Tag Archives: Minerals

Chemical Composition of Some Conventional Fishes Obtained in Asejire Dam, Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

Freshly caught freshwater fish samples of three conventional fishes Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and Parachanna obscura (Gunther, 1861) were purchased from Asejire Dam in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State Nigeria in April 2017. Fishes were degutted, washed and processed using steam-cooking, oven-drying, kiln-drying and raw as control. Samples were divided into four equal portions of 500g each and transported in ice to the Central Research Laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Akure for Proximate analysis. Free Fatty Acid was also determined according to the methods of AOAC, 2005. Crude fat estimation was done using the Folch Method. Minerals were obtained by Dry–ashing the fish samples at 550oC and determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin–Elmer Model 403, Norwalk CT). Potassium was determined by flame photometer (Corning, UK Model 405), [AOAC, 1980] and Phosphorus by the vanadomolybdate calorimetric method. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were conducted while statistical significance (P < 0.05) was determined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with SPSS version 10. Ducan multiple range test was used to determine significant differences between the means. The results showed that the moisture contents were highest (72.43%) in raw C. gariepinus and lowest (7.23%) in kiln-smoked C. gariepinus. Ash content was highest (9.26%) in kiln-smoked C. gariepinus and lowest (0.89%) in steamed-cooked C. gariepinus. Kiln-smoked C. gariepinus had the highest fat content (29.72%) and raw C. gariepinus recorded the lowest (0.86%) fat. The crude fiber was present in P. obscura and conspicuously absent in other species. Crude protein content ranged from 73.40% in kiln-smoked P. obscura to 17.31% in raw C. nigrodigitatus. Carbohydrate was highest (12.82%) in steamed-cooked C. gariepinus and lowest (0.45%) kiln-smoked C. nigrodigitatus. Free Fatty Acid was highest (1.90%) in steamed-cooked P. obscura but lowest (0.92%) in kiln-smoked C. gariepinus and steamed-cooked C. nigrodigitatus respectively. fiber content was absent in all the species except P. obscura that has low fiber content. the above reveals that moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, fiber, Carbohydrate, and Free Fatty Acid were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the treatment. Minerals contents of all the species subjected to different processing methods were within tolerable levels needed for optimal growth and development. Cadmium was not detected in all the fishes irrespective of the processing method. The above reveals that Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, and K were not significantly (p<0.05) affected by the processing methods. The Mean value of treatment in C. gariepinus is similar to C. nigrodigitatus but significantly (p<0.05) lesser than P. obscura. Based on the findings of this study, Kiln-smoking is the best processing method and P. obscura has the highest protein content. Its culture could be initiated through research efforts to boosts its availability at an affordable price. The finding of this research will be useful to the consumers in choosing fish based on their nutritional values rather than taste, appearance, norms and other physical features.


Keywords: Asejire, Minerals, Processing Methods, Proximate Composition, conventional fishes

Comparative Studies of the Nutritional Composition of Some Insect Orders (Published)

Insects are nutrient packed food resources for mankind and livestock. Food profile of Four (4) insects belonging to the Order; Lepidoptera (Cirina forda Westwood), Blattodea (Periplanata americana L), Coleoptera (Rhynchophorus phoenicis F) and Orthoptera (Zonocerus variegatus L) were analyzed according to standard measures and the results obtained showed that C. forda had the highest protein content (74.56%). The protein content of Z. variegatus was 69.52% while P. americana had 70.58% and the least value of 24.58% was obtained in R. phoenicis. Fat content was highest in R. phoenicis (46.56%) while in Z. variegatus, the value obtained was (16.24%). However, the values obtained in C. forda (8.77%) and P. americana (8.53%) compares favourably.  Ash content was low in Z. variegatus (3.21%) and P. americana (3.24%) while the values obtained in R. phoenicis (6.21%) and C. forda (5.32%) compares favourably. The fibre content of R. phoenicis was the highest (7.55%) while the least value was obtained in Z. variegatus (2.42%). The values of carbohydrate in the insects are P. americana (9.44%), R. phoenicis (6.59%), Z. variegatus (3.84%) and C. forda (3.70%) respectively. Moisture content was highest in R. phoenicis (8.53%) while the values obtained in other study insects compared favourably. All the insects are good sources of mineral salts among which are Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Phosphorus. Copper was not detected in any of the insects. The highest value of iron (9.25 mg/100g) was obtained in R. phoenicis while the least value was obtained in P. americana (5.68 mg/100g). Of all the insects sampled, R. phoenicis obtained the highest values in all the minerals. The result shows that all the minerals investigated are consistently higher in R. phoenicis than in all other insects. All the insects had anti-nutrients such as tannin, polyphenol, phytate, oxalate, saponin, alkaloids and flavonoids at tolerant quantities.

Keywords: Arthropods, Insects, Minerals, Nutrient Composition, Periplaneta Americana, Tannin


African oak is one of the underutilized legumes in Nigeria. Information on various parts of this legume is required to enhance its utilization in foods and food products. Feeding of fowls with the flour made from the aril cap of the seed showed no harmful effect on them. The flour was then analyzed for chemical properties. Proximate analysis showed that the cap was appreciable in protein (5.69%), fat (18.5%), carbohydrates (63.91%), and fibre (5.4%) but low in ash (1.5%). The value of each of the anti – nutrients analyzed was below the lethal level. Although the cap was found to be low in ash content, it had appreciable amounts of some essential elements. These are sodium (7.10±1.00), potassium (148.0±0.10), calcium (7.02±0.00), magnesium (109.12±1.02 ppm), phosphorus (11.20±1.10 ppm), and iron (0.25±0.02mg/g).The vitamin components of the cap determined were A (234.7±0.00µg/g), C (4.0±1.00mg/100g), E (1.1±0.02mg/100g) and the B – vitamins; B1, B2, B6 and B12 (2.0±1.01, 33.0±0.11, 4.3±1.00 and 4.8±0.10)mg/100g, showing good amounts of the vitamins. Due to high proximate, vitamins, minerals and insignificant anti – nutrient compositions of the aril cap of the African oak seed, it could be used in both human and animal foods. There is therefore a need for food industries and feed formulators to utilize the cap.

Keywords: African Oak, Anti – Nutrients, Minerals, Proximate, Vitamins