Tag Archives: Mitigation

Capacity Building for Disaster Mitigation in The Flood Plains Areas of Kogi State, Nigeria (Published)

Capacity buildings in the built environment shut the laxity of urban control and regulatory compliance in developing areas. In Kogi State, Nigeria, they had been an urban chaos of natural disasters such as floods leading to deaths, destruction of houses, and properties in communities. This paper identifies and examines the potential hazards and risks precaution, focusing on the development of local stakeholders for threat identification, preparedness, strengths and weakness towards disaster mitigation in Nigeria. Quantitative data were collected using a structured questionnaire survey of building owners, residents, architects, engineers, surveyors, building supervisors, and building control officers with a valid percentage of 82% responses, and semi-structured face-to-face interviews and case study methods with aforementioned built environment relevant stakeholders in obtaining information on the necessity of capacity building to prevent or reduce the impact of disaster. Using SPSS for descriptive and inferential statistics analysis and the content analysis for qualitative data, the findings indicates that professionals in the built environment support the development of local communities and other stakeholders in identifying hazards, knowing who is at risk to be harmed, the precaution to be taken, record keeping, and periodic updating of the data. There was a capacity building gap for self-help disaster prevention and strengthening among the local communities as it relates to the built environment standards and regulations which will reduce the impacts of the hazard from the case studies. And the qualitative analysis revealed that there was sketchy information on previous data of disaster occurrences, awareness on preparedness, local infrastructures development and maintenance for standards and regulation compliance and control strategies are in dire needs of the local capacity building in Nigeria. Thus, the findings finally lead to the proposed recommendations uch as compulsory training to improve skills and knowledge of stakeholders, insurance policy education to create awareness, suspension of building approval within the areas, and training of vulnerable women and children for the local capacity building as a means of reducing the impacts of disasters in Nigeria.

Keywords: Capacity building, Compliance, Control, Disaster, Mitigation

Review on Climate change impact on soils: adaptation and Mitigation (Published)

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4°C during the 21st century, and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change. Soils  are  intricately  linked  to  the  atmospheric–climate  system  through  the  carbon,  nitrogen,  and  hydrologic cycles.  Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties, and at the same time, the soils themselves will have an effect on climate. Study of the effects of climate change  on soil processes and properties  is  still  nascent,  but  has  revealed  that  climate  change  will  impact  soil  organic  matter  dynamics, including  soil  organisms  and  the  multiple  soil  properties  that  are  tied  to  organic  matter,  soil  water,  and  soil erosion.  The  exact  direction  and  magnitude  of  those  impacts  will  be  dependent  on  the  amount  of  change  in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise and that this is particularly true of high latitude regions with currently permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water–CO2 level–temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and associated  effects  on  soil  organic  matter  dynamics  is  a  critical  need.  There  is  also  a  great  need  for  a  better understanding  of  how  soil  organisms  will  respond  to  climate  change  because  those  organisms  are  incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles.


Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Impact, Mitigation, Review, soils

Factors Influencing Domestic Violence and Its Mitigation Strategies among Rural Farm Households in Imo State Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the factors influencing domestic violence and its mitigation strategies among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Using multi stage and purpose sampling techniques, 120 respondents were selected from the three agricultural zones in Imo State. Data were obtained using interview schedule. The validity of the instruments was determined by experts in the field of rural development and reliability established using test-retest reliability method. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, and Duncan Multiple Range Technique and multiple regression model were employed in data analysis. Results showed that the double-log+ function was approximately 0.98 and significant at its alpha level. Results also indicate that an average of 46.8% of the respondents strongly agreed with the statements while 22.5% agreed, 16.1% strongly disagreed a 14.5% disagreed with the identified effects. The mitigation strategies adopted by respondents had mean values as follows retaliation (3.38), separation (3.40), heavy alcohol intake (3.38) family counseling (2.98) and giving satisfactory sex regularly to intimate partner (2.86). The factors influencing domestic violence was devastating, some variables increasing domestic violence, although family counselling plays important remedial role on livelihoods of rural farm households in minimizing its negative effects on rural farm households in Imo state. The study therefore recommended that there should be public enlightenment through the mass media on the side effects of domestic violence on victims.

