This study highlights the interaction between settler migrant farmers and their host societies in the Western cocoa producing areas and some food producing areas of central part of Nigeria between the 1920s and 2014. The choice of date is informed by the time of the introduction of commercial cocoa production in Western Nigeria while 2014 is the year in which the dislocation of the peace in the food producing area, occasioned by the Chibok girls kidnap saga began. Using extant literature and field data in the study areas, the paper asserts that contrary to popular generalisations in some literature that ethnicity, economic interest, cultural and religious differences have engendered conflicts among indigene-settler relations, the people in our study area have coexisted peacefully. The paper examined the geo-economic imbalance in the distribution of resources which necessitated migration; the common need for capital formation to exploit the resources; use of non-economic methods like kinship ties, ethnic affiliations, and some customary obligations have remained important indicators in the rural social and economic life. It is the observation of this paper that the rural farming societies of our investigation, though an agglomeration of different ethnic nationalities, yet maintained a symbiotic economic and social cooperation in a system-devised method of absorbing the shocks and sometimes strained relationship among them, in a participatory way.
Understanding Rural-Urban Migration from the Perspectives of Migrants in Agbogbloshie, Ghana (Published)
About half of the urban growth in Africa is accounted for by migrants from rural areas yet we fail to understand migration from the perspectives of the migrants. This paper seeks to understand rural urban migration from the perspective of migrants and how this can inform rural development planning. A mixed research design was adopted to explore the decision making process around migration. In-depth interviews were held with migrants in Agbogbloshie and their families in Yendi where they have come from. The paper found that while rural-urban migration will persist for a long time because of the deprivation in rural areas, migrants have plans to return home. Planning would need to shift from the conventional approaches of general rural development towards a good understanding of rural development problems unique to certain areas.
Insights into Francophone Cameroonians’ Experiences in Active Participation in Protestant Churches and Mission in Bamenda, Cameroon (Published)
This article is an investigation into the processes behind Cameroon Francophone’s involvement in historical churches in Bamenda to ultimately analyse how these churches aid migrants’ integration into the host society. Attributing the presence of Francophone Christian communities in Bamenda to internal immigration forces, the paper shows how Francophone Cameroonians depend on religion to cope with the difficulties of living in a Bamenda society that is foreign to them. Based largely on archival and oral sources, the paper examines the issues related to migrants’ integration in churches in Bamenda as well as the development of immigrant congregations of some historical Francophone churches in the host society. The paper submits that the insensitivity of host historical churches in Bamenda to migrants’ participation difficulties occasioned the development of migrant-led churches which serve as loci for identity and as avenues for adapting into the socio-religious context of the host society.
The Dynamics of Transition of Rural Migrants to Urban Society: Case Study of Igbomina Migrant Community in Lagos (Published)
Adaptation is the process of adjustment of an individual organism to environmental conditions while integration is the process of opening a group, community, place or organization to all members, regardless of race, religion gender or social class. The dynamics of the process of transition of Igbomina people from rural to urban society was gradual and spread over a long time. They initially established in town the socio-political institutions and behavioral patterns which were familiar to them to fulfill most of the needs, which they met in urban environment. Even in later migration, there was not much changes to the pattern of family life. Migrants retained their rural system of traditional values, the concept of the urban culture did not develop due to the well-established culture of circular migration. The range of relationships that ethnic groups maintained among one another within the frame work of contemporary migratory phenomena includes cases such as assimilation, pacific coexistence and animosity. It must be underlined however, that in spite of the integration process, the identity of Igbomina was not obliterated. The transition process of Igbomina into Lagos urban society could therefore be best described as acculturation rather than assimilation in that Igbomina culture in Lagos cannot be described as an extension of the northern Yoruba sub-culture from where they came to Lagos, it was rather a symbiotic relationship between the Yoruba, Hausa, Ibo etc. living together as neighbours.
