To know whether the investment made profits or losses, value analysis is done on the asset or the project. In the current time, value analysis is critical for business managers and an enterprise. This makes the enterprise owner able to negotiate the price of the assets or items when conducting commercial transactions. Since the US is the largest tech and software market globally, this article classifies the various methods used to do value analysis for modern software investment in the US. Therefore, the method is evaluated and presented according to the Model-Driven Interoperability theory, which includes cost, income, and intellectual capital markets to measure the value of software. The main importance of this research paper is to clarify the reason for the need to introduce proper investment valuation models in software. The research methodology is based on the inferences of the methods of software valuation, while the attention is based on various historical existing literature and practical examples. This study demonstrates the different aspects of current valuation methods to determine software value. Analysing the existing literature shows various valuation models under the income, market, cost, real option and cost-benefit analysis approaches used to value the software. Furthermore, this research recognised various methods that can be relied upon to estimate the value of software. Some of them include direct assessment for the future income, which estimates the income of a given software, real option valuation, which depends on the opportunity of software to generate income in future. Moreover, the relief from royalty method estimates the value of software based on hypothetical royalty payment that the company saves. The suggested methods in this paper would help business managers uncover the value of modern software and better decision-making when acquiring or developing software.
Methods Used By Teachers to Teach Christian Religious Education in Secondary Schools in Kimilili in Bungoma County, Kenya (Published)
Christian Religious Education in secondary schools in Kenya occupies a key position in the 8-4-4 curriculum. This is so because it enables the learner to integrate all subjects of the curriculum into a more mature view of self, their relationship with the environment, both physical and cultural, other people and God. The purpose of the study was to establish factors that face the use of audiovisual resources for teaching Christian Religious Education (CRE) in Kimilili Division, Bungoma County in Western Kenya. Based on the study, this paper surveys the methods used by teachers in teaching CRE in the study area. The study adopted a survey research design. Random sampling was used to select both CRE teachers and students to participate in the study while stratified sampling was used to select the schools. The sample was drawn from secondary schools in Kimilili Division of Bungoma County in Kenya. The sample size was made up of 266 respondents, comprising 242 CRE students and 24 CRE teachers. Data was collected using questionnaires and observation schedules. The study used two sets of questionnaires; one for CRE teachers and another for students. The collected data was quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented using tables and graphs. The findings showed that the CRE subject is mainly taught using verbal communication and the use of textbooks is common. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that curriculum planners and other educational stakeholders in Kenya should establish CRE resource centres in every County so that resources for teaching CRE can easily be availed to teachers for teaching the subject. This paper will help teachers and other educational stakeholders to understand the importance of combining various methods in teaching with the sole purpose of ensuring that learners are able to master, retain and live out the content that is taught in CRE in Kenya.
Entrepreneurship Business and Communication Ability of Female Entrepreneurs in Rivers State (Published)
The study investigated entrepreneurship business and communication ability of female entrepreneurs in Rivers State. Two research questions were posed to guide the study while one hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A total of 245 female entrepreneurs were studied as sample, out of population of 750 female entrepreneurs in Rivers State. The instrument for the study was named Entrepreneurship Business and Communication Ability of Female Entrepreneurs in Rivers State Questionnaire (EBCAFERSQ). The EBCAFERSQ was a modified four point Likert scale ranging from Very Important to Not Important. Twenty (20) female entrepreneurs other than those used for the study validated the instrument and a reliability test using test-retest method yielded a correlation of 0.87. Mean rating and standard deviation was used to analyze the research questions and t-test for large group mean was used to test the hypothesis. Findings revealed that the respondents considered communication ability important in business success. Also, the respondents considered communication ability important as it is part of what makes them succeed in entrepreneurship business. Based on the findings and conclusions, recommendations made amongst others were that nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) should organize sensitization workshops and seminars in all local government areas within the State to create adequate awareness about communication ability and its’ important to entrepreneurs and female entrepreneurs should educate non female entrepreneurs on the important of communication ability in relation to entrepreneurship business growth and success. This could become possible if female entrepreneurs provide outlets for orientation.