Keywords: Domestic, Mitigation, Violence, households, influencing

Environmental Adult Education Programmes Needed to Mitigate Pluvial Flooding In Aba of Abia State, Nigeria: An Empirical/Participatory Study (Published)

Pluvial flooding has been causing a lot of devastation in many parts of Abia State of Nigeria for several decades. The efforts made by government and the people of the State to mitigate the menace have been found wanting in many respects, including the lack of environmentally-oriented programmes. The purpose of this study was to identify and authenticate, through an empirical/participatory process involving residents in Aba North and Aba South Local Government Areas of Aba City (the study area) in Abia State, the causes and effects of pluvial flooding in the city, as well as the Environmental Adult Education (EAE) programmes needed to mitigate the causes and the effects. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Three Research Questions and a null hypothesis provided the guide. The population for the study was made up of 2,816 adult residents in Aba out of which a sample of 282 (10%) was selected (154 from Aba North and 128 from Aba South) through the proportionate random sampling technique. Percentages, means, standard deviation and the t-test were the statistical methods adopted. Based on the responses obtained through a questionnaire, five causes and seven effects of pluvial flooding in Aba were authenticated. Five comprehensive EAE programmes were equally identified and confirmed by the resident respondents as needed for mitigation of pluvial flooding in Aba. Appropriate recommendations on the expert development and provision of the needed EAE programmes have been made by the researchers.

Keywords: Environmental Adult Education, Mitigation, participatory study., pluvial flooding

Canadian English Speakers’ Choices in Refusing Invitations (Published)

Using data provided by a group of Canadian undergraduate university students, the present study expands research on regional pragmatic variation in English. It focuses on types, frequencies, pragmatic functions, realization forms, and situational distribution of invitation refusals in Canadian English. Results show that the invitation refusals collected appear either as single speech acts or as communicative acts/speech act sets in which refusals are combined with other types of acts. The analysis also reveals the use of direct refusals and/or indirect refusals and/or supportive acts in the production of refusal utterances, with significant differences regarding their frequencies, realisation patterns, pragmatic functions and situational distribution. The use and combinations of these invitation refusal strategies are also examined, from the perspective of politeness and rapport management. Limitations of the study as well as avenues for future research are outlined in the conclusion of the paper.

Keywords: Canadian English, Face, Invitation Refusals, Mitigation, Variation

Transport Pooling As a Mitigating Strategy for Carbon Dioxide (Co2) Emission (Published)

This study determined the nature of relationship between the volume of CO2 liberated per passenger kilometre travelled by Public Service Vehicles (PSVs) that have large carrying capacity and those that have low carrying capacity in Kisumu City using observation with a view of reducing the amount of CO2 liberated by PSVs (matatus). The study particularly sought to reduce the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere as a result of burning fossil fuel. The study was conceived as a result of the uncontrolled thriving and congestion of the 14-seater public service vehicles commonly called “Nissan Matatu” in Kenya. Over the years, transport pooling has been seen in the light of economizing fuel usage. Due to the global increase in the number of motor vehicles in urban setting, pooling shifted and was seen as a strategy to reduce congestion. The burning of fossil fuels releases CO2 which is a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. This study sought to quantify the extent of fuel consumption in relation to the seating capacity of the PSV by determining on the average the quantities of fuel burnt by different capacities of the PSVs. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient showed a relationship of -.917 between the volumes of CO2 liberated per passenger kilometre travelled in large carrying capacity and low carrying capacity passenger transportation. This study concluded that the 14-seater PSVs emit twice as much volume of CO2 as the pooled PSVs and recommended the implementation of policies aimed at reducing the usage of the 14-seater PSVs.

Keywords: Carbon Dioxide, Emission, Mitigation, Nissan Matatu, Transport Pooling

Stylistic Choice of Euphemism as a Strategy against Vulgarity in Social Media (Published)

There is no gainsaying the fact that social media such as facebook encapsulate language of obscenity, vulgarity and indecency. Using the stylistic approach that considers style as choice, the paper contends that stylistic strategy of euphemism can be deployed to mitigate obscenity and vulgarity in the language of social media. An article on facebook “Letter to my Boss” serves as data for the analysis of obscenity in the language of social media. Linguistic contents of the article, purposively selected and placed in the first columns of both tables I & II, represent the stylistic choices of the writer, while the linguistic content on the second columns of the tables represents the available linguistic options open to the writer. The analysis reveals that the writer carefully selects his/her linguistic choices while ignoring other choices of the available options even though they contain the same meanings. This is perhaps done in order to mitigate the obscenity that the article would have portrayed. The paper therefore suggests that this euphemistic strategy can be deployed as stylistic choice in any literary piece where vulgarity and obscenity are inevitable.

