome of the study as well recommendations for action are provided

Keywords: Collaboration, Curriculum, Institutions, Model, Textiles

Research on Practice Teaching System and Model for Excellent Engineering Personnel Training (Published)

The cultivation of excellent engineering talent has become an important guide for personnel training in engineering schools in China. As the first implementation of excellence plan, School of Energy and Power Engineering in Jiangsu University,with the opportunity to train excellent engineering talent, in response to the major problems in the process of student engineering practice training, puts forward the concept of excellent engineering personnel training with “capacity-oriented, multiple synergies, and undergraduates and graduates integration”. A series of positive and effective explorations have been carried out on multiple synergies and the long-term cooperation mechanism of school-enterprise cooperation, the practice system of deep integration of production and education, and the cultivation for integration of undergraduates, master students and doctoral students.

Keywords: Excellent Engineering Talent, Model, Practical Teaching, School-Enterprise Cooperation, Training System

Corrosion Rate Model for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid (Published)

This paper presents a corrosion rate model for mild steel in hydrochloric acid. A non-linear corrosion rate equation was developed, validated and used to relate the acid point, pH of hydrochloric acid as corrosive medium for mild steel to other variables like corrosion rate and substrate immersion period. The inhibitor used is Sinclair synthetic paint – an organic inhibitor. The effect of variables on corrosion rate has been investigated using non-linear regression analysis. The derived model is an exponential decay function of two input factors. The coefficient of correlation between the calculated and experimental data indicates good performance of the derived model.

Keywords: Corrosion, Corrosion rate, Hydrochloric acid, Mild steel., Model

Modeling the Evolution in the Concentration of Solids Based On Time of The Mewou River in the Mifi Basin (Published)

The objective of this study is to evaluate and model the evolution of the concentration of solids, as a function of the time of the Mewou river, in the Mifi watershed. We have determined from the samples taken from this watercourse and from the specialized laboratories the concentrations of soil exported. The MATLAB software allowed us to simulate the evolution of the concentration of solids, according to the time of this stream. This evolution is characterized by the polynomial model equation of degree nine with a correlation coefficient of 0.5702 and a coefficient of determination of 0.325: Cs = a* t 9 + b* t 8 + c* t 7 + d* t 6 + e* t 5 + f* t4 + g* t 3 + h* t 2 + i* t + j

Keywords: Model, Solids Concentration, Time, function, simulate

Modeling the evolution of sediment discharge based on liquid flow rates of the Mewou river in the Mifi basin (Published)

The objective of this study is to evaluate and to model the evolution of sediment discharge depending on the liquid flow of the Mewou River in the catchment of the Mifi. The amount of exported soil was determined by oven drying of the    water samples collected from the Mewou River at 105 °C. The MATLAB software has enabled us to simulate the evolution of sediment discharge based on liquid flow rates. The evolution of sediment discharge based on liquid flow rates obtained in this study is characterized by the polynomial model of equation nine degrees a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and a determining coefficient of 0.9998:

Qs = a* Ql 9 + b* Ql 8 + c* Ql 7 + d* Ql 6 + e* Ql 5 + f* Ql 4 + g* Ql 3 + h* Ql 2 + i* Ql + j

This equation is more representative than the power model « Qs = a*Qlb »  which has a correlation coefficient of  0.9891 and a determining coefficient of 0.9783 or the power model « Qs = a*Qlb + b » which has a correlation coefficient of 0.9934 and a determining coefficient of 0.9868 developed by other authors.

Keywords: Model, Water discharge, function, sediment discharge, simulate

Exploration Study for Development Model Student Learning to Speak for Education Study Language and Literature Indonesia (Published)

