Physico-Chemical and Mineral Composition of Arun Stream in Idanre Community, Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)
Arun stream was evaluated for its physico-chemical properties and mineral composition to know its suitability for human comsumption. The results obtained from the physical characteristics like colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, conductivity and total Dissolve solids were within the permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO) for drinkable water.The results for the chemical analysis were total hardness (22.00±0.20mg/l), calcium hardness (16.00±0.10mg/l) magnesium hardness (22.00±0.10mg/l), Nitrate (0.32±0.10mg/l), Sulphate was absent, chloride (8.99±0.20mg/l), total Alkalinity (6.00±0.10) and PH (7.80±0.20) respectively.The mineral composition Analyzed were Iron (0.02mg/l), Manganese (0.015±0.01mg/l), Copper(0.01±0.01mg/l), calcium (6.4mg/l±0.10),Magnesium (1.46±0.10mg/l) and sodium (5.84±0.10mg/l) for Arun stream respectively. These values were below WHO specification for drinkable water.
The Competitiveness of the Bottled Natural Water and Purified Drinking Water Enterprises in Vietnam: Input To Operational Plan (Published)
This study aims to explore the key factors affect the competitiveness of the bottled natural mineral water and purified drinking water enterprises in Vietnam. The researcher surveyed 340 members of board of directors at bottled natural mineral water, purified drinking water enterprises in four big cities of Vietnam. Sample was divided as follows: Ho Chi Minh City has 200 respondents, Hanoi City has 60 respondents, Danang City has 50 respondents and Cantho City has 30 respondents. The primary sources of data collected from July 2015 to November 2017 in Vietnam. Simple random sampling technique. The Data analyzed weighted mean. Responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Finally, the findings of the study have the internal factors affecting the competitiveness of the bottled natural mineral water and purified drinking water enterprises with significance level 0.05.
Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Different Brands of Canned Fishes Marketed In Edo State Nigeria (Published)
Proximate composition and mineral content (Na, Ca, P and Mg) of fish is of great importance to fisheries managers, consumer and the nutritionist. In this study, seventeen different types of canned fish products were collected from super-stores and open market, proximate composition and the mineral elements (sodium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium) of the different brands purchased were determined between January and September, 2015. The entire sample used were bought at the same time and kept at ambient room temperature, and every analysis was done in triplicate. The results obtained showed that a gradual reduction in the food value (proximate composition) and the percentage mineral content of the different brands with a progressive reduction in the different months. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) at 5% level of significance, revealed that there were significant differences in the proximate and mineral components of the different brands and among the months, although some of these parameters were not significantly different for some brands. Results obtained from correlation analysis during the study revealed that there was a negative correlation relationship between fat/oil, fibre, nitrogen free extract (NFE) with moisture content, while there was also a positive significant relationship between protein/ash content, protein/moisture; also, a positive correlation existed between sodium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The result obtained from this study indicates that these canned fishes analyzed were of high nutritional value and mineral content, but there is need to keep them at optimum temperature and not for too long in storage to enable consumer to derive the appropriate benefit from their consumption.
Nutritional Assessment of Xylopia Parviflora Seed Obtained From Pati Shabakolo, Lavun Local Government, Niger State, Nigeria (Published)
Determination of nutritive value of Xylopia parviflora seed was carried out using standard analytical methods. The proximate parameters determined were moisture content (8.95 1.93), ash content (6.25 0.35), crude fibre (8.25 0.57), crude protein (8.28 0.19) %, fat (6.08 0.46%) carbohydrate (62.45 0.76) % and calorific value (337.60 0.32KJ/100g) respectively. The result of this sample revealed that the seed of Xylopia parviflora contains reasonable amount of mineral contents needed in diet with potassium concentration of 53.21±0.31, phosphorus (50.22 ), sodium (49.50±0.42), magnesium (22.58±0.62) and iron content (26.41±0.28) as well as copper concentration 12.42±0.14 mg/100g. The highest and lowest essential and non-essential amino acid composition of this seed were glutamic acid (13.18) and triptophan (0.65) and leucine (5.79) and cystine (0.66) g/100g respectively. The anti-nutritional factors were also determined which revealed that the result were all below toxic level and therefore may not cause any effect on man and his animal when taken.
Proximate and Mineral Composition of Some Commercially Important Fishes in Jebl Awlia reservoir, Sudan (Published)
The proximate and mineral composition of the flesh of six commercially important fish species (Lates niloticus , Bagrus bayad , Oreochromis niloticus, Synodontis schall, Labeo niloticus and Hydrocynus froskalii) from Jebl Awlia reservoir, which represent different grades of preference to the Sudanese consumers, were studied to assess their nutritional values in order to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with the indiscriminate consumption of these fish species. Protein content was in the range (71.46% -89.13 %) in the fish samples, crude fat was (6.34 % – 9.66 %) while moisture and ash were (75.33% -79.33 %) and (3.83 % -7.07 %) respectively. Minerals included potassium (200.0-774.0ppm), calcium (195.0-246.0ppm), sodium (184.0-211.0ppm), magnesium (144.0-105.0ppm) and phosphorus (90.0-240.0ppm) while iron and zinc were present in trace amounts. Levels of mineral elements in fish species were within WHO recommended limit. The data showed that the fishes are of high nutritional value and good source of proteins and minerals.
Mineral and Antinutrients of Fresh and Squeezed-Washed Bitter Leaf (Vernonia Amygdalina) As Affected By Traditional De-Bittering Methods (Published)
The effect of traditional de-bittering methods on the mineral and anti-nutrient components of fresh and squeezed-washed bitter leaf was studied. Palm oil, Potash, Salt and boiling process was used in the squeeze-washing at 3 pre-processing methods of squeeze-wash and periods of 3 to 8 minutes. The percentage retention and losses of mineral and anti-nutrients increased simultaneously during squeeze-washing. Copper, magnesium, calcium and anti-nutrient had retention of 55 to 100% for samples squeezed-washed with palm oil than the other squeeze- washed samples. This could be due to rigidity of the cells which did not allow much nutrients to leach into the squeezed leaf-water. Loss of minerals and anti-nutrients was observed to be influenced directly by the cause-and-effect of disintegration changes which usually leads to softening due to the severity of the squeeze-washing on the bitter leaf instead of cellular composition or level of minerals and anti-nutrients initially present. Palm oil should be used in the squeeze-washing of bitter leaf for better nutrient retention.