Keywords: Language, Mitigation, Obscenity, Style, Taboo


This paper examines the issue of climate change and its impact on the environment. The effects of man’s activities as well as those of natural phenomena on global warming, climate change and the environment are presented and discussed. The options that are available as response to global warming: mitigation, adaptation and possible human suffering as consequences of what cannot be avoided by mitigation and adaptation are presented. An overview of the Nigerian environment, preparedness for the impact of global warming and related problems are also presented. The status of environmental data and the need for environmental baseline survey and the creation of a comprehensive database for the country driven by geographical information system are presented and discussed. The paper then underscores the need for governments at all levels to adequately fund geo information production and cultivate the culture of its usage for adequate and proactive response to global warming, sustainable environmental management and national development.

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Mitigation, environmental management., global warming


The paper sheds some light on what is meant by religion and what a right religion can do for the people. It goes into a fairly detailed analysis of the climate change phenomenon. This it does by giving various definitions of the concept, noting the recognizable change in global climate, its causes and its diverse manifestations in different parts of the world. It also sheds much light on its seriousness as a phenomenon. This seriousness the paper points out, is further manifested in its serious implications on virtually all environmental issues of importance in sustainable development. The paper highlights a number of sins of humankind against the environment, that have contributed to climate change. It discusses believers can at every available opportunity, disseminate information on climate change.

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Mitigation, Religion., Sins against the Environment, Sustainable Development


Evidence from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) is now overwhelmingly convincing that climate change is not only real but can also become worse. Climate change poses many challenges for Cities and Urban centres across the globe. The vulnerability to Climate Change related disasters is regularly brought to public attention by the incidences of tropical cyclones, floods, landslides and even drought through local and international media. Responses to climate change include adaptation to reduce the vulnerability of people and ecosystems to climatic changes and, secondly, mitigation to reduce the magnitude of climate change impact in the long term. However, neither adaptation nor mitigation alone can offset all climate change impacts. This calls for the simulation of how nature operates into city design process to evolve eco city concept. This study will therefore identify green infrastructure component of eco city principles including introduction of non motorized transportation mode; street tree program; wetland restoration and management to accommodate small scale aquaculture and home gardening; and establishment of parks as effective climate change mitigation measures in the city

Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Change Adaption, Eco-City Principles, Green House Gases., Mitigation, Wetland Restoration And Management

Comparison of Lead Levels With Calcium, Zinc and Phosphorus Levels in Human Blood (Published)

The purpose of the study was to determine how the levels of calcium, phosphorus and zinc affected the levels of lead in the human blood. The levels of lead, calcium, zinc and phosphorus in human blood of subjects from Nairobi city centre, Nyamira town, Nairobi suburban and Nyamira rural, Kenya are presented in this article. The subjects in Nairobi City Centre had the highest mean blood lead (BPb) level of 29.9 + 16.91 Вµg/l, while Nyamira Rural subjects had the lowest mean of 24.20 + 7.07 Вµg/l. The mean lead level of the subjects was statistically significant between Nairobi City Centre and Nyamira Rural (p< 0.01). The mean calcium level was highest in Nairobi Suburban with a mean of 88.3 + 26.4 mg/l and lowest in Nyamira Town subjects with a mean of 68.4 + 26.5 mg/l. The mean zinc level was highest in Nyamira Town subjects with a mean of 1126.2 + 543.4 Вµg/l and lowest in Nairobi Suburban subjects with a mean of 806.4 + 189.9 Вµg/l. The mean phosphorus level was highest in Nyamira Town subjects with a mean of 36.0 + 17.4 mg/l while Nyamira Rural subjects had the lowest mean of 26.6 + 9.7 mg/dl. The mean levels of calcium, zinc and phosphorus for Nairobi City Centre significantly different from those of Nyamira Town, Nairobi Suburban and Nyamira Rural (p<0.01, df = 99). There was a negative correlation of the mean levels of lead and calcium, lead and zinc and lead and phosphorus for all the study areas.

Keywords: Human Blood, Lead Poisoning, Mitigation