Pollen and Spores Recovery in Tunga Buzu Carbonaceous Shale Type Section Member: Significance in Sequence Stratigraphy, Age Dating and Paleoenvironment Deduction of the Early Miocene Gwandu Formation, Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Nigeria (Published)
Feld samples were collected from an outcrop at Tunga Buzu with the intention of comparing field relationship between the claystone member and the underlying carbonaceous shale Type Section for palynological study. The study was carried out in order to determine the geologic age relationship of the facies sequence, sequence stratigraphy and paleoenvironment of deposition of the sediments. Lithological description of the beds follows notation of colour, facies composition, texture, fossil content, structure and post depositional diagenetic effects. Laboratory preparation of palynological slides involved decarbonisation, sample digestion using hydrofluoric acid, sieving with 10µm mesh, bleaching of organic debris with nitric acid, maceral separation with zinc bromide, rinsing of separated maceral with ethanol and final mounting of the organomaceral on the slides for microscopic analysis.The carbonaceous shale is light grey in colour, fissile, carbonaceous, slightly bioturbated and ferruginized. Pollen, spores, dinoflagellates and algae were recovered from samples N1-N4. The samples N1-N3 are claystone samples characterised by relatively low assemblage assemblage of miospores with downhole increase in dinoflagellate cysts. The carbonaceous shale (sample N4) is relatively rich in palynomorphs with corresponding high palynomorph population and diversity compared with the claystone facies. Both the claystone and carbonaceous shale contain marker fossils such as Striamonocolpites sp., Retibrevitricolporites obodoensis, Verrutricolporites sp., Praedapollis sp., Belskipollis elegans and Peregnipollis nigericus; indicative of Early Miocene age. The litho-sequence of claystone and carbonaceous shale indicated alternation of continental and marginal marine deposits characterised by paucity and preponderance of peridinacean dinocysts. This suggests eustatic change in sea level of continental Lowstand Systems Tract (LST) and marginal marine Transgressive Systems Tract (TST) deposits respectively. The Tunga Buzu Carbonaceous Shale Type Section constitutes a member of the Early Miocene Gwandu Formation of the Sokoto Basin, Nigeria.
Citation: Ola-Buraimo, A. O. and Haidara, N. (2022) Pollen and Spores Recovery in Tunga Buzu Carbonaceous Shale Type Section Member: Significance in Sequence Stratigraphy, Age Dating and Paleoenvironment Deduction of the Early Miocene Gwandu Formation, Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Nigeria, British Journal of Earth Sciences Research, Vol.10, No.3, pp.16-25
Keywords: Carbonaceous shale, Dinoflagellate, Eustatic change in sea level, Miospore, Type Section, marginal marine