Informal entrepreneurial formalization for migrants: Determinants and effects on jobs creation in Côte d’Ivoire (Published)
This paper analyses the determinants behind the formalization of immigrants’ informal entrepreneurship in Cote d’Ivoire and its effects on jobs creation. The data cover 400 informal business from the CAPEC/IDRC enterprises survey. The estimation of an instrumental variable model highlights, on the one hand, the barriers to formalisation and, on the other hand, the levers of formalisation. It emerges that taxes, the cost of registration, the ignorance of declaration procedures, family workforce and the narrowness of the market are the constraints to the formalization of immigrants’ entrepreneurship. On the other side, membership of a professional association, simplification of procedures and access to formal credit boost formalisation. In the same token procedures popularization and costs reduction are factors of formalization propulsion. However, the problem of access to the market is exclusively relevant for immigrants. Furthermore, the results show that the provision of formalisation increases jobs creation.
Keywords: Determinants, Informal entrepreneurial, formalization., jobs creation, migrants
Impact of English Instructional Program on Developing Bilingual Arab Migrants Spouse Speaking and Listening skills (Published)
The aim of this study is to enhance bilingual spouses’ migrants (BASM) listening and speaking skills through an integrated English language program. These skills are interrelated and one of the challenges for most bilingual learners, especially migrants. To achieve the aim of the study, the researcher conducted qualitative and quantitative study. The participants in this study were (56) Arab migrants spouse of those who want to travel abroad to some European countries for family reunion. The sample’s number was not big because the researcher has no control over learners, they joined the program by their own desire because they want to study for IELTS exam. An intensive English language course has been taught around 4 months to three groups of workers, in addition to some different activities during the year 2019-2020.The study took place in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. An interview has been held and a questionnaire was designed and applied too. Besides, pre-and posttest of listening and speaking were applied to investigate the learners’ level and the effectiveness of the program after finishing the course. The results of the pre and post tests were significantly different in the two groups of speaking and listening in favor of the post test. Concerning the questionnaires and interview results, respondents were highly motivated to join the program and shown great satisfaction on the program. Based on the findings above, the study recommends the necessity of more intensive listening and speaking learning programs using different methods. Practicing the language can also facilitate learning in addition to reviewing of some IETS tests in listening /speaking.