Tag Archives: Microbial Analysis

Microbial Population and Shelf Life Study of Spiced Water Melon Juice (Published)

The microbial quality of spiced watermelon juice and the effect of pasteurization on the juice were investigated. Watermelon juice samples were analyzed according to standard bacteriological methods. The present study indicated significant reduction in microbial activities in all the juice samples under review. However, the rate of decline in the samples was less in refrigerated samples as compared to that stored at ambient temperature. The result for aerobic mesophilic count for the different watermelon juice samples increased (unpasteurized) from 3.22  × 102 to 5.31 × 102 cfu/ml, while the pasteurized watermelon juice samples showed a  decreased microbial load from 0.05 × 102 to 0.07 × 102 cfu/ml. Results pre and post pasteurization of the juices showed zero (0) count for mould and E.coli, while total coliform ranged from <3.0 × 102 to 9.0 × 102 for the pasteurized and unpasteurized samples (MPN Index). 0Brix for all the samples showed a decreasing trend, with the control (sample E) having the highest brix value. As storage progressed over a period of four week, brix values were higher at refrigerated temperature than at room temperature storage for all the samples. Refractive index decreased with storage at room temperature for all samples but remained relatively stable at refrigeration temperature. The pH of samples decreased with storage and time over a period of four weeks, with the spiced samples having lower pH values, while total titratable acidity (TTA) increased over the same period. The study revealed that the combined effect of spice, pasteurization and refrigeration positively affected the shelf life of the juice samples.

Keywords: Juice, Microbial Analysis, Shelf-Life, Water Melon

Clinical Liquid Waste Management in Ghanaian Healthcare Facilities – A Case Study of Sunyani Municipality (Published)

Clinical Liquid Waste management has become a huge task for the authorities of health care facilities in Ghana. It is therefore necessity to ascertain the managerial strategies currently being used in managing such waste and adopt possible remedial measures to be implemented. Therefore, the study objectives were to identify the clinical liquid waste management techniques presently being used by the hospitals, generation rate and to ascertain the efficiency of current clinical liquid waste treatment practices. The study employed both quantitative approach involving structured interview and participatory observation triangulated with documentary analysis. The results found different levels of clinical liquid waste generation in sampled health care facilities. From the analysis, the study revealed that clinical liquid waste is managed using strategies such as collection, segregation, handling, transportation, treatment and disposal. However, the study results revealed that different collection, transportation and treatment methods employed by sampled hospitals affect the quality of treatment. These findings were revealed from the results obtained from the microbial analysis of Total Coliform bacteria; Feacal coliform bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria of sampled hospitals; as the results do not meet both country and WHO standards. The findings results suggest an environment problem due to the contamination of treated effluent from the sampled hospitals which are used for agricultural irrigational purposes, drinking and cooking. The study recommend; an urgent remedial measure to prevent outbreak of communicable disease through creation of awareness to educate communities downstream on the need to boil and treat their water using locally reliable methods.

Keywords: Clinical Liquid Waste Management (CLWM), Liquid Waste Generation Rate, Liquid Waste Strategy, Microbial Analysis

Microbial Population and Shelf Life Study of Spiced Water Melon Juice (Published)

The microbial quality of spiced watermelon juice and the effect of pasteurization on the juice were investigated. Watermelon juice samples were analyzed according to standard bacteriological methods. The present study indicated significant reduction in microbial activities in all the juice samples under review. However, the rate of decline in the samples was less in refrigerated samples as compared to that stored at ambient temperature. The result for aerobic mesophilic count for the different watermelon juice samples increased (unpasteurized) from 3.22× 102 to 5.31 × 102 cfu/ml, while the pasteurized watermelon juice samples showed a decreased microbial load from 0.05 × 102 to 0.07 × 102 cfu/ml. Results pre and post pasteurization of the juices showed zero (0) count for mould and E.coli, while total coliform ranged from <3.0 × 102 to 9.0 × 102 for the pasteurized and unpasteurized samples (MPN Index). 0Brix for all the samples showed a decreasing trend, with the control (sample E) having the highest brix value. As storage progressed over a period of four week, brix values were higher at refrigerated temperature than at room temperature storage for all the samples. Refractive index decreased with storage at room temperature for all samples but remained relatively stable at refrigeration temperature. The pH of samples decreased with storage and time over a period of four weeks, with the spiced samples having lower pH values, while total titratable acidity (TTA) increased over the same period. The study revealed that the combined effect of spice, pasteurization and refrigeration positively affected the shelf life of the juice samples.

Keywords: Juice, Microbial Analysis, Shelf-Life, Water Melon

Clinical Liquid Waste Management in Three Ghanaian Healthcare Facilities – A Case Study of Sunyani Municipality (Published)

Clinical Liquid Waste Management (CLWM) has become a huge task for the authorities of health care facilities in Ghana. It is therefore a necessity to ascertain the managerial strategies currently being used in managing this type of waste. The study objectives were to identify the clinical liquid waste management techniques presently being used by the hospitals, estimate their generation rate and to determine the efficiency of their clinical liquid waste treatment system(s). The study employed experimental research method as well as quantitative method involving structured interview and participatory observation triangulated with documentary analysis. The results found different levels of clinical liquid waste generation in sampled health care facilities. From the results, the study revealed that clinical liquid waste is managed using strategies such as segregation, collection, handling, transportation, treatment and disposal.. The Regional Hospital (RH) uses on-site conventional wastewater treatment system located in the hospital premises whilst the Municipal Hospital and S.D.A uses off-site Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP). The results found that different treatment methods employed by sampled hospitals affect the quality of treatment. The results show revealed inefficiency in both treatments facilities. These findings were revealed from results obtained from the microbial analysis of Total Coliform bacteria; Feacal coliform bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria of sampled hospitals; as the results do not meet both the EPA-Ghana and WHO standards. Factors such as unreliable power supply, lack of maintenance, lack of enforcement and effective monitoring from statutory bodies and apathy from health officials were identified as factors that affect proper treatment of liquid waste in the municipality. The findings results suggest an environment problem due to the contamination of treated effluent from the sampled hospitals which is used for agricultural irrigational purposes, drinking and cooking. The study recommend; an urgent remedial measure to prevent outbreak of communicable disease through creation of awareness to educate communities downstream on the need to apply local methods such as boiling.

Keywords: Clinical Liquid Waste Management (CLWM), Generation Rate, Liquid Waste, Liquid Waste Strategy, Microbial Analysis