Heavy Metals pH-Mediated Microbial-Remediation in Septic Tank Effluents (Published)
This paper studied the role of pH in the microbial remediation of heavy metals in septic tank effluents from three sample locations in the south-south region of Nigeria. The region is famous for agriculture, industrial and auto-mechanic activities leading to the uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metal contaminants through the food chain. Heavy metals concentrations, pH, and microbial analysis in effluent samples, were determined using standard methods. The material balance approach (see Supplementary Information) was adopted to account for analytes remediation and speciation in the system according to the Law of Conservation of Mass (Matter). The pH of the study area ranged from 6.5 to 7.7. The pH conditions in location A was alkaline, while locations B and C were slightly acidic. Iron was the most abundant metal with a concentration range of 0.01 to 0 9.41 mg/L. The order of magnitude of heavy metals in the septic tanks in the study area is Fe > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cd > Mn > Cu > Ni > V. Metal removal mechanism followed the metal-microbes adsorption and precipitation processes dictated by the in situ pH of the system. Total heterotrophic bacteria were the most dominant in the septic tanks. A removal coefficient of ≤ 0.33 (i.e, 0 < x ≤ 0.33 (where x ≠ 0)) was considered optimum. The percentage metal ion removal was inversely proportional to the removal coefficient and vice versa. Acidic conditions favoured the sequestration of more heavy metals from the effluent and the attainment of the 67.0 % and 0.33 removal efficiency thresholds. Finally, the heavy metals concentrations were indicative of bioaccumulation. Secondly, the pH conditions are not ideal enough to cause the efficient remediation of heavy metals from effluents. Further treatment of the sludge component before disposal is seriously advocated.
Characterization and Application of Biopolymer Producing Bacteria for Enhanced Oil Recovery (Published)
The objective of this research is to isolate and identify hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria for biopolymer synthesis and application in the augmentation of Nigerian heavy crude oil recovery. MEOR refers to the process of injecting either indigenous or non-indigenous microbes into hydrocarbon reserves. Injecting microorganisms with nutritional broth facilitate the formation of essential metabolites such as biosurfactants, biopolymers, and gases, resulting in decreased interfacial tension, viscosity modification, and mobility control. It is environmentally friendly, less expensive to implement, and requires minimal or no changes to the existing infrastructure. A soil sample from a hydrocarbon-contaminated site in Ogoniland was collected and sent to a laboratory for physicochemical and microbiological investigation. Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, and Klebsiella sp were biochemically identified after screening three isolates for biopolymer production using Sudan black solution. To assess the ideal growth and biopolymer synthesis capability under reservoir conditions, a variety of pH, temperature, salinity, carbon, and nitrogen nutrition sources were applied to selected microorganisms. Peptone is the optimal nitrogen source for Bacillus sp, glucose is the optimal carbon source for Bacillus sp, and glycerol is the optimal carbon source for Pseudomonas sp and Klebsiella sp, as indicated by the results. In addition, the following are the ideal parameter ranges for the three microorganisms: pH 7–8, a temperature range between 25 and 350 degrees Celsius, and a salinity range between 0.5 and 5% are all desirable conditions for a body of water. After inoculation with microorganisms and the optimum nutrient source, an additional recovery range of 18.33% to 29.09% of the pore capacity was achieved. The post-recovery analysis uncovered a remarkable transformation of heavy crude to light hydrocarbon components by an average of 20.33 percent with glucose and 97.27 percent with peptone.
Long before the era of high through-put screening and genomics, drug discovery relied heavily on natural products. Drug discovery involves the identification of New Chemical Entities (NCEs) of potential therapeutic value, which can be obtained through isolation from natural sources, through chemical synthesis or a combination of both. However, the success stories for the discoveries Penicillin from penecilium rubens, Paclitaxel yew tree and marketed as Taxol, Aspirin from Willow bark of Salix alba tree etc. have pave way for scholars in the field of natural product and organic chemistry to focus their research work in drug-derived from plants and microorganisms. Natural products derived from these sources are rich in bioactive compound, which have been use over years throughout human history and evolution as remedies for various ailments. This paper however, X-rayed the sources and classes of natural products, pharmaceuticals derived from Natural product, and uses of natural products. The paper also recommended among others that, government should fund research in the area of natural products, pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmacognocy.
In this study, the screening of plastic degrading microbes was done by using opaque method separately for bacteria and fungi. Four bacterial species and two fungal species which formed most opaque were used for further studies. The bacterial species was identified as Bacillus amylolyticus, Bacillus firmus, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluroscence. Their effectiveness on the degradation of commercial polythene carry bags of Low Density Polyethylene was studied over a period of 30 days in shaker culture under laboratory conditions by weight determination method and it was found that Bacillus sp. isolated from Garbage soil degrades the plastic up to 32%. This work reveals that Bacillus amylolyticus posses greater potential to degrade plastics when compared with other bacteria.
The aims of this paper were to study the biofouling and biodeterioration of books stored at the Archive of the library of Shumen University, Bulgaria, and to carry out the physiological characterization of isolated fungi and bacteria. Also the role of the environmental microbiota in the biofouling formation was studied. Microbial assemblages on documents were sampled by sedimentation method as described by Omeliansky. Biofouling were monitored by microscope and stereomicroscope OPTIKA (Italy). Large microbial assemblages were found at archive with the prevalence of genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium. Most of the fungi degraded cellulose and produced pigments and acids, and all of the isolated bacteria had proteolytic and/or cellulolytic activity. In shed a higher concentration of viable bacteria than of fungi was isolated. The existence of this bacterial genus in the Library of Shumen University indicates that the faulty ventilation system needs to be repaired and suitable anti-dust filters to be set.