Using data provided by a group of Canadian undergraduate university students, the present study expands research on regional pragmatic variation in English. It focuses on types, frequencies, pragmatic functions, realization forms, and situational distribution of invitation refusals in Canadian English. Results show that the invitation refusals collected appear either as single speech acts or as communicative acts/speech act sets in which refusals are combined with other types of acts. The analysis also reveals the use of direct refusals and/or indirect refusals and/or supportive acts in the production of refusal utterances, with significant differences regarding their frequencies, realisation patterns, pragmatic functions and situational distribution. The use and combinations of these invitation refusal strategies are also examined, from the perspective of politeness and rapport management. Limitations of the study as well as avenues for future research are outlined in the conclusion of the paper.
This study determined the nature of relationship between the volume of CO2 liberated per passenger kilometre travelled by Public Service Vehicles (PSVs) that have large carrying capacity and those that have low carrying capacity in Kisumu City using observation with a view of reducing the amount of CO2 liberated by PSVs (matatus). The study particularly sought to reduce the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere as a result of burning fossil fuel. The study was conceived as a result of the uncontrolled thriving and congestion of the 14-seater public service vehicles commonly called “Nissan Matatu” in Kenya. Over the years, transport pooling has been seen in the light of economizing fuel usage. Due to the global increase in the number of motor vehicles in urban setting, pooling shifted and was seen as a strategy to reduce congestion. The burning of fossil fuels releases CO2 which is a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. This study sought to quantify the extent of fuel consumption in relation to the seating capacity of the PSV by determining on the average the quantities of fuel burnt by different capacities of the PSVs. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient showed a relationship of -.917 between the volumes of CO2 liberated per passenger kilometre travelled in large carrying capacity and low carrying capacity passenger transportation. This study concluded that the 14-seater PSVs emit twice as much volume of CO2 as the pooled PSVs and recommended the implementation of policies aimed at reducing the usage of the 14-seater PSVs.
There is no gainsaying the fact that social media such as facebook encapsulate language of obscenity, vulgarity and indecency. Using the stylistic approach that considers style as choice, the paper contends that stylistic strategy of euphemism can be deployed to mitigate obscenity and vulgarity in the language of social media. An article on facebook “Letter to my Boss” serves as data for the analysis of obscenity in the language of social media. Linguistic contents of the article, purposively selected and placed in the first columns of both tables I & II, represent the stylistic choices of the writer, while the linguistic content on the second columns of the tables represents the available linguistic options open to the writer. The analysis reveals that the writer carefully selects his/her linguistic choices while ignoring other choices of the available options even though they contain the same meanings. This is perhaps done in order to mitigate the obscenity that the article would have portrayed. The paper therefore suggests that this euphemistic strategy can be deployed as stylistic choice in any literary piece where vulgarity and obscenity are inevitable.
This paper examines the issue of climate change and its impact on the environment. The effects of man’s activities as well as those of natural phenomena on global warming, climate change and the environment are presented and discussed. The options that are available as response to global warming: mitigation, adaptation and possible human suffering as consequences of what cannot be avoided by mitigation and adaptation are presented. An overview of the Nigerian environment, preparedness for the impact of global warming and related problems are also presented. The status of environmental data and the need for environmental baseline survey and the creation of a comprehensive database for the country driven by geographical information system are presented and discussed. The paper then underscores the need for governments at all levels to adequately fund geo information production and cultivate the culture of its usage for adequate and proactive response to global warming, sustainable environmental management and national development.
RELIGION AND THE CLIMATE CHANGE PHENOMENON (Review Completed - Accepted)
The paper sheds some light on what is meant by religion and what a right religion can do for the people. It goes into a fairly detailed analysis of the climate change phenomenon. This it does by giving various definitions of the concept, noting the recognizable change in global climate, its causes and its diverse manifestations in different parts of the world. It also sheds much light on its seriousness as a phenomenon. This seriousness the paper points out, is further manifested in its serious implications on virtually all environmental issues of importance in sustainable development. The paper highlights a number of sins of humankind against the environment, that have contributed to climate change. It discusses believers can at every available opportunity, disseminate information on climate change.
Evidence from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) is now overwhelmingly convincing that climate change is not only real but can also become worse. Climate change poses many challenges for Cities and Urban centres across the globe. The vulnerability to Climate Change related disasters is regularly brought to public attention by the incidences of tropical cyclones, floods, landslides and even drought through local and international media. Responses to climate change include adaptation to reduce the vulnerability of people and ecosystems to climatic changes and, secondly, mitigation to reduce the magnitude of climate change impact in the long term. However, neither adaptation nor mitigation alone can offset all climate change impacts. This calls for the simulation of how nature operates into city design process to evolve eco city concept. This study will therefore identify green infrastructure component of eco city principles including introduction of non motorized transportation mode; street tree program; wetland restoration and management to accommodate small scale aquaculture and home gardening; and establishment of parks as effective climate change mitigation measures in the city
The purpose of the study was to determine how the levels of calcium, phosphorus and zinc affected the levels of lead in the human blood. The levels of lead, calcium, zinc and phosphorus in human blood of subjects from Nairobi city centre, Nyamira town, Nairobi suburban and Nyamira rural, Kenya are presented in this article. The subjects in Nairobi City Centre had the highest mean blood lead (BPb) level of 29.9 + 16.91 Вµg/l, while Nyamira Rural subjects had the lowest mean of 24.20 + 7.07 Вµg/l. The mean lead level of the subjects was statistically significant between Nairobi City Centre and Nyamira Rural (p< 0.01). The mean calcium level was highest in Nairobi Suburban with a mean of 88.3 + 26.4 mg/l and lowest in Nyamira Town subjects with a mean of 68.4 + 26.5 mg/l. The mean zinc level was highest in Nyamira Town subjects with a mean of 1126.2 + 543.4 Вµg/l and lowest in Nairobi Suburban subjects with a mean of 806.4 + 189.9 Вµg/l. The mean phosphorus level was highest in Nyamira Town subjects with a mean of 36.0 + 17.4 mg/l while Nyamira Rural subjects had the lowest mean of 26.6 + 9.7 mg/dl. The mean levels of calcium, zinc and phosphorus for Nairobi City Centre significantly different from those of Nyamira Town, Nairobi Suburban and Nyamira Rural (p<0.01, df = 99). There was a negative correlation of the mean levels of lead and calcium, lead and zinc and lead and phosphorus for all the study areas.