This study is the initial part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted with the aim at designing a learning model in teaching speaking according to the needs of faculty and students. The learning model is designed based on curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature study program, IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban, and UnisdaLamongan, East Java, Indonesia. The development of this model is done to improve the students speaking skills. Research and development are the steps consist of a needs analysis, document analysis, design models, development models and experimental models. Needs analysis was conducted by researchers to the students of the first semester and three teachers’ and the head of study program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban and Unisdalamongan to get information related to the needs of students and faculty to model of learning speaking. Needs analysis and  documents analysis were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and discussions with students and academics. Document and needs analysis in this study a syllabus, lesson plan (RPP) and the model used for this study. This research was carried out by following the nature of the procedures of research and development covering the steps of (1) an exploratory study, (2) the stage of development, (3) the testing phase models, (4) dissemination (Borg and Gall (1983) and Sukmadinata (2008)). The results of the analysis of questionnaires, and interviews revealed that lecturers need guidelines for the implementation of learning speaking. Learning model strategies wite that foster self-confidence in speaking is needed by students’.

Keywords: Development, Exploration Stage, Model, Needs Learning, Speaking

Decompositions of Sum-Symmetry Model for Ordinal Square Contingency Tables (Published)

For ordinal square contingency tables, Yamamoto, Tanaka and Tomizawa (2013) proposed the sum-symmetry model and gave a decomposition of it. The present paper proposes three kinds of extended sum-symmetry models, and gives two another decompositions of the sum-symmetry model using these models. Audiometry data are analyzed.

Keywords: Decomposition, Model, Square Contingency Table, Sum-Symmetry

Toward The Adoption of a Governance Model in Zakat Foundations: The Case of the Algerian Zakat Fund (Published)

This study aims to clarify the developmental role of Zakat foundations, and the active role of governance principles and mechanisms in increasing theirefficient performance, demonstrate the impact of the Algerian Zakat Fund on the Algerian economy and society, and to highlight the importance of the Algerian Zakat Fund governance in its ability to continuity and achieving the interests of the different parties. It concluded to the need to follow the latest methods and formulas to mobilize and update Zakat resources, establish institutional and legal mechanisms, raise the regulatory bodies efficiency for activating the economic, social and cultural role of Zakat foundations as State institutions which enjoy full autonomy and necessary powers in order to achieve their role in the Algerian society, and adopt specialized competencies to ensure seriousness and effectiveness in the management of the Algerian Zakat Fund in order to reassurepeople who give Zakat on the good management of Zakat resources properties.

Keywords: Algerian Zakat Fund, Governance, Model, Zakat Foundations

A Model for Planning and Implementing Curriculum Change in Private Higher Education in Botswana (Published)

This paper examined the role of academic middle managers (AMMs) in the planning and implementation of curriculum change in private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in Botswana. Drawing from various sources of literature and theoretical underpinnings, the study described how AMMs enact their role in curriculum change. A quantitative approach that used a structured questionnaire for data collection was used in the study. Results of the study showed that AMMs face numerous challenges during curriculum change which have a negative impact on their role. These challenges include lack of authority, lack of detailed job descriptions, work overloads among others. Results further showed that the following variables namely curriculum leadership, AMM job requirements, AMMs role enablers, work experience, educational levels of AMMs are important predictors of effective AMMs role in the planning and implementation of curriculum change in PHEIs and hence need to be optimized. It was also shown that gender, age, department size do not have a significant effect on the effectiveness of AMMs in their role in curriculum change while level of education and years of experience have a significant effect. Based on the results, a model for enhancing the effectiveness of AMM role in the planning and implementation of curriculum change was proposed.

Keywords: Academic Middle Manager, Curriculum, Demographic Characteristics, Implementing, Model, Planning, Role, curriculum change


This study aims at determining the impact on water, agriculture and the environment of the soil constituents exported by the Mewou river on the southern Mifi through modeling of the changes in the river flow and in the exported physico-chemical constituents and to identify mitigate strategies. The average exported soils varied in t/km2 from 195.34 in 2011 to 256.02 in 2012. The flow variation of water and chemical constituents were each characterized by a general equation with a model:
Y = a*t9+b*t8+c*t7+d*t6+e*t5+f*t4+g*t3+h*t2+i*t+j
Environmental pollution was identified by water turbidity, 146.9 NTU, and in mg/l Organic matter 2.33, Cd2+ 11, Pb2+ 48.20, NH4+ 2.8, PT 0.84, Al3+ 0.593, NO2- 4.645. It is recommended that to mitigate soil loss, pollution and increase recharge of water table, the use of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) hedges and by installation of wastewater treatment plants by each industry and the Municipal council for the household wastes.