Irregular Migration by Sea: Contemporary Incidents in the Mare Nostrum – The Transition from State-Based Action to Humanitarian-Drive Regional Controls (Published)
Irregular sea migration has proven to be a popular means of escaping violence and armed conflict. Events after the Arab Spring in 2011 caused a lot of irregular sea migration over the Mediterranean to Europe. This created serious problems and concerns. The purpose of this research is to examine the rights of irregular sea migration in international law, constraints of states in accepting these irregular migrations and propose a solution to the problem. The paper identifies that the right to life is a fundamental legal provision that irregular sea migrants have. Therefore, it is imperative for all state and non-state actors to honor this. This can best be done by viewing the sea in a regional rather than national context. This way, states can unite and share the challenges of dealing with common issues within a regional context.
The purpose of this research is to study the role that expatriate tourism can play in Lebanon and to assess its development potential. First, Lebanese tourism industry was evaluated through obtained information from secondary sources (i.e. bank reports, newspapers’ articles, previous studies). Then, a questionnaire was conducted to understand expatriates’opinions. Findings showed that expatriate tourism can constitute a solution for the actual concentration of tourist activities around the Lebanese capital and the other major cities of the country. Findings also revealed that the expatriate tourism has a direct positive impact on other types of tourism (i.e. cultural tourism, religious tourism, health tourism). The study resulted in many recommendations at the strategic and tactical levels that should be taken into consideration in order to develop the expatriate tourism in Lebanon, and thus, to strengthen the relation between the Lebanese expatriates and their homeland through tourism.
Managing Schools with Migrant Learners: A Daunting Challenge for Rural School Principals at the Northern Outskirts of South Africa (Published)
The influx of undocumented and unaccompanied migrant learners in the rural schools of the District of Vhembe in Limpopo Province of South Africa is alarming. These learners come to South Africa with unique challenges. They are affected by socio-economic factors. They do not have identification documents. They are dogged by language barriers and are often victims of xenophobic attitudes. Their inclusion in the school system brings about new challenges to the school management teams. The study argues that effective management of school is a necessary pre-condition for addressing the educational predicament of migrant learners. As such, principals have the responsibility to manage their schools effectively and efficiently. A qualitative research was conducted at Tshipise-Sagole district to determine the extent to which principals address the educational challenges of migrant learners. Six schools with a significant number of migrant learners were purposefully selected. Data were collected through individual interviews with 6 school principals. Data were analysed thematically. The study revealed that managing schools with migrant learners remains a daunting challenge to principals. It is also revealed that principals as custodians of migrant learners play a vital role in addressing these difficulties. The study recommended that school principals should profile migrant learners’ needs and barriers in order to address them amicably and provide necessary support. Government support and involvement of various stakeholders are cited as very important aspects as this should be a shared responsibility.
A STUDY ON EXISTING AND REQUIRED FACILITIES OR AMENITIES FOR DECENTRALIZED ACTIVITY IN RURAL BANGLADESH (Review Completed - Accepted)
As rural areas lack proper facilities and services, people tend to migrate to urban areas in hope of better standard of life. This causes various problems in urban areas. These problems can only be reduced if sufficient facilities are provided in the rural areas. This study attempts to find out the facilities and services required by both the local and non-local people living in the rural areas. The findings from the study are based on data collected through questionnaire surveys. The surveys were conducted separately for the local and non-local respondents. The findings reflect the level of satisfaction of people with various facilities. Also it reflects the priority of services and facilities that are the most required by the local and non-local respondents. A lot of variation was revealed regarding requirements of the local and non-local people among the five districts (Moulvibazar, Bogra, Bagerhat, Pabna, Kishoregonj) under inspection. The study attempts to analyze the underlying reasons behind these variations.Based on the analyses, the study recommends some important facilities that should be provided to keep the people away from moving to major cities. If facilities and services of priority are provided then people will find the places more comfortable for living and the interest to migrate will reduce.