Keywords: Chrysopogon zizanioides, Model, Pollution, physico - chemical, soil loss


The context of Understanding has continued to be a major attraction to researchers in Natural Language Processing. This is built on the theory that language can be used effectively if it is understood and can be analyzed and as such, most Natural Language Processing research tend towards the belief that the human brain has a section dedicated for language analysis and understanding therefore, human ambiguity which, remains the major difference between natural and computer languages, can be modeled using appropriate man machine modeling tools since programming languages are designed to be unambiguous, that is, they can be defined by a grammar that produces a unique parse for each sentence in the language. The paper evaluates the classification process for a Natural language ‘the Yoruba language’ and presents a new method by which the language can be transformed into a computer understandable language using its morphological identification framework. Result shows that the approach is admissibly in line with known benchmarks. The paper recommends that non tonal language can also be experimented using the defined approach.

Keywords: Model, Morphology, Natural language, Tonal Language, Yoruba


The study examined the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Techiman Municipality of Ghana. We used model with standard incidence to analyze, model and predict the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Techiman Municipality. The model has two equilibrium states: the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium states respectively. The stability condition of each equilibrium point is discussed. The basic reproductive number ( ) of HIV/AIDS infection is estimated to be in the Techiman Municipality. Our work shows that the reproductive number of HIV/AIDS infection in the Techiman Municipality is less than 1( ) and therefore concluded that the disease is not epidemic in the municipality as described by the GAC in their study in 2005. We recommend that education on HIV/AIDS in the municipality should be intensified so as to decrease the rate of transmission of HIV in the municipality.

Keywords: Equilibrium points, Mathematical model, Model, Sensitivity Analysis, Stability analysis


Motor accident is a major cause of mortality and disability in Nigeria, which
explains the reason for the establishment of Federal Road Safety Commission in 1988 to address
the carnage and maiming on the highways and roads. This paper employed Time Series statistical
tools to build model, and examine seasonality pattern of the number of cases of motor accident
recorded at the Federal Road Safety Commission, Osun Sector command using secondary data
collected from the record section of the command from 2006 to 2012. Autoregressive Integrated
Moving Average (ARIMA) depicts reduction in the recorded number of cases recorded. This result
was corroborated by Least Squares trend with quarterly decline of six (6) cases of motor accident.
The seasonal pattern clearly portrayed quarter four (October, November, and December) as the
season with high prevalence of motor accident. It was finally concluded that the Federal Road
Safety Commission has been performing to expectation in the manner it discharges her duties by
adjuring from the results of the analyses

Keywords: Model, Time Series, Trend, accident, road safety, seasonal


This work applied Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) approach to modelling volatility in Rwanda Exchange rate returns. The Autoregressive (AR) model with GARCH errors was fitted to the daily exchange rate returns using Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimation (Q-MLE) method to get the current volatility. Asymptotic consistency and asymptotic normality of estimated parameters were given. Akaike Information criterion was used for appropriate GARCH model selection while Jarque Bera test used for normality testing revealed that both returns and residuals have fat tails behaviour. It was shown that the estimated model fits Rwanda exchange rate returns data well.

Keywords: Exchange Rate, GARCH model, Model, Quasi Maximum Likelihood, Volatility


Production planning is the backbone of any manufacturing operation, and its main objective is to determine the quantity of products to be produced and inventory level to be carried from one period to the other, with the objective of minimizing the total costs of production and the annual inventory, while at the same time meeting the customers’ demand. A mathematical model was developed for a multi-product problem using Dynamic Programming approach and the solution procedure proposed by Wagner and Whitin was adopted. The model is very useful in solving a problem with multi-stage problem, a particular situation in which there is appreciable variation in average periodic demand and availability of raw materials among the different periods. It also stipulates the minimum quantities of the product to produce per period and the corresponding inventory levels such that total production cost is minimized over the planning periods

Keywords: Cost, Dynamic, Inventory., Minimum, Model, Production